1. How do I apply ONLINE?

Ans: Go to the link :- After that click on “How to apply?”, read the instructions and apply using the link provided in the main page.

2. How do I make the fee payment for GATE 2015 examination?

Ans: You can make the payment during the ONLINE application process by choosing the following option:

a) Online Payment: Net Banking through the payment gateway.

b) e-challan facility of both SBI and Axis Bank.

3.After completing the ONLINE application process and generating a PDF file, will I be able to change my application data?

Ans: NO. After completing all the steps upto PDF application form generation in the ONLINE application process, you can only download the application form and CANNOT modify the data. Hence you need to be very careful while entering the data. You may also save a partially filled application and login in again at a later point in time to complete and submit the application, however it must be within the specified deadline.

4. Is the Admit card alone sufficient to gain entry to the exam?

Ans: NO. Bring the Admit Card at the test center along with at least one original (not photocopied/scanned copy) and valid (not expired) photo identification, whose details have been entered while filling the application. ONLY one of the following photo identifications is permitted: Driving license, Passport, PAN Card, Voter ID, Aadhaar UID, College ID, Employee Identification Card, or a Notarized Affidavit with Photo, Signature, Date of Birth and Residential Address. Photocopies of the identification document are not acceptable. Candidates will not be permitted to take the exam if the original and valid photo identification is not presented.

5. For how many GATE papers can I apply?

Ans: A candidate can apply for only ONE of the 22 papers listed in the GATE INFORMATION BROCHURE or GATE website. The choice of the appropriate paper is the responsibility of the candidate. Some guidelines in this respect are suggested below.

  • The candidate is expected to appear in a paper appropriate to the discipline
  • The candidate is, however, free to choose any paper according to his/her of his/her qualifying degree. admission plan, keeping in mind the eligibility criteria of the institutions in which he/she wishes to seek admission.  

6. Can I use a calculator during the examination?

Ans: NO. During the online GATE 2015 examination, all candidates will be provided with an online scientific calculator which has to be used to answer the questions.

General Information

1. Application Process: For GATE 2015 all information related to the candidates will be available in a single GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS).

Candidates have to register and fill the application via ONLINE mode ONLY by accessing the zonal GATE websites of IISc and any of the seven IITs. The photograph and signature of the applicant must be uploaded during the online application.

Please note that all necessary certificates, such as, degree certificate/certificate from the Principal and the category certificate, if any are also to be uploaded. Please note that application forms are not available for sale anywhere else.

2. Downloadable Admit Card: Admit cards will NOT be sent by e-mail/post, they can ONLY be downloaded from the zonal GATE websites . The candidate has to bring the printed admit card to the test center along with at least one original (not photocopied/scanned copy) and valid (not expired) photo identification. It may be noted that one of the following photo identifications is ONLY permitted: Driving license, Passport, PAN Card, Voter ID, Aadhaar UID, College ID, Employee identification card, or a notarized affidavit with Photo, Signature, Date of Birth and Residential Address. The details of this ID proof have to be given while filling the online application.

3. Numerical Answer Type Questions: The question paper for GATE 2015 will consist of questions of both multiple-choice type and numerical answer type. For multiple choice type questions, candidates have to choose the answer from the given choices. For numerical answer type questions, choices will not be given. Candidates have to enter a number as the answer using a virtual keypad.

GATE 2015 Admit Card

  • GATE 2015 Admit Card can only be downloaded from the zonal GATE websites.
  • Admit Cards will NOT be sent by post/email.
  • Bring a print-out of the downloaded Admit Card to the Test Center along with the original and valid photo identification(NO photocopy / scanned copy/NOT expired).
  • Please note that you have to give details of this ID proof while filling the online application.
  • Candidates will NOT be permitted to take the test, if this original and valid photo identification is not presented.
  • It may be noted that you would have specified one of the following IDs during the online application process: Driving License, Passport, PAN Card, Voter ID, Aadhaar UID, College ID, Employee Identification Card, or a Notarized Affidavit with  Photo, Signature, Date of Birth and Residential Address.

How to Apply : GATE 2015

All candidates have to apply only ONLINE. The application fee is non-refundable.

Details of application fee for GATE 2015

Male Candidates (General/OBC) Rs. 1500/-
Women Candidates of any category Rs.  750/-
Other Candidates (General/OBC) Rs. 1500/-
SC / ST / PwD* Category Candidates Rs.  750/-

                                         * PwD: Person with a Physical Disability

  • For GATE 2015 payments would have to be made through online by selecting either using any bank Debit Card/Credit Card, Net Banking or e-challan facilities ONLY.

 GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS)

An online interface is provided for your interaction with the GATE Office with this interface you can

1. Apply for the examination online.

2. Upload photograph, signature and other documents like graduation certificate/ certificate from Principal, caste certificate (if applicable) etc.

3. Pay the application fee through net-banking.

4. Check the Status of your application form: Received, Under Scrutiny, Accepted, Defect Status, Status after Rectification, Rejected with Valid Reasons, Admit Card Ready for Download, etc.

5. Contact the Zonal GATE Offices in case of any queries/problems.

6. Download Admit Card.

7. View your answers, marks and GATE score.

The login to this interface is through your GOAPS Enrolment ID and a GOAPS password. Keep this information safe and do not disclose it to anyone.

 Filling in Application Online

1. GOAPS: GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS website) can be accessed from the website of the respective Zonal GATE Offices or from the website of the GATE 2015 Organizing Institute.

2. Registration: You must first register yourself, by providing a valid email address, mobile number and a GOAPS password. Choose the email id that you check frequently, as all communications to you from the GATE Offices will be sent to this address (DO NOT USE ANYBODY ELSE’S e-mail ADDRESS. ONLY ONE PERSON CAN REGISTER WITH ONE e-mail ADDRESS). Give your personal mobile number because most of the communications may also be sent via SMS.

GOAPS Password: This will be the password that you will be providing to the GOAPS during the Enrollment. You must remember this along with the GOAPS Enrolment ID to login to GOAPS. Choose a password that cannot be guessed easily (it should not be your name, date of birth, or some string of numbers or letters like 12345, abcd, etc.), so as to ensure that the data you provide is not accessible to any person other than yourself.

3. GOAPS Enrollment ID: Upon registration, an email containing your GOAPS Enrolment ID will be sent to you. You need to remember this along with the GOAPS password for all GATE 2015 related communications/website operations.

4. Data Requirement for Application Filling: Before you login to GOAPS using Enrolment ID and Password, keep the following information ready:

a) Personal information (name, date of birth, your personal mobile number, parent’s name, parent’s mobile number, etc.).

b) Address for Communication (including PIN code),

c) Eligibility degree details (College address, PIN code of college),

d) GATE paper, choice of GATE examination cities,

e) High quality image of your photograph conforming to the requirements specified.

f) Good quality image of your signature conforming to the requirements specified.

g) Scanned copy of Degree Certificate or Certificate from Principal/HODs in pdf format.

h) Scanned copy of Category/PwD Certificate (if applicable) in pdf format.

i) Details of a valid ID Proof that you will carry to the examination hall.

j) Your Net-banking login and password to make the application fee payment via online net-banking mode. In case you are making the payment through debit card/credit card have the following information like debit card/credit card number, password, CVV number ready with you.

5. Application Filling: Fill in the necessary data in the online application form by carefully following instructions given there. You may edit the data at this stage if you require.

Upload the required soft copy of photo, signature and Certificate from Principal (duly signed and stamped by the Principal). Check the correctness of the photo and your signature and documents that are uploaded. If the uploaded soft copy is not correct or you are not satisfied with the quality of the soft copy, you may upload them again.

6. You will have to select the payment option (details given below) while filling the online form.

7. The GOAPS allows you to enter data, “Save” partially filled form, “Logout”, and resume filling in by logging in again.

8. Before you make the payment, you will be shown a “Preview” of your application, where you have to carefully check for any errors.

9. Once you press “Confirm and Final Submit” button, no further changes to the application can be made by you.

10. For online payment follow the instructions given payment options.

11. Problems in Login into GOAPS –This step may be used, if the candidate forgets the password or the Enrollment ID or did not receive the Enrollment ID. Visit the “Problems in Login into GOAPS” link on the GOAPS website.

a) In case of forgotten Enrollment ID or non-receipt of Enrollment ID via email, candidate must provide mobile number and the GOAPS Password. The Enrollment ID will be sent to the candidate via SMS.

b) In case of forgotten password, candidate must provide Mobile Number and Enrollment ID, which will be verified and a new GOAPS password will be sent to the  candidate via SMS/email.

c) In case of forgotten Enrollment ID as well as password or payment has not been made, the candidate must re-enroll. If the payment has been made, then the candidate must contact the Zonal GATE Office.

 Supporting Documents

 Eligibility Documents

Eligibility criteria and necessary supporting documents can be found from the eligibility table for GATE .

SC/ST/PwD Certificate

Candidates who are in any of the above categories have to upload a valid documentary evidence .

 Certificate from Principal

Candidates who mention that they are yet to complete their course, will receive a “Certificate from Principal” section printed on the bottom part of the PDF file. Before you upload this certificate, it is MANDATORY to obtain the signature and seal of the college Principal on this.

About GATE 2015

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all India examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidate in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering/Technology/Architecture and post-graduate level subjects in Science. The GATE score of a candidate reflects a relative performance level in a particular subject in the exam across several years. The score is used for admissions to post-graduate programs (e.g., M.E., M.Tech, direct Ph.D.) in Indian institutes of higher education with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other Government agencies. The score may also be used by Public and Private Sector Undertakings for employment screening purposes.

The information in this brochure is mainly categorized into Pre-Examination (Eligibility, Application submission, Examination Centers, etc.), Examination (Syllabus, Pattern, Marks/Score, Model Question Papers, etc.) & Post-Examination (Answers, Results, Scorecard, etc.) sections.

The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) jointly administer the conduct of GATE. The operations related to GATE in each of the 8 zones are managed by a zonal GATE Office at the IITs or IISc. The Organizing Institute (OI) is responsible for the end-to-end process and coordination amongst the administering Institutes. The Organizing Institute for GATE 2015 is IIT Kanpur.

  1. Financial Assistance
  2. Employment
  3. Administration

GATE 2015 Papers

Candidates must familiarize with the paper code for the paper of their choice for GATE 2015, as this knowledge will be required at the time of application form submission and appearing for the examination. A candidate is allowed to appear in ONLY ONE paper.

Since a candidate is allowed to appear in ONLY ONE of the 22 papers for which GATE 2015 examination is being held, the candidate has to make the choice of the paper he/she wishes to write carefully.

GATE Papers and the Paper Codes for GATE 2015

GATE Paper Code GATE Paper Code
Aerospace Engineering AE Ecology and Evolution EY
Agricultural Engineering AG Geology and Geophysics GG
Architecture and Planning AR Instrumentation Engineering IN
Biotechnology BT Mathematics MA
Civil Engineering CE Mechanical Engineering ME
Chemical Engineering CH Mining Engineering MN
Computer Science and
Information Technology
CS Metallurgical Engineering MT
Chemistry CY Physics PH
Electronics and Communication Engineering EC Production and Industrial
Electrical Engineering EE Engineering Sciences XE*
Textile Engineering and
Fibre Science
TF Life Sciences XL**
*XE Paper Sections Code **XL Paper Sections Code
Engineering Mathematics
A Chemistry (Compulsory) H
Fluid Mechanics B Biochemistry I
Materials Science C Botany J
Solid Mechanics D Microbiology K
Thermodynamics E Zoology L
Polymer Science and
F Food Technology M
Food Technology G


GATE Exam Pattern

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type questions.

The examination for all the papers will be carried out in an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT) mode where the candidates will be shown the questions in a random sequence on a computer screen. The candidates are required to either select the answer (for MCQ type) or enter the answer for numerical answer type question using a mouse on a virtual keyboard (keyboard of the computer will be disabled). Candidates will be provided with scribble pad for rough work and these have to be returned back after the examination. At the end of the 3-hour window, the computer will automatically close the screen from further actions.

 Pattern of Question Papers

In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questions carrying a total of 15 marks are in General Aptitude (GA).

In the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI, TF and XE, the Engineering Mathematics will carry around 15% of the total marks, the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 70% of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.

In the papers bearing the codes AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH and XL, the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 85% of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.

GATE 2015 would contain questions of two different types in various papers:

(i) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).

(ii) Numerical Answer Questions of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.

Design of Questions

The questions in a paper may be designed to test the following abilities:

(i) Recall: These are based on facts, principles, formulae or laws of the discipline of the paper. The candidate is expected to be able to obtain the answer either from his/her memory of the subject or at most from a one-line computation.


Q. During machining, maximum heat is produced

(A) in flank face

(B) in rake face

(C) in shear zone

(D) due to friction between chip and tool

(ii) Comprehension: These questions will test the candidate’s understanding of the basics of his/her field, by requiring him/her to draw simple conclusions from fundamental ideas.


Q. A DC motor requires a starter in order to

(A) develop a starting torque

(B) compensate for auxiliary field ampere turns

(C) limit armature current at starting

(D) provide regenerative braking

(iii) Application: In these questions, the candidate is expected to apply his/her knowledge either through computation or by logical reasoning.


Q. The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48. The

Froude number at the beginning of the jump is:

(A) 5.0 (B) 8.0 (C) 10.0 (D) 12.0

Examples of each of this design are given in the types of questions above.

The questions based on the above logics may be a mix of single standalone statement/phrase/data type questions, combination of option codes type questions or match items type questions.

(iv) Analysis and Synthesis: In these questions, the candidate is presented with data, diagrams, images etc. that require analysis before a question can be answered. A Synthesis question might require the candidate to compare two or more pieces of information. Questions in this category could, for example, involve candidates in recognizing unstated assumptions, or separating useful information from irrelevant information.

 Marking Scheme

For 1-mark multiple-choice questions, 1/3 marks will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple-choice questions, 2/3 marks will be deducted for a wrong answer. There is NO negative marking for numerical answer type questions.

 General Aptitude (GA) Questions

In all papers, GA questions carry a total of 15 marks. The GA section includes 5 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 5 questions carrying 2- marks each (sub-total 10 marks).

 Question Papers other than GG, XE and XL 

These papers would contain 25 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 25 marks) and 30 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 60 marks). The question paper will consist of questions of multiple choice and numerical answer type. For numerical answer questions, choices will not be given. Candidates have to enter the answer (which will be a real number, signed or unsigned, e.g., 25.06, – 25.06, 25, -25 etc.) using a virtual keypad. An appropriate range will be considered while evaluating the numerical answer type questions so that the candidate is not penalized due to the usual round-off errors.

 GG (Geology and Geophysics) Paper

Apart from the General Aptitude (GA) section, the GG question paper consists of two parts: Part A and Part B. Part A is common for all candidates. Part B contains two sections: Section 1 (Geology) and Section 2 (Geo-physics). Candidates will have to attempt questions in Part A and either Section 1 or Section 2 in Part B.

Part A consists of 25 multiple-choice questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 25 marks and some of these may be numerical answer type questions). Each section in Part B (Section 1 and Section 2) consists of 30 multiple choice questions carrying 2- marks each (sub-total 60 marks and some of these may be numerical answer type questions).

 XE Paper (Engineering Sciences)

In XE paper, Engineering Mathematics section (Section A) is compulsory. This section contains 11 questions carrying a total of 15 marks: 7 questions carrying 1- mark each (sub-total 7 marks), and 4 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 8 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type questions.

Each of the other sections of the XE paper (Sections B through G) contains 22 questions carrying a total of 35 marks: 9 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 9 marks) and 13 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 26 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

 XL Paper (Life Sciences)

In XL paper, Chemistry section (Section H) is compulsory. This section contains 15 questions carrying a total of 25 marks: 5 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

Each of the other sections of the XL paper (Sections I through M) contains 20 questions carrying a total of 30 marks: 10 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub- total 10 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks).

Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

Note on Negative Marking for Wrong Answers 

For a wrong answer chosen for the multiple choice questions (MCQs), there would be negative marking. For 1-mark multiple choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. However, there is NO negative marking for a wrong answer in numerical answer type questions.

GATE Important Dates

GATE 2015 Important Dates :

GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS) Website Opens: Enrolment,
Application Filling, Application Submission
1st September 2014(00:00 Hrs)
Last Date for Submission of Online Application through Website 14th October 2014(23:59Hrs)
Last Date for Request for Change in the Choice of Examination City via GOAPS login 21st November 2014
Availability of Admit Card on the Online Application Interface for printing 17th December 2014
GATE 2015 Online Examination
Forenoon: 9.00 AM to 12.00 Noon
Afternoon: 2.00 PM to 5.00 PM
31st January, 1st, 7th, 8th and 14th February, 2015
Announcement of Results on the Online  Application Website 12th March 2015(17:00 Hrs)


Life Sciences (XL)

Section H: Chemistry (Compulsory)

Atomic structure and periodicity: Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom; electronic configuration of atoms; periodic table and periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity, electronegativity, atomic size.

Structure and bonding: Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle).

s.p. and d Block Elements: Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, general characteristics of 3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic properties.

Chemical Equilibria: Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical analysis, equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions, Electrochemistry: Conductance, Kohlrausch law, Half Cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

Reaction Kinetics: Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.

Thermodynamics: First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff’s equation, heat of reaction, Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free energy, and work function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, free energy change and equilibrium constant, Trouton’s rule, Third law of thermodynamics.

Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism: Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and Kharash effect, Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic electrophilic substitution, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

Structure-Reactivity Correlations: Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers, concept of aromatic city.

Section I: Biochemistry

Organization of life.Importance of water.Cell structure and organelles. Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids.

Biochemical separation techniques and characterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, UV-visible, fluorescence and Mass spectrometry.

Protein structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes.

Metabolism and bioenergetics.Generation and utilization of ATP. Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides.

Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle. Biological membranes. Transport across membranes. Signal transduction; hormones and neurotransmitters.

DNA replication, transcription and translation.Biochemical regulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNA- microarray.

Immune system.Active and passive immunity. Complement system. Antibody structure, function and diversity. Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages. T and B cell activation. Major histocompatibilty complex. T cell receptor.

Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.

 Section J: Botany

Plant Systematics: Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic – outline), plant groups, molecular systematics.

Plant Anatomy: Plant cell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall and membranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Morphogenesis & Development: Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.

Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

Physiology and Biochemistry: Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

Genetics: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.

Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification: Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker- assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Economic Botany: A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.

Plant Pathology: Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.

Ecology and Environment: Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.

 Section K: Microbiology

Historical Perspective: Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

Methods in Microbiology: Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity: Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function: Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Microbial Growth: Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

Control of Micro-organisms: Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Microbial Metabolism: Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction: Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and  antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.

Chemotherapy/Antibiotics: General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

Microbial Genetics: Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.

Microbial Ecology: Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.

 Section L: Zoology

Animal world:Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships.

Evolution: Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.

Genetics: Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, mutations, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage and mapping of genes.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

Cell Biology: Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal transduction).

Animal Anatomy and Physiology: Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

Parasitology and Immunology: Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune system.

Development Biology: Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis of development, stem cells.

Ecology: The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

Animal Behaviour: Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of animal behaviour.

 Section M: Food Technology

Food Chemistry and Nutrition: Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

Food Microbiology: Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

Food Products Technology: Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.

Food Engineering: Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non- Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.