## Chemical Engineering (CH)

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, Residue theorem.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and  standard  deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, Residue theorem.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation. Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent
series, Residue theorem.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

#### Chemical Engineering

Process Calculations and Thermodynamics: Laws of conservation of mass and  energy; use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; degree of  freedom analysis. First and Second laws of thermodynamics. First law application to  close and open systems. Second law and Entropy.

Thermodynamic properties of pure  substances: equation of state and departure function, properties of mixtures: partial  molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients;

phase equilibria:  predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium. Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations: Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-  Newtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance,  dimensional analysis, shell balances, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps  and compressors, packed and fluidized beds, elementary boundary layer theory, size  reduction and size separation; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones;  thickening and classification, filtration, mixing and agitation; conveying of solids.

Heat Transfer: Conduction, convection and radiation, heat transfer coefficients, steady  and unsteady heat conduction, boiling,  condensation and evaporation; types of heat  exchangers and evaporators and their design.

Mass Transfer: Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film,  penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies;  stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts
design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid  extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.

Chemical Reaction Engineering: Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous  reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors,  non-ideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal  reactors ; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.

Instrumentation and Process Control: Measurement of process variables; sensors,  transducers and their dynamics, transfer functions and dynamic responses of simple  systems, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves;  analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response and controller  tuning, cascade, feed forward control.

Plant Design and Economics: Process design and sizing of chemical engineering  equipment such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors; principles of  process economics and cost estimation including total annualized cost, cost indexes, rate  of  return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in design.

Chemical Technology: Inorganic chemical industries; sulfuric acid, NaOH, fertilizers  (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil,  and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries;  polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers.

## Civil Engineering (CE)

#### Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value  theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total  derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities,  Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s  theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order  linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations,  Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional  heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent  series.  Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems,  Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables,
Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations  Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

#### Structural Engineering

Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple  stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses,  stress transformation, Mohr’s circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses,  unsymmetrical  bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion,  buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

Structural Analysis: Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables  and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically  indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods
(slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate  and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

Concrete Structures: Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix  design. Concrete design- basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of  ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression  and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of  beam sections at transfer and service loads.

Steel Structures: Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and  beam- columns, column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam–column  connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

#### Geotechnical Engineering

Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil classification, three-phase system, fundamental  definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability &seepage, effective stress  principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes,  sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes-infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape,  water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays.  Deep foundations–pile types, dynamic &static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands  & clays, negative skin friction.

#### Water Resources Engineering

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of  mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of  momentum and Bernoulli’s equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe  networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and  gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on  immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional  analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific  speed of pumps and turbines.

Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge  relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and  channel routing. Well hydraulics.

Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements.

Design of : lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways.  Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation  methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

#### Environmental Engineering

Water requirements: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water  treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements , basic unit operations and  unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage
treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary  treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic  wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and  secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge  disposal.

Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology,  air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of  solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy  recovery, treatment and disposal).

Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of  noise and control of noise pollution.

#### Transportation Engineering

Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving  materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.
Traffic Engineering: Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design,  traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.
Surveying  Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate  system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite  traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

## Biotechnology (BT)

#### Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values  and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima,  Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.

Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with  constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace,  heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random  variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions ,  Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration  of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential  equations.

#### Biotechnology

Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth  and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis);  Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics  (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and  characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions  in bio macromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single  substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell  cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA  replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes;  Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene  interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping;  Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics;  Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and  primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids,  exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bio- process application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of  recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based  bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for  bioconversion processes.

#### Biotechnology

Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth  and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis);  Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics  (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and  characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions  in bio macromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single  substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism  (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell  cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA  replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes;  Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene  interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping;  Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics;  Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and  primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids,  exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and
bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of  recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based  bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for  bioconversion processes.

#### Biotechnology

Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth  and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis);  Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics  (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions  in bio macromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single  substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism  (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell  cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.
Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA  replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes;  Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene  interaction; Complementation ; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping;  Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics;  Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids,  exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and  bio – process application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of  recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based  bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for  bioconversion processes.

Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes;  Bioremediation.

Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch fedbatch  and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors;  Rheology  of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media;  Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.

Plant and Animal Biotechnology: Special features and organization of plant cells; Tot  potency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry  of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth;  Plant growth regulators and elicitors;

Cell suspension culture development:  methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization;
Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures  and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.

Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product  carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals;  Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.

Immunology: The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell  mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and  Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and  presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity;  Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction;  Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity;  Graft versus host reaction.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors:  plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial  chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing;  Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ  hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene  therapy.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and  structure databases; Sequence analysis  (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring  matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome  sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays  and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including  concept of force fields).

## Architecture and Planning (AR)

City planning: Evolution of cities; principles of city planning; types of cities & new  towns; planning regulations and building byelaws; eco-city concept; sustainable  development.

Housing: Concept of housing; neighborhood concept; site planning principles; housing  typology; housing standards; housing infrastructure; housing policies, finance and  management; housing programs in India; self-help housing.

Landscape Design: Principles of landscape design and site planning; history of  landscape styles; landscape elements and materials; plant characteristics & planting  design; environmental considerations in landscape planning.

Computer Aided Design: Application of computers in architecture and planning;  understanding elements of hardware and software; computer graphics; programming  languages – C and Visual Basic and usage of packages such as AutoCAD, 3D-Studio, 3D  Max.

Environmental Studies in Building Science: Components of Ecosystem; ecological  principles concerning environment; climate responsive design; energy efficient building  design; thermal comfort; solar architecture; principles of lighting and styles for  illumination; basic principles of architectural acoustics; environment pollution, their  control & abatement.

Visual and Urban Design: Principles of visual composition; proportion, scale, rhythm,  symmetry, harmony, datum, balance, form, colour, texture; sense of place and space,  division of space; barrier free design; focal point, vista, image ability, visual survey,  figure-background relationship.

History of Architecture: Indian – Indus valley, Vedic, Buddhist, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian  and Mughal periods; European – Egyptian, Greek, Roman, medieval and renaissance  periods- construction and architectural styles; vernacular and traditional architecture.

Development of Contemporary Architecture: Architectural developments and impacts  on society since industrial revolution; influence of modern art on architecture; works of  national and international architects; art novuea, eclecticism, international styles, post  modernism, deconstruction in architecture.

Building Services: Water supply, sewerage and drainage systems; sanitary fittings and  fixtures; plumbing systems, principles of internal & external drainage systems,  principles of electrification of buildings, intelligent buildings; elevators & escalators,  their standards and uses; air-conditioning systems; fire fighting systems, building safety  and security systems.

Building Construction and Management: Building construction techniques, methods  and details; building systems and prefabrication of building elements; principles of  modular coordination; estimation, specification, valuation, professional practice; project  management techniques e.g., PERT, CPM etc;

Materials and Structural Systems: Behavioral characteristics of all types of building  materials e.g. mud, timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass, FRP, different polymers,  composites; principles of strength of materials; design of structural elements in wood,  steel and RCC; elastic and limit state design; complex structural systems; principles of  pre-stressing; tall buildings; principles of disaster resistant structures.

Planning Theory: Regional planning; settlement system planning; history of human  settlements; growth of cities & metropolises; principles of Ekistics; rural-urban  migration; urban conservation; urban renewal; Five-year plan; structural and sectoral  plan.

Techniques of Planning: Planning survey techniques; preparation of urban and regional  structure plans, development plans, action plans; site planning principles and design;  statistical methods of data analysis; application of G.I.S and remote sensing techniques  in urban and regional planning; decision making models.

Traffic and Transportation Planning: Principles of traffic engineering and  transportation planning; traffic survey methods; design of roads, intersections, grade  separators and parking areas; hierarchy of roads and levels of services; traffic and  transport management in urban areas, intelligent transportation system; mass  transportation planning; para-transits and other modes of transportation, pedestrian &  slow moving traffic planning.

Infrastructure, Services and Amenities: Principles of water supply and sanitation  systems; water treatment; solid waste disposal systems; waste treatment, recycle &  reuse; urban rainwater harvesting; power supply and communication systems —  network, design & guidelines; demography related standards at various levels of the  settlements for health, education, recreation, religious & public-semi public facilities.

Development Administration and Management: Planning laws; development control  and zoning regulations; laws relating to land acquisition; development enforcements,  urban land ceiling; land management techniques; planning and municipal  administration; disaster mitigation management; 73rd & 74th Constitutional  amendments; valuation & taxation; revenue resources and fiscal management; public
participation and role of NGO & CBO; Institutional networking & capacity building.

## Agricultural Engineering (AG)

#### Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values  and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals;  Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms;  PDEs -Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression  analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration  of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential  equations.

#### Farm Machinery and Power

Sources of power on the farm-human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and  biomass; bio-fuels; design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains and  sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of  force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements.

Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage  implements; mechanics of animal traction; functional requirements, principles of  working, construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment  for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing,  chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery and  equipment; calculation of performance parameters -field capacity, efficiency, application  rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors

Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine components; fuels  and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling,  lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation, maintenance  and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power,  torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses.

Tractors and power tillers – type, selection, maintenance and repair; tractor clutches  and brakes; power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and  power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory; three point hitches- free  link and restrained link operations; mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems  used in tractors; human engineering and safety in tractor design; tractor tests and  performance.

#### Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement;  hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface; continuity equation; Bernoulli’s  theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy- Weisbach and Hazen-Williams  equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices and notches; flow in open channels.

Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of  stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes.

Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and their measurement, analysis of  precipitation data; abstraction from precipitation; runoff; hydrograph analysis, unit  hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement; flood routing,  hydrological reservoir and channel routing.

Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methods of traversing;  measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of leveling; contouring; instruments for surveying and leveling; computation of earth work.

Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind and water erosion; factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measures to control erosion;  terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams; water harvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management.

Soil-water-plant relationship, water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapo-transpiration irrigation scheduling;  irrigation efficiencies; design of irrigation channels;  measurement of soil moisture, irrigation water and infiltration; surface, sprinkler and  drip methods of irrigation; design and evaluation of irrigation methods.

Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage  systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water  quality.

Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer  properties; well hydraulics; groundwater recharge.

Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation.

#### Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering

Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; condensation and boiling heat transfer; working principles  of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations.

Material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; kinetics of  microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications;  psychrometry – properties of air-vapors mixture; concentration and drying of liquid  foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers.

Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners.

Hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; Processing  of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables; By-product utilization from processing industries.

Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable food storage, godowns, bins  and grain silos.

## Aerospace Engineering (AE)

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total  derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities,  directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals. Theorems of Stokes, Gauss  and Green.

Differential Equations: First order linear and nonlinear equations, higher order linear  ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy and Euler equations, initial and boundary value  problems, Laplace transforms. Partial differential equations and separation of variables
methods.

Numerical methods: Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations,  integration by trapezoidal and Simpson rule, single and multi-step methods for  differential equations.

#### Flight Mechanics

Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed  wing aircraft) configuration and various parts.

Airplane performance: Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds;  Primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank indicator. Drag polar; takeoff  and landing; steady climb & descent,-absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb,
endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, V-n diagram; Winds: head, tail & cross  winds.

Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick  fixed & free stability, horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail  position and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position; hinge moments,  stick forces.

Dynamic stability: Euler angles; Equations of motion; aerodynamic forces and  moments, stability & control derivatives; decoupling of longitudinal and lat-directional  dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateral-directional modes.

#### Space Dynamics

Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases.  Orbit transfer, in-plane and out-of-plane. Elements of rocket motor performance.

#### Aerodynamics

Basic Fluid Mechanics: Incompressible irrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin  theorem, singularities and superposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.

Airfoils and wings: Classification of airfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift  devices, Kutta-Joukowski theorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory;  induced drag; qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.

Viscous Flows: Flow separation, introduction to turbulence, transition, structure of a  turbulent boundary layer.

Compressible Flows: Dynamics and Thermodynamics of I-D flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock, Prandtl-Meyer flow, flow in nozzles and diffusers, inviscid  flow in a c-d nozzle, flow in diffusers. subsonic and supersonic airfoils, compressibility  effects on lift and drag, critical and drag divergence Mach number, wave drag.  Wind Tunnel Testing: Measurement and visualization techniques.
Structures.

Stress and Strain: Equations of equilibrium, constitutive law, strain-displacement  relationship, compatibility equations, plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function.

Flight Vehicle Structures: Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials, torsion,  bending and flexural shear. Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections. Buckling. Failure  theories. Loads on aircraft.

Structural Dynamics: Free and forced vibration of discrete systems. Damping and  resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.

#### Propulsion

Thermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines thrust and thrust augmentation.

Turbo machinery: Axial compressors and turbines, centrifugal pumps and  compressors.

Aerothermodynamics of non-rotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle. Thermodynamics of ramjets and scramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.

## General Aptitude (GA)

Common to All Papers

1.  Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
2.  Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.

## Syllabus for GATE

• #### Life Sciences (XL)

• Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all India examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidate in various tests undergraduate subjects in Engineering/Technology/Architecture and postgraduate level subjects in sciences.
• The GATE score of a candidate reflects a relative performance level in a particular subject in the exam.
• The score is used for admissions to post-graduate programs  (eg. M.E., M.Tech, direct Ph.D.) in Indian institutes of higher education with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other Government agencies.
• The score may also be used by Public and Private Sector Undertakings for employment screening purposes.
• The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs  at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) jointly administer the conduct of GATE. The operations related to GATE in each of the 8  zones are managed by a Zonal GATE Office at IISc. or IITs. The Organizing Institute  (OI) is responsible for the end-to-end process and coordination amongst the  administering Institutes. The Organizing Institute for GATE 2014 is IIT Kharagpur.

Financial Assistance

• A valid GATE score is essential for obtaining financial assistance during Master’s  programs and direct Doctoral programs in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture,  and Doctoral programs in relevant branches of Science in Institutes supported by  the MHRD or other Government agencies. As per the directives of the MHRD, the  following procedure is to be adopted for admission to the post-graduate programs  (Master’s and Doctoral) with MHRD scholarship/ assistantship. Depending upon the  norms adopted by a specific institute or department of the Institute, candidate may  be admitted directly into a course based on his/her performance in GATE only or  based on his/her performance in GATE and an admission test/interview conducted  by the department to which he/she has applied and/or the candidate’s academic  record. If the candidate is to be selected through interview for post-graduate  programs, the minimum of 70% weightage will be given to the performance in GATE  and the remaining 30% weightage will be given to the candidate’s performance in  interview and/or academic record, as per MHRD guidelines.
• The admitting institutes  could however prescribe a minimum passing percentage of marks in the  test/interview. Some colleges /institutes specify GATE qualification as the mandatory  requirement even for admission without MHRD scholarship/ assistantship.

Employment

• Several public sector undertakings (PSUs) have, in the past, used GATE scores for  screening for providing a salaried employment. A select few such organizations  are: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Oil  Corporation Limited, National Thermal Power Corporation, Power Grid India, etc. It  is expected that such PSUs would use GATE Scores this year as well.

Note: GATE administration is not responsible for employment opportunities. The  qualified candidates must check newspapers and other reliable sources for any such  information.

• GATE is administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc)  and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) on behalf of the National  Coordination Board (NCB)-GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of  Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India. The GATE committee,  which comprises of representatives from these administering institutes, is the sole  authority for regulating the examination and declaring the results.
• GATE is conducted through the collaboration of eight zones. The zones and the  corresponding administrative institutes are:

Zone-1: Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
Zone-2: Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Zone-3: Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Zone-4: Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Zone-5: Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Zone-6: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Zone-7: Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Zone-8: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

• The overall co-ordination and responsibility of conducting GATE 2014 lies  with Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, which is designated as  the Organizing Institute (OI) for GATE 2014.