Common Law Admission Test 2016 (CLAT)


       Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) is a national level common Law entrance examination for the admission of UG, PG and other integrated Law courses (LLB and LLM) in 16 National Law Universities of India.

This is a two hour paper which consists of only multiple choices of questions based on subjects such as English, General Knowledge, Logical reasoning and Mathematics. The minimum education qualification to attend this exam is 10+ 12th standards cleared for the admission of UG and Integrated courses.

The minimum educational qualification for the admission of PG courses is a UG degree in Law.

The CLAT scores are also considered by other private law colleges and by some public sector recruitments.

List of National Law Universities:

The list of 16 National Law Universities which offer admission through CLAT are

  • National Law School of India University, Bangalore
  • Nalsar University of Law, Hyderabad
  • The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata
  • National Law Institute University, Bhopal
  • National Law University, Jodhpur
  • Hidayatullah National Law University, Raipur
  • Gujarat National Law University, Gandhi Nagar
  • Ram Manahar Lohia National Law University, Lucknow
  • Chanakya National Law University, Patna
  • National University of advanced Legal studies, Kochi
  • Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala
  • National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi
  • National Law University, Cuttack
  • National Law University and Judicial Academy, Guwahati
  • Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, Vishakhapatnam
  • Tamil Nadu National Law School, Srirangam


Programs offered by 16 NLU’s:

The following are the different UG and PG programs offered by the 16 NLU’s:

They are

  • A.LL.B (Hons) (LLB-Bachelor of Laws)
  • Sc.LL.B (Hons)
  • S.W LL.B (Hons)
  • Com LL.B (Hons)
  • L.M (LLM- Master of Laws)

Important dates for CLAT 2016:

       These dates are tentative. Thus, refer the official website of CLAT for any official announcement of important dates of CLAT 2016.

Application form available from: 1st week of January to Last week of March 2016

Last date for the online application form submission: Last week of March 2016 Admit card availability: Mid of April 2016.

Examination date of CLAT 2016: 1st or 2nd week of May 2016

Declaration of results of CLAT 2016: 3rd and 4th week of May 2016

Admission process: From 4th week of May till 1st week of July 2016

Admission closes on: 1st week of July 2016


Eligibility criteria for CLAT 2016:

  1. Candidates applying for this exam for UG degree must have cleared higher secondary education from the recognized board with at least 45% of scores for general category students. For students belonging to the SC/ST and PwD they must have secured at least 40% of marks in their higher secondary education.
  2. The candidates applying for CLAT should be below 20 years as on 1st July 2016 for general category students. For students belonging to SC/ST/PwD category the age should be below 22 years.
  3. For PG program there is no upper age limit prescribed by the participating Universities.
  4. Candidates applying for PG degree exam must have completed LLB or 5 year integrated LLB degree with at least 55% of marks(General category students) and 50% of marks (SC/ST/PwD students) from a recognized University.
  5. The candidate must be an Indian or NRI.


     How to apply for CLAT 2016?

           The official notification of CLAT 2016 is yet to be announced in the official site of CLAT . After announcement, please follow the steps below:

  1. Visit the official site of CLAT 2016
  2. Since this exam is conducted only in online mode, the candidates can apply this exam only through online.
  3. Application forms for CLAT 2016 are expected to be available from January 2016. Thus, download the application form from the website.
  4. Please fill in all the details of candidate such as correct name, address, contact number and active email id. Please be sure that these details are very correct. These details are used to communicate further with the candidates.
  5. Last date of the application submission in on last week of March 2016.
  6. Submit the application form through online with required necessary documents like scanned copy of certificates, photos, etc.,
  7. The application fee is Rs.4000/- for general candidates and Rs.3500 for SC/ST/PwD candidates.
  8. The candidates can pay this application fee through net banking/debit card or credit card.


Pattern for CLAT 2016:

  • Mode of the examination: Online only
  • Duration of the examination for UG: Two hours
  • Exam Venues: The exam will be conducted in number of test centres across India. The test centres    will be announced later in the official site.
  • Total number of questions: 200 each carrying one mark (UG exam)
  • Total number of questions: 150 each carrying one mark (PG exam)
  • Every correct answer will be awarded one mark whereas every wrong answer will be deducted 0.25 marks.
  • For UG courses the exam pattern is as follows:
  1. Reasoning: 40 questions
  2. Legal Aptitude: 50 Questions
  3. English and comprehension: 40 questions
  4. Elementary mathematics: 20 questions
  5. General Knowledge and current affairs: 50 questions
  • For PG Course the exam pattern is as follows:
  1. Constitutional law: 50 questions
  2. Jurisprudence: 50 questions
  3. Other law subjects: 50 questions
  • Total marks for PG entrance exam: 150
  • Each question carries one mark
  • Time duration for PG exam: 2 hours.

However, please refer the official site of CLAT for the official announcement of the pattern.

Syllabus for CLAT 2016:

 Syllabus for CLAT UG LLB:

               The most important topics that are covered under the syllabus of CLAT (LLB-UG course syllabus) are:

English and comprehension:

                     This is to mainly test the candidate’s proficiency in English and his understanding capacity of comprehension passages and its theme. Questions based on comprehension passage test the candidate’s ability of understanding such passages. The other topics which are included are identify correct and incorrect sentences in grammar, active and passive voice, reading comprehension, sentence sequencing, spotting error and using appropriate word. This section carries 40 marks with 40 questions.

General Knowledge and current affairs:

                 The candidate’s are tested the knowledge in current affairs, general questions on India, world geography, history, freedom struggles, Indian economy, Indian constitution, international news, etc. This section carries 50 marks with 50 questions.

Elementary Mathematics:

          This section covers all the fundamental concepts in mathematics. Thus, students who are strong enough in the fundamental basics can easily clear this section. The most important topics covered under this are Number system, roots, average, HCF and LCM, Logarithm, profit and loss, discounts, interest calculation, areas and volumes, decimals and fractions, etc. This section carries 20 marks.

Legal Aptitude:

             This section will test the candidate’s knowledge in legal propositions. The questions are based on the legal propositions or principles and facts. These principles have to be applied accordingly to arrive at a most reasonable conclusion. The total number of questions in this section is 50.

Logical reasoning:

               This section totally consists of 40 questions each carrying one mark. Questions based on logical links, identify patterns, rectifying illogical arguments are covered under this section. Other questions such as syllogism, logical sequences, analogies, etc are also covered under this section.

Syllabus for CLAT PG LLM:

                   The most important topics for CLAT PG LLM

  • Law of Contracts
  • Criminal Law
  • Family Law
  • Legal Theory
  • Constitutional Law
  • Law of Torts

Important books to refer for CLAT 2016:

  • English:
  1. Word power made easy 1st edition by Norman Lewis
  2. Objective General English Edition 1 by R.S.Agarwal
  • General Knowledge:
  1. Manorama year book
  2. Lucents General Knowledge
  • Mathematics:
  1. Quantitative aptitude for competitive examinations, 17th edition by R.S.Aggarwal
  2. Quantitative aptitude for competitive examinations 4th edition
  • Legal awareness:
  1. Legal awareness and legal reasoning for the CLAT and LLB.
  • Logical reasoning:
  1. Analytical reasoning 3rd edition by M.K.Pandey
  2. A modern approach to logical reasoning by R.S.Aggarwal

Preparation tips for CLAT 2016:

           Here are the few preparation tips for CLAT 2016.

  • Study according to the latest syllabus and pattern of CLAT 2016:

                   This is the most important thing that a candidate must note. Students have to know the pattern and syllabus of CLAT 2016 and cover all topics thoroughly. Also, students can refer to the previous year questions papers to be clear and confident.

  • Proper time management:

         Time management is the most important thing for clearing any competitive exam. Thus, be sure that you can solve any particular question within the given time. If it is not possible try to solve it within the given time. This is the very important thing for any candidate.

  • Take part in the online mock tests:

               There are huge numbers of websites providing the online mock test for CLAT examination. Attending these exams, students can be clear about the types of questions asked for, duration of each section and importance of each section. Thus, students must definitely attend the mock examination.

  • Prepare notes:

     Practice yourself to prepare notes for all lengthy and important topics. Making note of all important formulas, important information, dates of the incidents, etc., which will help you during the last minute preparation of the examination.

  • Be aware with the current affairs:

       Unlike other competitive exams, CLAT needs more knowledge and awareness in the Current

affairs. Thus, read daily newspapers and magazines without fail.

  • Solve previous year question papers:

            Download last five years question papers and try to solve it on your own. Try to solve all mathematical questions, logical reasoning questions and legal awareness questions on your own. Test your General Knowledge skills by attending various mock tests.

  • Refer all important books for CLAT :

         Prepare the exam through books specified for CLAT 2016. Always prepare from those books.

National Entrance Screening Test 2016 (NEST)

NEST 2016:

         National Entrance Screening Test (NEST) is a national level examination which must be taken compulsorily by the students who wish to join in the National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), Bhubaneswar and Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE-CBS), Mumbai.

NEST is a very important examination for the admission to the above two institutes. In addition to this, the Integrated Science Education and Research Centre (ISERC) of Visva Bharti University consider the scores and merit list of this examination.


  1. The main purpose of conducting this exam is to train the students according to today’s cutting edge of scientific research and to provide solutions to various science related projects, programs of atomic research centres of India.
  2. This test is conducted across 52 cities across India.
  3. This test is conducted for the admission to the various courses offered by the various universities such as NISER and UM-DAE-CBS.

Eligibility criteria:

The eligibility criteria for attending this exam are below

  1. The candidates who belong to general and OBC category must have born on or after 15th July 1996.
  2. For students belonging to the reserved category like SC/ST/PWD there is a relaxation up to 5 years.
  3. The students who have completed their higher secondary education are eligible to apply this exam.
  4. Students who are currently pursuing 12th standard can also apply for this exam. But, however, they are eligible for the admission only after providing their education certificates.
  5. The students belonging to the general categories must have secured at least 66% in the qualifying examination whereas the students belonging to the SC/ST/PWD categories must have secured at least 55% of marks in the qualifying examination.

How to apply for NEST?

Here the steps that can be followed to apply for NEST:

  1. Visit the official site of NEST. Now click on register and enter your name, age, qualification, caste and all other informations required.
  2. As soon as you click on the register button, username and password is created.
  3. Candidates must make note of username and password.
  4. Using this username and password please apply for NEST 2016 by clicking on the link “NEST 2016”.
  5. Applications are available in two types. Online application form and as offline application forms.
  6. Online application form can only be downloaded through the official site whereas offline application form can be bought only through NEST offices.
  7. Applicants have to read all the informations carefully and enter all the details genuinely.
  8. All details provided by the students must be correct and genuine.
  9. Students please provide the active mail id, contact number and current address in the application form.
  10. Upload digital signature and your passport size photograph if asked.
  11. The application fee (Online application) Male candidates (general and OBC) are: Rs.700/-
  • Male (SC/ST): Rs. 350/-
  • Female (All categories): Rs.350/-
  • Physically challenged person: Rs.350/-
  1. The application fee (Offline application) Male candidates (general and OBC) are: Rs.750/-
  • Male (SC/ST): Rs. 400/-
  • Female (All categories): Rs.400/-
  • Physically challenged person: Rs.400/-
  1. Choose the mode of payment.
  2. If the mode of payment is DD, you can take it in favor of mentioned format in the official site of NEST. Also, make sure that you have written your name and application number at the back of the DD before you give to the bank.
  3. If your mode of payment is net banking, please provide the required fee online.
  4. Now click on the submit button.
  5. Please note down the application number or better take a print out of the application form.
  6. The official notification for NEST 2016 is yet to announced soon. Thus, please wait for the announcement and read all the instructions carefully before applying for the exam.
  7. You can track your application every time through the official website of As soon as your application form is accepted, admit card is made available in the official website.
  8. In case if there are any queries or clarification to be made, please contact the following email address nest @nest in

Pattern for NEST:

The question paper consists of five sections in which each section contains 60 questions carrying one mark each.

First section:

This is a compulsory section and students have to answer all the questions. This section consists of general types of question.

Section 2, 3, 4 and 5:

These sections cover the subjects such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics respectively. Among these 4 sections candidates can choose to answer any three sections. Negative marks are applicable in these sections.

The exam paper will be in English only.

Syllabus for NEST:

The syllabus for NEST primarily follows the NCERT/CBSE science syllabus of class IX – Class-XII.

This exam tests the candidate’s basic understanding and knowledge in all the fundamental subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. Questions are designed to check the analytical skills of the student and comprehension of scientific problems.

NEST Physics syllabus:

The most important topics are mechanics, Thermal physics, Electricity and magnetism, optics and Modern Physics.

NEST Chemistry Syllabus:

The questions are mostly covered from the chapters of Inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry.

NEST Biology syllabus:

The most important topics are cell biology, anatomy and physiology, developmental biology, diversity of animal life, genetics and evolution, ecology, botany, humans and environment.

NEST Mathematics Syllabus:

The most important topics in mathematics are Algebra, trigonometry, analytical geometry, differential calculus, integral calculus and vectors.

NEST important dates: (Tentative dates)

Starting date for NEST registration process: January 2016

Last date for the application form through online mode: February 2016

Last date for the application form through offline mode: March 2016

Closing date for the NEST online application process: March 2016

Downloading of NEST 2016 admit cards starts from: April 2016

Date of examination: May 2016

Result declaration: June 2016

However, please check the official site of NEST for the official announcement regarding all important dates for NEST 2016 exam.

Sample questions on NEST:

Here are the few sample questions on NEST:

  1. In the public key cryptography, number of keys required to secure communication between n parties will be:
  • (n-1)2
  • 2n
  • n(n+1)/2
  • n(n-1)/2
  1. If A,B,C are three natural numbers, which of the following can never be true?
  • A2 – B2= C2
  • A2 + B2= C3
  • A3 + B3= C3
  • A3 + B3= C2
  1. The rocky deccan plateau is the result of volcanic eruption in the past. Which of the following is the resulting rock combustion?
  • Marble
  • Gypsum
  • Granite
  • Lignite
  1. Which of the following substance has purely planar (2-dimentional) structure?
  • Diamond
  • Graphite
  • Graphene
  • Fullerene
  1. Toothpaste do not contain:
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Methanol
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Sorbitol

Books to be referred for NEST:

Here are some of the important books that can be referred during the examination of NEST:

  1. Practice problems for physics for Engineering and Medical entrance examination by S.Mishra
  2. Concepts of Physics by H.C.Verma
  3. A collections of questions and problems in Physics by L.A.Sena
  4. Problems in Physics by A.A.Pinsky
  5. Text book of Chemistry: NCERT XI and XII
  6. An objective approach of organic chemistry by R.K.Gupta
  7. Entrance chemistry by Bhakta
  8. IIT Chemistry by O.P.Agarwal
  9. Biology by S.C.Verma
  10. Botany by AC Dutta
  11. Objective Biology by K.N.Bhatia and K.Bhatia
  12. Objective Zoology by Dr.R.K.Pillai
  13. Integral calculus by Amit M. Agarwal
  14. Higher Algebra by Hall and Knight
  15. Problems in calculus of one variable by I.A.Maron

Admit card for NEST:

Candidates who have applied through online mode are only able to download the admit card from the official site of NEST. The admit card will not be sent through post to any students who have applied online.

Keep note of your username and password which you received during the time of registration. Using this username and password download the admit card for NEST 2016. Please check all the details such as venue, name of the applicant, date of the examination, batch of your examination and so on.

Candidates must bring a photo identity card either issued by the Government agencies of school identity card along with the admit card during the examination.

For those who have applied through offline mode, admit card is sent through post to the mentioned address in the application form.

NEST exam centres:

This exam takes place in many cities of India. Thus, the candidate has to choose the nearest two possible centres while filling the application form. Every effort is made to allot the candidate’s first preferred centre. In case, if it is not possible the final decision is taken by the chief coordinator of NEST examination. Also, request of change in examination venue will not be entertained.

Candidate’s examination venue will be mentioned in the admit card of NEST.

Result Declaration:

NEST 2016 results are planned to be declared on June 2016. However, the students who have cleared this written test have to face the personal interview to get selected finally.

VITEEE 2016 Notification

VITEEE 2016:

Vellore Institute of Technology Engineering Entrance Examination (VITEEE) is a national level entrance examination conducted by VIT University for the admission to the Bachelor Engineering degree courses at its Chennai and Vellore campus.

About VIT University:

Founded in the year 1984 by Mr.G.Viswanathan, VIT has around 20 Undergraduate courses and 34 Post graduate courses, 4 integrated courses and 4 Research programs. VIT has been ranked one among the top ten institutes of India by India today. It is otherwise said to be an institute of higher education and a deemed University under the Section 3 of UGC act.

It has two campuses at Vellore and Chennai. Initially the college was affiliated with Madras University and later in June 2001, the Union Ministry of Human Resource Department conferred VEC (Vellore Engineering College) as a Deemed University and thus it was named as “VIT University”.

VITEEE Examination:

VITEEE examination is a very famous entrance examination for the admission to the Bachelor degree of Engineering in any of the campuses of VIT. Around 200000 students applied online for the VITEEE 2015 Examination last year.

This exam is a computer based test (CBT) and it was held in various test centres in India as well as abroad. Questions were based on prescribed syllabus with an option to the students to attend any of the papers from the following such as

  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Mathematics


  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Biology

VITEEE 2016 is expected to be held from April 6th 2016 to April 17th 2016.

Important dates for VITEEE 2016:

Start of registration: November 27th 2015

End of the registration process: February 29th 2016

VITEEE 2016 admit card can be downloaded from: March 3rd week, 2016

Online Exam starting date: April 6th 2016

Online Exam ending date: April 17th 2016

Results to be declared on: April 29th 2016

VITEEE 2016 Counselling: 2nd and 3rd week of May 2016

The exam will be conducted as 3 sessions every day

Session 1: 9.00 A.M to 11.30 A.M

Session 2: 12.30 P.M to 3.00 P.M

Session 3: 4.00 P.M to 6.30 P.M

No negative marks are applicable for wrong attempts.


Eligibility Criteria:

Candidates are requested to satisfy the eligibility criteria genuinely since it will be verified during the time of admission.

The eligibility criteria for VITEEE 2016 are:

  • Candidates those who have cleared 10+12th classes with a minimum of 50% aggregate with major subjects such as PCM (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) or PCB ((Physics, Chemistry and Biology).
  • Candidates those who are currently in the final year of 12th standard board exam can also attend the examination.
  • Candidates with PCM background can apply to any disciplines of UG at VIT University.
  • Candidates with PCB background are eligible to apply only B.Tech Bioinformatics, Bio medical engineering and Biotechnology programmes only.
  • NIOS (National Institute of Open schooling) candidates are eligible to appear for VITEEE 2016 entrance examination.
  • Applicant must be a resident/non-resident Indian National
  • Candidates whose Date of Birth falls on or after July 1, 1994 are eligible to apply for VITEEE
  • Candidates must have done regular, formal and full time education to take part in this examination.

How to apply for VITEEE 2016?

VITEEE 2016 application form (Online and offline) will be available from November 27th 2015. All the details such as centre booking, date of issuance of e-admit card will be communicated to the students through email only. Thus, it is very necessary to enter the proper details while filling the application form.

Instructions for applying online:

  1. Visit the official site of VIT.
  2. Download the application form for VITEEE 2016 examination.
  3. Fill in all the details correctly such as correct and genuine Contact number, Address, Email id, etc., This is very important since every communication is done through email id.
  4. Scanned copy of recently taken photograph with dimensions (3.5 cm * 4.5 cm) and scanned copy of digital signature of the candidate with dimensions (3.5 cm * 1.5 cm) must be uploaded in JPEG/JPG format.
  5. Application fees of Rs.990/- can be paid through internet banking facility either through debit card or credit card or demand draft mode.
  6. It is mandatory that online applying candidates should send the hard copy of the application form to the University addressed to the “Director UG Admissions”, VIT University, Vellore – 632014.

Instructions for applying offline:

  1. Candidates can buy the application forms directly from the VIT University, Vellore or VIT University, Chennai or Chennai Administrative office.
  2. The address of Chennai administrative office is as below:

New no:6, Old no: W-73

Second street (Opposite to towers club)

Anna nagar,

Chennai -600 040,

Contact number: 044-42016555, 65480555

  1. Candidates can obtain the application form by handing over Rs.990/- drawn in favor of “VIT University”, payable at Vellore.
  2. Candidates can also obtain the application form through post by sending a Demand Draft for Rs.990/- drawn in the favor of “VIT University”, Payable at Vellore, with a covering letter addressed to “Director UG Admissions”, VIT University, Vellore -632 014. Candidates must write their name, mobile number and contact address at the back side of the DD.


All the questions will be mostly covered from the State Board of Higher Secondary Education and the CBSE Syllabus only. Thus, the syllabus for VITEEE 2016 Exam is:


The most important topics which must be covered during the preparation are

  1. Laws of motion, work, energy and power
  2. Properties of matter
  3. Electrostatics
  4. Current electricity
  5. Magnetic effects of the Electric current
  6. Semiconductor devices and their applications
  7. Nuclear Physics
  8. Optics
  9. Dual Nature of radiation and atomic physics
  10. Electromagnetic induction and alternating current


  1. P,d and f Block elements
  2. Coordination chemistry and solid state chemistry
  3. Thermodynamics, Chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics
  4. Electrochemistry
  5. Atomic structure
  6. Isomerism in organic compounds
  7. Alcohols and ethers
  8. Carbonyl compounds
  9. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives
  10. Organics nitrogen compounds


  1. Matrices and Determinants and their applications
  2. Analytical Geometry of two dimensions
  3. Complex numbers
  4. Vector algebra
  5. Differential calculus
  6. Probability distributions
  7. Discrete mathematics
  8. Integral calculus and its applications
  9. Differential equations
  10. Analytical geometry of three dimensions


  1. Taxonomy
  2. Cell and molecular biology
  3. Reproduction
  4. Genetics and evolution
  5. Plant physiology
  6. Human physiology
  7. Biochemistry
  8. Biotechnology and its applications
  9. Biodiversity, ecology and its environment
  10. Human health and diseases.


  1. Comprehension
  2. English grammar and pronunciation


The pattern for VITEEE 2016 is below:


40 questions each carry one mark. Thus, totally 40 marks.


40 questions each carry one mark. Thus, totally 40 marks.

Mathematics/ Biology:

40 questions each carry one mark. Thus, totally 40 marks

English totally 5 questions each carrying one mark. Thus, total 5 marks.

Thus, totally 125 questions. 125 marks.

All questions are objective type of questions. Each question carries four alternative options among which the student has to choose the correct one. Total duration of the exam is 2 and half hours. There is no negative marking scheme for any wrong attempts.

How to prepare:

Here are the few preparation tips for VITEEE 2016.

  1. Make a schedule before you start preparing for VITEEE 2016 examination. Avoid learning in an unordered manner.
  2. Understand the basic concepts of all important topics.
  3. Developing speed and accuracy is very important to crack VITEEE Thus, sharpen your brains and try to solve your problems before the specified time.
  4. Practice to solve previous year question papers using the stop clock.
  5. Develop your thinking and creative skills.
  6. Do not spend more time on unknown questions. Try to solve known questions at first.
  7. Make short notes like important formulas, equations and keep it handy for last minute preparation.
  8. Clear your concepts by discussing it with your friends and teachers.
  9. Do not stress yourself
  10. Have enough and good sleep.

VITEEE Admit card:

  1. The e-Admit card will be available once the candidate has booked his/her schedule through the Online test booking system.
  2. e-Admit card will contain the details such as e-Admit card number, Photograph of the student, address of the test centre, Test date and time selected by the candidate.
  3. In order to download the e-Admit card the candidate must provide his application number and online test booking password in the official site of VIT.
VITEEE Results:

VITEEE Results are planned to be declared on April 29th, 2016. The results will be calculated on the

basis of Equipercentile Equating method. Exam authorities use this method to find out the ranks of the


To know the results of VITEEE 2016 candidates have to log into the official site of VIT at the time of

result declaration and check it using the Application number and date of birth.

VITEEE Counselling:

VITEEE Counselling will be conducted by the VIT University for the admission to the various VIT

campus and courses. Counselling will be done on the basis of results obtained by the students.

Before appearing to the counselling session, the students have to choose their choice of counselling