1. ALGEBRA

“Functions : Types of functions – Definitions, Inverse functions and Theorems, Domain, Range, Inverse of real valued functions.

Mathematical Induction: Principle of Mathematical Induction & Theorems, Applications of Mathematical Induction, Problems on divisibility.

Matrices:Types of matrices, Scalar multiple of a matrix and multiplication of matrices, Transpose of a matrix, Determinants, Adjoint and Inverse of a matrix, Consistency and inconsistency of Equations- Rank of a matrix, Solution of simultaneous linear equations.

Complex Numbers: Complex number as an ordered pair of real numbers- fundamental operations – Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib – Modulus and amplitude of complex numbers –Illustrations – Geometrical and Polar Representation of complex numbers in Argand plane- Argand diagram.

De Moivre’s Theorem: De Moivre’s theorem- Integral and Rational indices – nth roots of unity- Geometrical Interpretations – Illustrations.

Quadratic Expressions: Quadratic expressions, equations in one variable – Sign of quadratic expressions – Change in signs – Maximum and minimum values – Quadratic inequations.

Theory of Equations: The relation between the roots and coefficients in an equation – Solving the equations when two or more roots of it are connected by certain relation – Equation with real coefficients, occurrence of complex roots in conjugate pairs and its consequences – Transformation of equations – Reciprocal Equations.

Permutations and Combinations: Fundamental Principle of counting – linear and circular permutations – Permutations of ‘n’ dissimilar things taken ‘r’ at a time – Permutations when repetitions allowed – Circular permutations – Permutations with constraint repetitions – Combinations-definitions and certain theorems.

Binomial Theorem: Binomial theorem for positive integral index – Binomial theorem for rational Index (without proof) – Approximations using Binomial theorem.

Partial fractions: Partial fractions of f(x)/g(x) when g(x) contains non –repeated linear factors –

Partial fractions of f(x)/g(x) when g(x) contains repeated and/or non-repeated linear factors –

Partial fractions of f(x)/g(x) when g(x) contains irreducible factors.”

2. TRIGONOMETRY

“Trigonometric Ratios, variations, Graphs and Periodicity of Trigonometric functions – Trigonometric ratios and Compound angles – Trigonometric ratios of multiple and sub-multiple angles – Transformations – Sum and Product rules

Trigonometric Equations: General Solution of Trigonometric Equations – Simple Trigonometric Equations – Solutions

Inverse Trigonometric Functions: To reduce a Trigonometric Function into a bijection – Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions – Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Hyperbolic Functions: Definition of Hyperbolic Function – Graphs – Definition of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions – Graphs – Addition formulas of Hyperbolic Functions

Properties of Triangles: Relation between sides and angles of a Triangle – Sine, Cosine, Tangent and Projection rules – Half angle formulae and areas of a triangle – In-circle and Ex-circle of a Triangle”

3. VECTOR ALGEBRA

“Addition of Vectors : Vectors as a triad of real numbers – Classification of vectors – Addition of vectors – Scalar multiplication – Angle between two non zero vectors – Linear combination of vectors – Component of a vector in three dimensions – Vector equations of line and plane including their Cartesian equivalent forms

Product of Vectors: Scalar Product – Geometrical Interpretations – orthogonal projections – Properties of dot product – Expression of dot product in i, j, k system – Angle between two vectors – Geometrical Vector methods – Vector equations of plane in normal form – Angle between two planes – Vector product of two vectors and properties – Vector product in i, j, k system – Vector Areas – Scalar Triple Product – Vector equations of plane in different forms, skew lines, shortest distance and their Cartesian equivalents. Plane through the line of intersection of two planes, condition for coplanarity of two lines, perpendicular distance of a point from a plane, Angle between line and a plane. Cartesian equivalents of all these results – Vector Triple Product – Results”

4. MEASURES OF DISPERSION

Range – Mean deviation – Variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data – Coefficient of variation and analysis of frequency distribution with equal means but different variances.

5. PROBABILITY:

“Random experiments and events – Classical definition of probability, Axiomatic approach and addition theorem of probability – Independent and dependent events conditional probability- multiplication theorem and Bayee’s theorem

Random Variables and Probability Distributions – Random Variables – Theoretical discrete distributions – Binomial and Poisson Distributions.”

6. COORDINATE GEOMETRY

“Locus : Definition of locus – Illustrations – To find equations of locus – Problems connected to it

Transformation of Axes : Transformation of axes – Rules, Derivations and Illustrations – Rotation of axes – Derivations – Illustrations

The Straight Line: Revision of fundamental results – Straight line – Normal form – Illustrations – Straight line – Symmetric form – Straight line – Reduction into various forms – Intersection of two Straight Lines – Family of straight lines – Concurrent lines – Condition for Concurrent lines – Angle between two lines – Length of perpendicular from a point to a Line – Distance between two parallel lines – Concurrent lines – properties related to a triangle

Pair of Straight lines: Equations of pair of lines passing through origin, angle between a pair of lines – condition for perpendicular and coincident lines – bisectors of angles – Pair of bisectors of angles – Pair of lines – second degree general equation – Conditions for parallel lines – distance between them, Point of intersection of pair of lines – Homogenizing a second degree equation with a first degree equation in X and Y.

Circle : Equation of circle -standard form-centre and radius of a circle with a given line segment as diameter & equation of circle through three non collinear points – parametric equations of a circle – Position of a point in the plane of a circle – power of a point-definition of tangent-length of tangent – Position of a straight line in the plane of a circle-conditions for a line to be tangent – chord joining two points on a circle – equation of the tangent at a point on the circle- point of contact-equation of normal – Chord of contact – pole and polar-conjugate points and conjugate lines – equation of chord with given middle point – Relative position of two circles- circles touching each other externally, internally common tangents –centers of similitude- equation of pair of tangents from an external point.

System of circles: Angle between two intersecting circles – Radical axis of two circles-properties – Common chord and common tangent of two circles – radical centre – Intersection of a line and a Circle.

Parabola: Conic sections –Parabola- equation of parabola in standard form-different forms of parabola- parametric equations – Equations of tangent and normal at a point on the parabola (Cartesian and parametric) – conditions for straight line to be a tangent.

Ellipse: Equation of ellipse in standard form – Parametric equations Equation of tangent and normal at a point on the ellipse (Cartesian and parametric)- condition for a straight line to be a tangent.

Hyperbola: Equation of hyperbola in standard form- Parametric equations – Equations of tangent and normal at a point on the hyperbola (Cartesian and parametric)- conditions for a straight line to be a tangent- Asymptotes.

Three Dimensional Coordinates: Coordinates – Section formulas – Centroid of a triangle and tetrahedron.

Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios: Direction Cosines – Direction Ratios

Plane : Cartesian equation of Plane – Simple Illustrations.”

7. CALCULUS

“Limits and Continuity: Intervals and neighborhoods – Limits – Standard Limits – Continuity

Differentiation: Derivative of a function – Elementary Properties – Trigonometric, Inverse Trigonometric, Hyperbolic, Inverse Hyperbolic Function – Derivatives – Methods of Differentiation – Second Order Derivatives

Applications of Derivatives: Errors and approximations – Geometrical Interpretation of a derivative – Equations of tangents and normals – Lengths of tangent, normal, sub tangent and sub normal – Angles between two curves and condition for orthogonality of curves – Derivative as Rate of change – Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean value theorem without proofs and their geometrical interpretation – Increasing and decreasing functions – Maxima and Minima.

Integration: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation- Standard forms – properties of integrals – Method of substitution- integration of Algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions. Integration by parts – Integration- Partial fractions method – Reduction formulae.

Definite Integrals: Definite Integral as the limit of sum – Interpretation of Definite Integral as an area – Fundamental theorem of Integral Calculus – Properties – Reduction formulae – Application of Definite integral to areas

Differential equations: Formation of differential equation-Degree and order of an ordinary differential equation – Solving differential equation by – a) Variables separable method – b) Homogeneous differential equation – c) Non – Homogeneous differential equation – d) Linear differential equations.”

# Month: June 2016

## EAMCET 2016 Chemistry Syllabus

1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:

Sub- atomic particles – Atomic models- Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom – Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom – Nature of electromagnetic radiation – Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory – Bohr’s model for Hydrogen atom – Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen – Limitations of Bohr’s model – Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles – Dual behaviour of matter – Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle – Quantum mechanical model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom – Orbitals and quantum numbers – Shapes of atomic orbitals – Energies of orbitals – Filling of orbitals in atoms – Aufbau Principle, Pauli’s exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity – Electronic configurations of atoms – Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

2. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES:

Need to classify elements – Genesis of periodic classification – Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table – Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than100 – Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table – Electronic configuration and types of elements s,p,d and f blocks – Trends in physical properties- a) Atomic radius, b) Ionic radius, c) Variation of size in inner transition elements, d) Ionization enthalpy, e) Electron gain enthalpy, f) Electro negativity – Periodic trends in chemical properties: a) Valence or Oxidation states, b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship – Periodic trends and chemical reactivity.

3. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE:

Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding – Octet rule – covalent bond, Lewis representation of simple molecules (Lewis Structures) – Formal Charge – Limitation of octet rule – Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride-General properties of ionic compounds – Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, and bond enthalpy, bond order, resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment – Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules – Valence bond theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals – types of overlapping and nature of covalent bonds – strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds – Hybridisation-different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple covalent molecules – Coordinate bond – definition with examples – general properties of compounds containing coordinate bonds – Molecular orbital theory – Formation of molecular orbitals, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for combination of atomic orbitals – Types of molecular orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals –Electronic configuration and molecular behavior – Bonding in some homo nuclear diatomic molecules – H2 ,He2 ,Li2 ,B2 ,C2 ,N2 and O2 – Hydrogen bonding-cause of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General properties of hydrogen bonds.

4. STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS:

Intermolecular forces – Thermal Energy – Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal interactions – The Gaseous State – The Gas Laws – Ideal gas equation – Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures – Kinetic molecular theory of gases – Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation) deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation – Distribution of molecular speeds – rms, average and most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules – Behaviour of real gases – Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real gases – Liquefaction of gases – Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter molecular interactions – Vapour pressure, Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea only. No mathematical derivation).

5. STOICHIOMETRY:

Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant figures, dimensional analysis. Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions, Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Avogadro Law, Principles, Examples – Atomic and molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight – Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds – Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations – Methods of Expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality – Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions, oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer. Oxidation number concept – Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions – Balancing of redox reactions – oxidation number method Half reaction (ion-electron) method – Redox reactions in Titrimetry.

6. THERMODYNAMICS:

Thermodynamic Terms – The system and the surroundings – Types of systems and surroundings – The state of the system – The Internal Energy as a State Function – (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics∆ – Applications – Work – Enthalpy, H- a useful new state function – Extensive and intensive ∆properties – Heat capacity – The relationship∆ between CP and Cv – Measurement of U and H: Calorimetry -Enthalpy change, r H of reactions – reaction Enthalpy (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions – (b) Enthalpy changes during phase transformations – (c) Standard enthalpy∆ of formation – (d) Thermo chemical∆ equations – (e) Hess’s law of∆ constant Heat summation – Enthalpies for different types of reactions – (a) Standard enthalpy of combustion ( c HO ) – (b) Enthalpy∆ of atomization ( a HO) – (c) Bond Enthalpy ( bond HO) – (d) Enthalpy of solution ( sol HO ) and dilution – lattice enthalpy – Spontaneity – (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? – (b) Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics – (c) Gibbs Energy and spontaneity – Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium – Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics.

7. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES:

Equilibrium in Physical process – Equilibrium in chemical process – Dynamic Equilibrium – Law of chemical Equilibrium – Law of mass action and Equilibrium constant – Homogeneous Equilibria, Equilibrium constant in gaseous systems. Relationship between KP and Kc – Heterogeneous Equilibria – Applications of Equilibrium constant – Relationship between Equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient Q and Gibbs energy G – Factors affecting Equilibria-Le-chatelier principle application – to industrial synthesis of Ammonia and Sulphur trioxide – Ionic Equilibrium in solutions – Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases – Ionisation of Acids and Bases –Ionisation constant of water and it’s ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants of weak acids-ionisation of weak bases-relation between Ka and Kb-Di and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic Bases-Factors affecting acid strength-Common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions – Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solution-Preparation of Acidic buffer – Solubility Equilibria of sparingly soluble salts. Solubility – product constant Common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.

8. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS:

Position of hydrogen in the periodic table – Dihydrogen-Occurance and Isotopes – Preparation of Dihydrogen – Properties of Dihydrogen – Hydrides: Ionic, covalent, and non-stiochiometric hydrides – Water: Physical properties; structure of water, ice – Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water Temporary and permanent hardness of water – Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation; Physical properties; structure and chemical properties; storage and uses – Heavy Water – Hydrogen as a fuel.

9. THE s – BLOCK ELEMENTS:

(ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS) – Group 1 Elements – Alkali metals; Electronic configurations; – Atomic and Ionic radii; Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties; Chemical properties; Uses – General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: Oxides; Halides; Salts of Oxy Acids – Anomalous properties of Lithium: Differences and similarities with other alkali metals. Diagonal relationship; similarities between Lithium and Magnesium – Some important compounds of Sodium: Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium hydrogen carbonate – Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium – Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth elements; Electronic configuration – atomic and ionic radii – Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties, Chemical properties; Uses – General characteristics of compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals: Oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of Oxyacids – (Carbonates; Sulphates and Nitrates) – Anomalous behavior of Beryllium; its diagonal relationship with Aluminum – Some important compounds of calcium: Preparation and uses of Calcium Oxide ; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcium Carbonate;Plaster of Paris; Cement – Biological importance of Calcium and Magnesium.

10. P- BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP – 13 ( BORON FAMILY):

General introduction – Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties – Important trends and anomalous properties of boron – Some important compounds of boron – Borax, Ortho boric acid,diborane – Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.

11. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS – GROUP – 14 ( CARBON FAMILY):

General introduction – Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties – Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon – Allotropes of carbon – Uses of carbon – Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide,Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.

12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY:

Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions – Environmental Pollution – Atmospheric pollution; Tropospheric Pollution; Gaseous Air Pollutants (Oxides of Sulphur; Oxides of Nitrogen; Hydro Carbons; Oxides of Carbon (CO; CO2) – Global warming and Green house effect – Acid Rain- Particulate Pollutants- Smog – Stratospheric Pollution: Formation and breakdown of Ozone- Ozone hole- effects of depletion of the Ozone layer – Water Pollution: Causes of Water Pollution; International standards for drinking water – Soil Pollution: Pesticides, Industrial Wastes. Strategies to control environmental pollution- waste Management- collection and disposal – Green Chemistry: Green chemistry in day-to-day life; Dry cleaning of clothes; Bleaching of paper; Synthesis of chemicals.

13. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES AND HYDROCARBONS:

General introduction – Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of organic compounds – Structural representations of organic compounds – Classification of organic compounds – Nomenclature of organic compounds – Isomerism – Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms – Fission of covalent bond – Nucleophiles and electrophiles – Electron movements in organic reactions – Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds-Types of Organic reactions – Methods of purification of organic compounds – Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds – Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds – HYDROCARBONS: Classification of Hydrocarbons – Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only) – Preparation of alkanes – Properties – Physical properties and chemical Reactivity, Substitution reactions – Halogenation(free radical mechanism), Combustion, Controlled – Oxidation, Isomerisation, Aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis – Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of ethene, Isomerism(structural and geometrical) – Methods of preparation Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: Addition of Hydrogen, halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect, Markovnikov’s , antiMarkovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, Ozonolysis and Polymerization – Alkynes – Nomenclature and isomerism, structure of acetylene. Methods of preparation of acetylene – Physical properties, Chemical reactions- acidic character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, Halogen, Hydrogen halides and water. Polymerization – Aromatic Hydrocarbons – Nomenclature and isomerism. Structure of benzene, Resonance and aromaticity – Preparation of benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel-Craft’ alkylation and acylation – Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

14. SOLID STATE:

General characteristics of solid state – Amorphous and crystalline solids – Classification of crystalline solids based on different binding forces (molecular, ionic, metallic and covalent solids ) – Probing the structure of solids: X-ray crystallography – Crystal lattices and unit cells .Bravais lattices primitive and centred unit cells – Number of atoms in a unit cell (primitive, body centred and face centred cubic unit cell) – Close packed structures: Close packing in one dimension, in two dimensions and in three dimensions- tetrahedral and octahedral voids- formula of a compound and number of voids filled- locating tetrahedral and octahedral voids – Packing efficiency in simple cubic, bcc and in hcp, ccp lattice. – Calculations involving unit cell dimensions – density of the unit cell – Imperfections in solids-types of point defects-stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects – Electrical properties-conduction of electricity in metals, semiconductors and insulators- band theory of metals – Magnetic properties.

15. SOLUTIONS:

Types of solutions – Expressing concentration of solutions-mass percentage, volume percentage, mass by volume percentage, parts per million, mole fraction, molarity and molality – Solubility: Solubility of a solid in a liquid, solubility of a gas in a liquid,Henry’s law – Vapour pressure of liquid solutions: vapour pressure of liquid- liquid solutions. Raoult’s law as a special case of Henry’s law -vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids – Ideal and non-ideal solutions – Colligative properties and determination of molar mass-relative lowering of vapour pressure-elevation of boiling point-depression of freezing point-osmosis and osmotic pressure-reverse osmosis and water purification – Abnormal molar masses-van’t Hoff factor.

16. ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:

Electrochemical cells – Galvanic cells :measurement of electrode potentials – Nernst equation-equilibrium constant from Nernst equation- electrochemical cell and Gibbs energy of the cell reaction – Conductance of electrolytic solutions- measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions-variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration-strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes-applications of Kohlrausch’s law – Electrolytic cells and electrolysis: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis-products of electrolysis – Batteries: primary batteries and secondary batteries – Fuel cells – Corrosion of metals-Hydrogen economy – CHEMICAL KINETICS – Rate of a chemical reaction – Factors influencing rate of a reaction: dependance of rate on concentration- rate expression and rate constant- order of a reaction, molecularity of a reaction – Integrated rate equations-zero order reactions-first order reactions-half life of a reaction – Pseudo first order reaction – Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction -effect of catalyst – Collision theory of chemical reaction rates.

17. SURFACE CHEMISTRY:

Adsorption and absorption: Distinction between adsorption and absorption- mechanism of adsorption-types of adsorption- characteristics of physisorption-characteristics of chemisorptions-adsorption isotherms- adsorption from solution phase – applications of adsorption – Catalysis: Catalysts, promoters and poisons-auto catalysis- homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis – adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalysis – important features of solid catalysts: (a)activity (b)selectivity-shape-selective catalysis by zeolites- enzyme catalysis-characteristics and mechanism- catalysts in industry – Colloids – Classification of colloids: Classification based on physical state of dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on nature of interaction between dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on type of particles of the dispersed phase- multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids- cleansing action of soaps-preparation of colloids-purification of colloidal solutions- properties of colloidal solutions: Tyndal effect, colour,Brownian movement-charge on colloidal particles, electrophoresis – Emulsions – Colloids Around us- application of colloids.

18. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY:

Occurrence of metals – Concentration of ores – levigation, magnetic separation, froth floatation, leaching – Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore-conversion to oxide, reduction of oxide to the metal – Thermodynamic Principles of metallurgy-Ellingham diagram-limitations-applications-extraction of iron, copper and zinc from their oxides- Electrochemical principles of metallurgy – Oxidation and reduction – Refining of crude metal-distillation, liquation poling, electrolysis, zone refining and vapour phase refining -Uses of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

19. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS:

GROUP-15 ELEMENTS – Occurance- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation energy,electronegativity, physical and chemical properties – Dinitrogen-preparation, properties and uses – Compounds of nitrogen-preparation and properties of ammonia – Oxides of nitrogen – Preparation and properties of nitric acid – Phosphorous-allotropic forms – Phosphine-preparation and properties – Phosphorous halides – Oxoacids of phosphorous – GROUP-16 ELEMENTS – Occurance-electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy,electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity,physical and chemical properties – Dioxygen-preparation, properties and uses – Simple oxides – Ozone-preparation,properties, structure and uses – Sulphur-allotropic forms – Sulphur dioxide-preparation, properties and uses – Oxoacids of sulphur – Sulphuric acid-industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses – GROUP-17 ELEMENTS – Occurance, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity ,physical and chemical properties – Chlorine-preparation, properties and uses – Hydrogen chloride- preparation, properties and uses – Oxoacids of halogens – Interhalogen compounds – GROUP-18 ELEMENTS – Occurance, electronic configuration, ionisation enthalpy,atomic radii electron gain enthalpy, physical and chemical properties (a) Xenon-fluorine compounds-XeF2,XeF4 and XeF6 –preparation, hydrolysis and formation of fluoro anions-structures of XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6 (b) Xenon-oxygen compounds XeO3 and XeOF4 – their formation and structures.

20. d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS & COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

“d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS: Position in the periodic table – Electronic configuration of the d-block elements – General properties of the transition elements (d-block) -physical properties, variation in atomic and ionic sizes of transition series, ionisation enthalpies, oxidation states,trends in the M²+/M and M³+/M²+ standard_electrode_ potentials, trends in stability of higher oxidation states, chemical reactivity and values, magnetic properties, formation of coloured ions, formation of complex compounds, catalytic properties, formation of interstitial compounds, alloy formation – Some important compounds of transition elements-oxides and oxoanions of metals – preparation and properties of potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate-structures of chromate, dichromate, manganate and permanganate ions – Inner transition elements (f-block) -lanthanoids- electronic configuration-atomic and ionic sizes-oxidation states- general characteristics – Actinoids-electronic configuration atomic and ionic sizes, oxidation states, general characteristics and comparision with lanthanoids – Some applications of d and f block elements.

COORDINATION COMPOUNDS : Werner’s theory of coordination compounds – Definitions of some terms used in coordination compounds – Nomenclature of coordination compounds – IUPAC nomenclature – Isomerism in coordination compounds – (a) Stereo isomerism-Geometrical and optical isomerism (b) Structural isomerism-linkage, coordination, ionisation and solvate isomerism – Bonding in coordination compounds. (a)Valence bond theory – magnetic properties of coordination compounds-limitations of valence bond theory

(b) Crystal field theory (i) Crystal field splitting in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination entities (ii) Colour in coordination compounds – limitations of crystal field theory – Bonding in metal carbonyls – Stability of coordination compounds – Importance and applications of coordination compounds.”

21. POLYMERS:

Classification of Polymers – Classification based on source, structure, mode of polymerization, molecular forces and growth polymerization – Types of polymerization reactions – addition polymerization or chain growth polymerization – ionic polymerization, free radical mechanism-preparation of addition polymers-polythene, teflon and polyacrylonitrile – condensation polymerization or step growth polymerization-polyamides – preparation of Nylon 6,6 and nylon 6-poly esters- terylene – bakelite, melamine, formaldehyde polymer – copolymerization-Rubber-natural rubber-vulcanisation of rubber-Synthetic rubbers-preparation of neoprene and buna-N – Molecular mass of polymers-number average and weight average molecular masses- poly dispersity index(PDI) – Biodegradable polymers-PHBV, Nylon 2-nylon 6 – Polymers of commercial importance- poly propene, poly styrene, poly vinyl chloride (PVC), urea – formaldehyde resin, glyptal, bakelite- their monomers, structures and uses.

22. BIOMOLECULES:

Carbohydrates – Classification of carbohydrates – Monosaccharides: preparation of glucose from sucrose and starch – Properties and structure of glucose- D,L configurations of glucose – Structure of fructose Disaccharides: Sucrose – preparation, structure-Invert sugar- Structures of maltose and lactose-Polysaccharides: Structures of starch cellulose and glycogen- Importance of carbohydrates – Aminoacids: Natural aminoacids-classification of aminoacids – structures and D and L forms – Zwitter ions Proteins: Structures, classification, fibrous and globular – primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins – Denaturation of proteins – Enzymes: Enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action – Vitamins: Vitamin-names- classification of vitamins – sources of vitamins-deficiency diseases of different types of vitamins -Nucleic acids: chemical composition of nucleic acids, structures of nucleic acids, DNA finger printing biological functions of nucleic acids – Hormones.

23. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE:

Drugs and their classification: (a) Classification of drugs on the basis of pharmocological effect (b) Classification of drugs on the basis of drug action (c) Classification of drugs on the basis of chemical structure (d) Classification of drugs on the basis of molecular targets – Drug-Target interaction-Enzymes as drug targets (a) Catalytic action of enzymes (b) Drug-enzyme interaction Receptors as drug targets – Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs: antacids, antihistamines, neurologically active drugs: tranquilizers, analgesics–non- narcotic, narcotic analgesics, antimicrobials-antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants – antifertility drugs – Chemicals in food- artificial sweetening agents, food preservatives, antioxidants in food – Cleansing agents-soaps and synthetic detergents.

24. HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES:

Classification and nomenclature – Nature of C-X bond – Methods of preparation: Alkyl halides and aryl halides-from alcohols, from hydrocarbons (a)by free radical halogenation (b) by electrophilic substitution (c) by replacement of diazonium group (Sand-Meyer reaction) (d) by the addition of hydrogen halides and halogens to alkenes – by halogen exchange – Physical properties – melting and boiling points, density and solubility – Chemical reactions: Reactions of haloalkanes (i)Nucleophilic substitution reactions (a) SN² mechanism (b) SN¹ mechanism (c) stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions -optical activity (ii) Elimination reactions (iii) Reaction with metals – Reactions of haloarenes: (i)Nucleophilic substitution (ii)Electrophilic substitution and (iii) Reaction with metals – Polyhalogen compounds: Uses and environmental effects of dichloro methane, trichloromethane, triiodomethane, tetrachloro methane, freons and DDT.

25. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING C, H AND O:

(Alcohols, Aldehydes, Phenols, Ethers, Ketones and arboxylic acids) – ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS – Alcohols, phenols and ethers – classification – Nomenclature: (a)Alcohols, (b)phenols and (c)ethers – Structures of hydroxy and ether functional groups -Methods of preparation: Alcohols from alkenes and carbonyl compounds- Phenols from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid, diazonium salts, cumene – Physical propertics of alcohols and phenols – Chemical reactions of alcohols and phenols (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-Acidity of alcohols and phenols, esterification (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-O bond- reactions with HX, PX3, dehydration and oxidation (iii) Reactions of phenols- electrophilic aromatic substitution, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer – Tiemann reaction, reaction with zinc dust, oxidation – Commercially important alcohols (methanol,ethanol) – Ethers–Methods of preparation: By dehydration of alcohols, Williamson synthesis- Physical properties-Chemical reactions: Cleavage of C-O bond and electrophilic substitution of aromatic ethers – ALDEHYDES AND KETONES – Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group – Preparation of aldehydes and ketones (1) by oxidation of alcohols (2) by dehydrogenation of alcohols (3) from hydrocarbons –Preparation of aldehydes (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles and esters (3) from hydrocarbons-Preparation of ketones (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles (3) from benzene or substituted benzenes – Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones – Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones-nucleophilic addition, reduction, oxidation, reactions due to – Hydrogen and other reactions (Cannizzaro reaction, electrophilic substitution reaction) – Uses of aldehydes and ketones – CARBOXYLIC ACIDS – Nomenclature and structure of carboxyl group – Methods of preparation of carboxylic acids- (1)from primary alcohols and aldehydes (2) from alkylbenzenes (3)from nitriles and amides (4)from Grignard reagents (5) from acyl halides and anhydrides (6) from esters – Physical properties – Chemical reactions: (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-acidity, reactions with metals and alkalies (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond-formation of anhydride, reactions with PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2, esterification and reaction with ammonia (iii) Reactions involving -COOH group-reduction, decarboxylation (iv) Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon part – halogenation and ring substitution – Uses of carboxylic acids.

26. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

“CONTAINING NITROGEN – I. AMINES – Structure of amines – Classification – Nomenclature – Preparation of amines: reduction of nitro compounds, ammonolysis of alkyl halides, reduction of nitriles, reduction of amides, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis and Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction – Physical properties – Chemical reactions: basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbyl amine reaction, reaction with nitrous acid, reaction with aryl sulphonyl chloride, electrophilic substitution of aromatic amines-bromination, nitration and sulphonation – II. DIAZONIUM SALTS – Methods of preparation of diazonium salts (by diazotization) Physical properties – Chemical reactions. Reactions involving displacement of Nitrogen; Sandmeyer reaction, Gatterman reaction, replacement by i) iodiode and fluoride ions ii) hydrogen, hydroxyl and Nitro groups; Reactions involving retention of diazo group; coupling reactions; Importance of diazonium salts in synthesis of aromatic compounds.

III. CYANIDES AND ISOCYANIDES – Structure and nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides – Preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions of cyanides and isocyanides and uses.”

## EAMCET 2016 Physics Syllabus

1) PHYSICAL WORLD:

What is physics?, Scope and excitement of Physics, Physics, technology and society, Fundamental forces in nature, Gravitational Force, Electromagnetic Force, Strong Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Force, Towards Unification of Forces, Nature of physical laws.

2) UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS:

Introduction, The international system of units, Measurement of Length, Measurement of Large Distances, Estimation of Very Small Distances, Size of a Molecule, Range of Lengths, Measurement of Mass, Range of Masses, Measurement of time, Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Systematic errors, random errors, least count error, Absolute Error, Relative Error and Percentage Error, Combination of Errors, Significant figures, Rules for Arithmetic Operations with Significant Figures, Rounding off the Uncertain Digits, Rules for Determining the Uncertainty in the Results of Arithmetic Calculations, Dimensions of Physical Quantities, Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations, Dimensional Analysis and its Applications, Checking the Dimensional Consistency of Equations, Deducing Relation among the Physical Quantities.

3) MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE:

Introduction, position, path length and displacement, average velocity and average speed, instantaneous velocity and speed, acceleration, kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion, relative velocity.

4) MOTION IN A PLANE:

Introduction, scalars and vectors, position and displacement vectors, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by real numbers, addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method, resolution of vectors, vector addition – analytical method, motion in a plane, position vector and displacement, velocity, acceleration, motion in a plane with constant acceleration, relative velocity in two dimensions, projectile motion, equation of path of a projectile, time of maximum height, maximum height of a projectile, horizontal range of projectile, uniform circular motion.

5) LAWS OF MOTION:

Introduction, Aristotle’s fallacy, The law of inertia, Newton’s first law of motion, Newton’s second law of motion, momentum, Impulse, Newton’s third law of motion, Conservation of momentum, Equilibrium of a particle, Common forces in mechanics, friction, types of friction, Circular motion, Motion of a car on a level road, Motion of a car on a banked road, solving problems in mechanics.

6) WORK, ENERGY AND POWER:

Introduction, The Scalar Product, Notions of work and kinetic energy, The work-energy theorem, Work, Kinetic energy, Work done by a variable force, The work-energy theorem for a variable force, The concept of Potential Energy, The conservation of Mechanical Energy, The Potential Energy of a spring, Various forms of energy, Heat, Chemical Energy, Electrical Energy, The Equivalence of Mass and Energy, Nuclear Energy, The Principle of Conservation of Energy, Power, Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Collisions in one dimension, Coefficient of Restitution and its determination, Collisions in Two Dimensions.

7) SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION:

Introduction, rigid body motion, Centre of mass, Centre of Gravity, Motion of centre of mass, Linear momentum of a system of particles, Vector product of two vectors, Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity, Angular acceleration, Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis, Torque and angular momentum, Moment of force (Torque), Angular momentum of particle, Torque and angular momentum for a system of a particles, conservation of angular momentum, Equilibrium of a rigid body, Principle of moments, Moment of inertia, Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes, Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis, Angular momentum in case of rotation about a fixed axis, Rolling motion, Kinetic Energy of Rolling Motion.

8) OSCILLATIONS:

Introduction, Periodic and oscillatory motions, Period and frequency, Displacement, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.), Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion, Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion, Force law for Simple harmonic Motion, Energy in simple harmonic motion, Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion, Oscillations due to a spring, The Simple Pendulum, Damped simple harmonic motion, Forced oscillations and resonance.

9) GRAVITATION:

Introduction, Kepler’s laws, Universal law of gravitation, The gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity of the earth, Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth, Gravitational potential energy, Escape speed, Orbital Speed, Earth satellites, Energy of an orbiting satellite, Geostationary and polar satellites, Weightlessness.

10) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS:

Introduction, Elastic behaviour of solids, Stress and strain, Hooke’s law, Stress-strain curve, Elastic moduli, Young’s Modulus, Determination of Young’s Modulus of the Material of a Wire, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, Elastic Potential Energy in a Stretched wire, Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.

11) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:

Introduction, Pressure, Pascal’s Law, Variation of Pressure with Depth, Atmosphere Pressure and Gauge Pressure, Hydraulic Machines, Archimedes’ Principle, Streamline flow, Bernoulli’s principle, Speed of Efflux, Torricelli’s Law, Venturi-meter, Blood Flow and Heart Attack, Dynamic Lift, Viscosity, Variation of Viscosity of fluids with temperature, Stokes’ Law, Reynolds number, Critical Velocity, Surface tension, Surface Energy, Angle of Contact, Drops and Bubbles, Capillary Rise, Detergents and Surface Tension.

12) THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER:

Introduction, Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Triple Point, Regelation, Latent Heat, Heat transfer, Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Black body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect, Newton’s law of cooling and its experimental verification.

13) THERMODYNAMICS:

Introduction, Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Heat, Internal Energy and work, First law of thermodynamics, Specific heat capacity, Specific heat capacity of water, Thermodynamic state variables and equation of State, Thermodynamic processes, Quasi-static process, Isothermal Process, Adiabatic Process, Isochoric Process, Isobaric process, Cyclic process, Heat engines, Refrigerators and heat pumps, Second law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot engine, Carnot’s theorem.

14) KINETIC THEORY:

Introduction, Molecular nature of matter, Behaviour of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Kinetic theory of an ideal gas, Pressure of an Ideal Gas, Kinetic interpretation of temperature, Law of equipartition of energy, Specific heat capacity, Monatomic Gases, Diatomic Gases, Polyatomic Gases, Specific Heat Capacity of Solids, Specific Heat Capacity of Water, Mean free path.

15) WAVES:

Introduction, transverse and longitudinal waves, displacement relation in a progressive wave, amplitude and phase, wavelength and angular wave number, period, angular frequency and frequency, the speed of a travelling wave, speed of a transverse wave on stretched string, speed of a longitudinal wave (speed of sound), the principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves and normal modes, beats, Doppler effect: source moving and observer stationery, observer moving and source stationery, both source and observer moving.

16) RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUCTIONS:

Introduction, reflection of light by spherical mirrors, sign convention, focal length of spherical mirrors, the mirror equation, refraction, total internal reflection, total internal reflection in nature and its technological applications, refraction at spherical surfaces and by lenses, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction through a prism, dispersion by a prism, some natural phenomena due to sunlight, the rainbow, scattering of light, optical instruments, the eye, the simple and compound microscopes, refracting telescope and Cassegrain reflecting telescope.

17) WAVE OPTICS:

Introduction, Huygens principle, refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens principle, refraction in a rarer medium (at the denser medium boundary), reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface, the Doppler effect, coherent and incoherent addition of waves, interference of light waves and Young‘s experiment, diffraction, the single slit diffraction, resolving power of optical instruments, the validity of ray optics, polarisation, polarisation by scattering, polarisation by reflection.

18) ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS:

Introduction, electric charge, conductors and insulators, charging by induction, basic properties of electric charges, Coulomb’s law, forces between multiple charges, electric field, electric field due to a system of charges, physical significance of electric field, electric field lines, electric flux, electric dipole, the field of an electric dipole for points on the axial line and on the equatorial plane, physical significance of dipoles, dipole in a uniform external field, continuous charge distribution, Gauss’s law, applications of Gauss’s law, field due to an infinitely long straight uniformly charged wire, field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, field due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

19) ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE:

Introduction, electrostatic potential, potential due to a point charge, potential due to an electric dipole, potential due to a system of charges, equipotential surfaces, relation between field and potential, potential energy of a system of charges, potential energy in an external field, potential energy of a single charge, potential energy of a system of two charges in an external field, potential energy of a dipole in an external field, electrostatics of conductors, electrostatic shielding, dielectrics and polarisation, electric displacement, capacitors and capacitance, the parallel plate capacitor, effect of dielectric on capacitance, combination of capacitors, capacitors in series, capacitors in parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

20) CURRENT ELECTRICITY:

Introduction, electric current, electric current in conductors, Ohm’s law, drift of electrons and the origin of resistivity, mobility, limitations of Ohm’s law, resistivity of various materials, colour code of resistors, Temperature dependence of resistivity, electrical energy, power, combination of resistors – series and parallel. Cells, EMF, internal resistance, cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules, Wheatstone Bridge, Meter Bridge, Potentiometer.

21) MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM:

Introduction, magnetic force, sources and fields, magnetic field, Lorentz force, magnetic force on a current carrying conductor, motion in a magnetic field, helical motion of charged particles, motion in combined electric and magnetic fields, velocity selector, Cyclotron, magnetic field due to a current element, Biot – Savart’s law, Magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop, Ampere’s circuital law, the solenoid and the toroid, force between two parallel current carrying conductors, the ampere (UNIT), torque on current loop, magnetic dipole, torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field, circular current loop as a magnetic dipole, the magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, the Moving Coil Galvanometer; conversion into ammeter and voltmeter.

22) MAGNETISM AND MATTER:

Introduction, the bar magnet, the magnetic field lines, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, The dipole in a uniform magnetic field, the electrostatic analog, Magnetism and Gauss’s Law, The Earth’s magnetism, magnetic declination and dip, magnetisation and magnetic intensity, susceptibility, magnetic properties of materials; Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Hysteresis loop, permanent magnets and electromagnets.

23) ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION:

Introduction, the experiments of Faraday and Henry, magnetic flux, Faraday’s Law of induction, Lenz’s law and conservation of energy, motional electromotive force, energy consideration – a quantitative study, Eddy currents, inductance, mutual inductance, self inductance, AC generator.

24) ALTERNATING CURRENT:

Introduction, AC voltage applied to a resistor, representation of AC current and voltage by rotating vectors – Phasors, AC voltage applied to an inductor, AC voltage applied to a capacitor, AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit, Phasor – diagram solution, analytical solution, resonance, sharpness of resonance, power in AC circuit, the power factor, LC oscillations, transformers.

25) ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES:

Introduction, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves, sources of electromagnetic waves, nature of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible rays, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, gamma rays.

26) DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER:

Introduction, electron emission, Photoelectric Effect, Hertz’s observations, Hallwachs and Lenard’s observations, experimental study of photoelectric effect, effect of intensity of light on photocurrent, effect of potential on photoelectric current, effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential, Photoelectric effect and Wave theory of Light, Einstein’s Photoelectric equation energy – Quantum of Radiation, particle nature of light, the photon, wave nature of matter, photocell, Davisson and Germer experiment.

27) ATOMS:

Introduction, Alpha particle scattering and Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom, alpha- particle trajectory, electron orbits, atomic spectra, spectral series, Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, energy levels, the line spectra of the hydrogen atom, de Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’s second postulate of quantisation, LASER light.

28) NUCLEI:

Introduction, atomic masses and composition of nucleus, discovery of neutron, size of the nucleus, Mass – Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy, Nuclear Force, Radioactivity, Law of radioactive decay, Alpha decay, Beta decay, Gamma decay, Nuclear Energy, Fission, Nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion, energy generation in stars, controlled thermonuclear fusion.

29) SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS, MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS:

Introduction, classification of metals, conductors, and semiconductors on the basis of conductivity and energy bands, Band theory of solids, Intrinsic semiconductor, Extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction formation, semiconductor diode, p-n junction diode under forward bias, p-n junction diode under reverse bias, Application of junction diode as a rectifier, special purpose p-n junction diodes, Zener diode, Zener diode as voltage regulator, Optoelectronic junction devices, Photodiode, light emitting diode, solar cell. Junction transistor, structure and action, Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics, transistor as a switch and as an amplifier (CE – Configuration), Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator, Digital Electronics and Logic gates, Integrated circuits.

30) COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS:

Introduction, elements of a Communication system, basic terminology used in electronic communication systems, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium, propagation of electromagnetic waves, ground waves, sky waves, space wave, modulation and its necessity, size of the antenna or aerial, effective power radiated by an antenna, mixing up of signals from different transmitters, amplitude modulation, production of amplitude modulated wave, detection of amplitude modulated wave.

## MANIPAL MBBS 2016 Important Dates

Manipal University MBBS entrance test will be conducted from 11^{th} April, 2016 to 18^{th} May, 2016. Students can apply through online application. Last date for applying online is 11^{th} March, 2016. Success in this entrance examination will assure you a seat in Manipal University MBBS course for the new session.

**MANIPAL MBBS 2016 Important Dates:-**

Last date for receipt of application form: |
11th March 2016 |

Online Test Booking Schedule: |
21st March 2016 to 28th March 2016 |

Test schedule: |
11th April 2016 to 18th May 2016 |

Commencement of Classes: |
1st August, 2016 |

## National Aptitude Test (NAT) Exam Notification

## National Aptitude Test (NAT) Exams

Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology is one of the top 10 Engineering Colleges in India. The institute had been established by the Santhana Dharma Educational Society and it is located at NCR, Delhi. The institute is affiliated by the Kurushethra University .The campus is spread over an area of 26 acres. An excellence in education and best placement records with students placed at diverse places. The admissions to the University are done through Entrance Examination. About 75% seats are based on Haryana State Counselling society based on their marks in JEE main while the rest of the Seats are allotted on Institute level with the merit list of National Aptitude Test.

National Aptitude Test is conducted for the admissions of engineering courses in Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, Panipat. The courses offered by the Institute are,

- Computer Science and Engineering
- Mechatronics Engineering
- Electrical and Electronics Engineering
- Biotechnology

## Eligibility

Aspirants must have passed 10+2 with Mathematics and Physics as mandatory subjects along with Chemistry or Computer with minimum 45% together. For reserved category, the percentage is 40%.The age limit of the aspirant is 17 years at the admission time.

The applicants who have scored above 40 marks in JEE Main are eligible for the First Counselling.

Lateral Entry candidates who have completed Diploma three years with minimum 40% in their respective subject are eligible for the test.

### Syllabus

The candidate has to cover the major subjects Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics which are of +2 levels.

### Exam Pattern

The question paper consists of 100 multiple choice questions with 50 questions from Mathematics and 50 questions from Physics. The duration of the paper is two hours and 30 minutes. The candidate is awarded 3 marks for correct answer and 1 mark is reduced for the wrong answer.

### How to Apply

- Log onto the official website
- Fill all the mandatory details in the application
- Fill the JEE Mains Score who have attended
- After filling the application form, send the application form along with Demand Draft of Rs 700/- in favour of APIIT SD India Payable at Panipat
- Recheck the application form
- Send the application form to the address referred below,

APIIT SD India,

Faridpur Road

GT road,Karnal Side

Near Toll Plaza

Panipat-132103

- The exam is held at the month of June every year.

## Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) Entrance Exam

## KALINGA INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY ENTRANCE EXAM

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology is one of the vocational institute located at Bhuvaneshwar. The students are more interested to join the University every year. More than 25,000 students join every year from around 22 countries. The institute is accredited with Grade ‘A’ by NAAC and A grade status by the Ministry of HRD.

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology Entrance exam is conducted for the admissions of Undergraduate Engineering students for Lateral Entry and four year course also. The entrance exam is conducted for the following courses,

- Civil Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical Engineering
- Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering
- Computer Science Engineering
- Information Technology
- Electronics and Electrical Engineering

There will be separate entrance exam for Diploma level candidates who will directly join the second year.

## Eligibility

** **The age limit for the candidate should be less than 21 years. The aspirant must have passed 10+2 with a minimum grade of 60% in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. The students who have appeared in the 10+2 exams in the previous two years and current year are eligible to attend the exam.

The lateral entry candidate must have a minimum aggregate of 60% in the branch in which the candidate is likely to join. The age limit for the candidate must be below 24 years.

### Syllabus

** **The syllabus for the exam will be from the subjects Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics for qualifying in the entrance test.

### Exam Pattern

** **The exam pattern for the regular is there will be 120 objective type questions with three hours time duration. There will be 40 questions from the physics subject, 40 questions from the chemistry subject and 40 questions from the mathematics subject. There is negative marking for each wrong answer .One mark will be reduced for each wrong answer. One question is awarded 4 marks.

The exam pattern for the lateral entry is that there will be 120 multiple choice questions with three hours time duration. There will be 20 questions from Mathematics,20 questions from Basic Electrical Engineering,20 questions from Engineering Mechanics and 60 questions from Branch basic. There is negative marking for each wrong answer .One mark will be reduced for each wrong answer. One question is awarded 4 marks.

The exam will be conducted in the month April or May every year.

### How to Apply

- Log onto the official website www.kiitee.ac.in
- Fill all the mandatory details in the application form
- There is no fee for the entrance exam
- Recheck for any error in the application
- Submit the application in the referred address,

The Director

Admissions,

KIIT University

Koel Campus

Bhuvaneshwar 751024, Odisha

The candidate must attach one passport size photograph in the application and extra two passport size photograph, copy of the mark sheets or certificates to the above mentioned address.

The results will be announced in the online mode. The selection will be based on the marks secured by the candidates. The seats are allotted for the candidates based on their merit list concerning their branch and availability of seats in the University.

## North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST) Entrance Exam Notification

## NORTH EASTERN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ENTRANCE EXAM

North Eastern Institute of Science and Technology Entrance Exam is conducted for the admissions of Diploma, Degree and Certificate courses in the North Eastern states of India. The examinations conducted are,

- NEE I
- NEE II
- NEE III

The number of seats available for the exams are 200,30,72 respectively.

## Eligibility:

**NERIST NEE I Entrance Exam**

The age limit for General Category is 19 ,SC/ST and physically challenged candidates is 24 and other Backward Caste candidates is 22.The candidates who have passed 10+2 in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics or any other streams. The candidates who are about to attend the board exams can also appear in the exam. The above candidates must attach a certificate from the principal along with the application and if the candidate is been selected he must submit all his original certificates and mark sheets at the admission time. Any fail in this process, the admission for the candidate will be cancelled

**NERIST NEE II Entrance Exam**

** **The age limit for General Category applicants is 23,SC/ST and physically challenged candidates is 28 and other Backward Caste candidates is 26.The exam is conducted for following streams,

- Engineering and Technology Streams
- Forestry Streams

### Engineering and Technology Streams

Candidate who have NERIST certificates are eligible for Computer Science and their respective branches admission. Candidates who have passed mainly in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are eligible for admission. Candidates with 10+2 vocational in Electronics/Farm Machinery and Equipment/ Electrical/ Refrigeration and Air Conditioning/Automobile Technology/Structure and Fabrication Technology/Computer Science as their streams are eligible for the admission process

### Forestry Stream

Candidates who have passed Physics, Chemistry and Biology separately are eligible and candidates with NERIST certificate in Forestry are eligible for admission process. The students who are waiting for the results can also attend the exam with a condition that the candidate must submit a certificate from the principal of the School or college .If the candidate has been shortlisted in the exam, He/ She must submit the original certificates and mark sheets at the time of admission. If He/ She fails the admission for the candidate will be cancelled

**NERIST NEE III**

** **The age limit for the General Category candidates is 40 years, SC/ST and physically challenged candidates is 45 years and Other Backward Caste candidates is 43 years. The candidates who can attain degree in engineering in various branch can attend this entrance exam,

- Agricultural Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Computer Science and engineering
- Electrical Engineering
- Electrical and Communication Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering

Candidate must have passed 3 years diploma course with a minimum 60% in their respective branch. Candidates who are in final year can also attend the entrance exam. The candidate must submit the necessary documents at the submission process

### Exam Pattern

**NERIST NEE I **

** **The exam paper consists of questions of objective type with 150 marks and three hours time duration. The exam paper consists of four sections. There is negative marking for each wrong answer .The questions are mainly on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology with 25,25,25 and 75 marks respectively. The Section A consists of 25 questions of one mark each. The Section B consists of 25 questions of one mark each, Section C consists of 25 marks questions of 1 mark each. Section D consists of 25 one mark questions and 25 two mark questions

**NERIST NEE II**

** **The exam is conducted for two streams with three question papers for these streams,

- Forestry Stream
- Engineering Stream
- 10+2 PCM/PCMB/PCB Stream

**10+2 PCM/PCMB/PCB Stream**

** **The question paper consists of four sections. The questions will be on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. The marks that are been allotted are 45,45,60 and 60 respectively. Section A consists of 25 one mark questions and 10 two mark questions. Section B consists of 25 one mark questions and 10 two mark questions. Section C consists of 30 one mark questions and 15 two mark questions. Section D consists of 30 one mark questions and 15 two mark questions

**Engineering Stream**

** **The question paper consists of two sections. There are subsections for these sections. The section A consists of three sections with questions on Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics with 20,20 and 30 marks respectively. The Section B consists of with two sections on 30 and 50 marks respectively. The Common Biology Science questions are of 20 questions of one mark and 5 questions of 2 marks. The Forestry/Horticulture questions are of 20 questions of 1 marks and 5 questions of 2 marks

**Forestry Stream**

The question paper consists of two sections. There are subsections for these sections. The section A consists of three sections with questions on Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics with 20,20 and 30 marks respectively. The Section B consists of with two sections on 30 and 50 marks respectively. The section B consists of questions in Common Biology Science and Vocational Subject Forestry/Horticulture. The Common Biology Science questions are of 20 questions of one mark and 5 questions of 2 marks. The Forestry/Horticulture questions are of 20 questions of 1 marks and 5 questions of 2 marks

**NERIST NEE III**

** **The question paper consists of four sections. There is negative marking for each wrong answer. The questions are based on the subjects Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. The marks allotted for the subjects are 25,25,25 and 75 respectively. Section A consists of 25 one mark questions. Section B consists of 25 questions of one mark each, Section C consists of 25 marks questions of 1 mark each. Section D consists of 25 one mark questions and 25 two mark questions

**DATE OF ENTRANCE**

The exam is mainly held in the month of July every year

#### How to Apply:

- Log onto the official website www.neeonline.ac.in
- Fill all the mandatory details in the application form
- Upload the photo and signature of the candidate
- Pay the entrance fees using internet Banking, Credit/Debit Cards or Bank challan in any branch of Axis bank

**Fees Structure:**

- General Category : 750
- SC/ST and Physically challenged : 400
- Other Backward Caste : 750
- Submit the application
- Take the printout for the candidate
- The results for the Entrance exam is declared in the month of June-July. The exam is conducted at various centres in the North Eastern State of the country

## Karunya University Entrance Examination (KEE) 2016 – Admissions

## KARUNYA UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAM

Karunya University is located at Coimbatore .The University is a Christian University which follows all rules and disciplines. Every year 1000’s of students are recruited from different company .A well developed infrastructure will world class amenities like Wi-fi campus, hostels, cafeteria, helicopter landing facility, anti ragging squad. Indian students from different states and NRI students are increased yearly in this University.

Karunya University Entrance Exam is mainly conducted for the admission of engineering graduate candidates for UG level. The candidates who are willing to join the University must attend the exam for their respective branches. The exam is conducted for the following branches;

- Civil Engineering

- Computer Science and Engineering
- Electronics and Communication Engineering
- Electronics and Electrical Engineering
- Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electronics and Media Engineering
- Information Technology
- Biotechnology
- Bio-Informatics
- Biochemical and Food Technology

## Eligibility:

Candidates who have completed 10+2 can apply for the entrance exam. The candidate must secure a minimum 50% aggregate in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics is eligible for the entrance exam. Candidate who have waiting for their result are eligible for the exam. If the candidate is shortlisted he/she must submit their original certificates and mark sheets to the college for their admission. Students should not have completed 21 years.

### Syllabus:

** **The syllabus for the exam is based on the subjects that are Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

### Exam Pattern:

The exam paper comprises of five sections. The questions is these sections are based on Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, General Aptitude, Christian Values/Ethic. The time duration for the exam is two and half hours. The marks allotted to these sections are,

- Physics 15 questions
- Chemistry 15 questions
- General Aptitude 15 questions
- Mathematics 45 questions
- Christian Values 10 questions

The questions are of objective type and there is negative marking for each wrong answer. The exam is held in the month of April/May of every year. The selection procedure is based on the marks scored by the candidates in the exam.

#### How to apply:

- Log onto the official website karunya.edu
- Download the application form
- Fill all the mandatory details of the form
- Upload the photo and signature of the candidate
- Upload the scanned copies of 10
^{th}and 12^{th}certificates - Scanned copy of the community certificated if needed
- Pay the fees for the entrance exam using Net Banking, Debit/Credit cards or Bank Challan in any banks
- The Bank challan it must be referred as Registrar, Karunya University, Coimbatore

Fees for the candidates are as follows;

- Indian Citizens 750 + service tax
- NRI 3000+service tax
- Submit the application
- Take the printout for future reference

The results for the entrance exam are announced in April 31 every year. After declaration of results, single window counseling will be held at the University. Eligible candidates in the entrance exam are called for the counseling process.

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## Preparation Tips for LAW Graduates

## TIPS FOR LAW GRADUATES

Law is set of rules that enforced in the society to create a fear in them to not make any mistake or any crime. Law has been mainly developed in the society to create an awareness in the people to follow various rules and regulations in them Many of the citizen who have aim to take this a their profession a they have a passion in this field. The interested people need not be good in their speech. While in the course of time during their education, practice and by their hard work they can develop their skills in this field. The main skill of the lawyer is to create questions about the situations around them.

The qualification of a lawyer is he/she must have a LLB degree. The private and government law colleges prevail in the country. There are about 1500 law colleges. These colleges must be recognized by the Bar Council of India. Students can option two types of streams which are 3 years and 5 years course period. Five years course period is for candidates who option law after completing their 10^{th}/12^{th}. Three years course period are referred for candidates who option after completing any Bachelor’s degree. At present there are 17 specialized Law Universities which conduct a common admission test for their candidates for an admission at their respective Universities.

Law graduates can opt different careers for them. The lawyers can be at courts for solving the disputes or litigation of the public. A legal lawyer can be hired by an organization for their confidential and legal problem. When a lawyer higher studies or research in their studies, they can pursue their career as a professor/Lecturer in various law colleges which are more wanted currently.

The students who are willing to join Law colleges who are in Economically Weaker Sections can select government aided colleges for their financial support. The National Law colleges are more expensive. The fees may be between 30,000 to 1,20,000 per annum excluding their boarding, transportation and other charges.

The great leaders in the society were lawyers. The lawyers must have confidence to solve any problem. The skill developed by them must be helpful to the society. Lawyers can build a society with less crime rate.