Aurangazeb in Indian History

Aurangazeb in Indian History:

  • Aurangazeb imprisoned his father and made himself the Padushah in 1658. But his actual coronation was conducted in 1659.
  • Alamgir was the name adopted by Aurangazeb when he became the Padusha.
  • Aurangazeb is known as ‘Zinda Pir’ or living saint because of his simple life.
  • He banned music and dance.
  • He ousted all the artists from his court. At the same time he was an accomplished Veena player.
  • Aurangazeb was the last great Mughal Emperor.
  • In 1675 he executed 9th Sikh Guru Guru Tej Behadur because of his reluctance to accept Islam.
  • Teg Behadur was executed at the Chandni Chauk.
  • In 1679 Aurangzeb constructed the tomb of his only wife Rubiad Daurani at Aurangabad in Maharashtra. It is known as Bibi ka Makabara. It is otherwise known as Mini Tajmahal as it was the blind imitation of Tajmahal. In the same year he reimpossed Jasya upon all the non Muslims, which was earlier abolished by Akbar.
  • Aurangazeb called Shivaji a ‘mountain rat’ and gave him the title Raja because of his guerilla tactics.
  • In 1660 he entrusted Shaisthakhan to defeat Shivaji.
  • Later in 1665 the treaty of Purandar was signed between Maharaja Jaisingh of Amber and Shivaji Jaisingh was deputed by Aurangazeb.
  • The Mughal Rajput relation became worse during the period of Aurangazeb.
  • Aurangazeb was the only Mughal Emperor who was not a drunkard.
  • Aurangazeb is considered as religiously fanatic. He was also a temple breaker. He persecuted the Hindus and imposed prohibition against the free exercise of Holi and Divali.
  • Aurangazeb died in 1707 February 20,at Ahmednagar. Aurangazeb’s tomb is situated at Daulatabad in Maharashtra.

 

Shah Jahan in Indian History

Shah Jahan in Indian History:

  • Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592 at Lahore.
  • His mother was Jagat Gosain and his childhood name was Khurram.
  • He married Arjumand Benu Begum, daughter of Asaf Khan, brother of Noor Jahan. She later came to be known as Mumtaz Mahal which means beloved of the Palace.
  • Shahjahan destroyed the Portuguese settlements at Hoogly.
  • Shah Jahan’s period is considered as the Golden Age of Mughal Architecture and Shah Jahan is known as the Prince of Builders.
  • In 1631 he started the construction of Tajmahal in memory of his wife and completed in 1653. It is Tulasidas Jahangir Shah Jahan 399 situated on the banks of Yamuna river in Uttar Pradesh. Utad Iza a Turkish/ Persian was its architect. British administrator Furgurson called it ‘a love in marble’. Now Sulphur Dioxide, emitted by oil refinaries in Madhura after mixing with moisture in the atmosphere forms Sulphuric Acid and damages the marble of Tajmahal.
  • In 1638 Shah Jahan built his new capital Shah Jahanabad in Delhi and shifted the capital from Agra to there.
  • In 1639 he started the construction of Red fort in Delhi on the model of Agrafort built by Akbar. Its construction was completed in 1648. The Diwani- Am, Diwan-i-Khas and the Moti Masjid are situated inside the Red fort. The Mothi Masjid in Agra was constructed by ShahJahan.
  • The INA Trial in 1945 was conducted at the Red Fort.
  • The Gateway of Redfort is the Lahore Gate. It is here at the Lahore Gate that the Prime Minister of India hoists the National Flag and addresses the nation on the independence day.
  • In 1656 ShahJahan constructed the Juma Masjid in Delhi. It is the biggest masjid in India. First masjid in India was constructed at Kodungallur in Kerala (Cheraman Palli) in 644 AD by Malik Ibn Dinar.
  • Shah Jahan’s period is known as the Golden Age of Mughal Empire.
  • The Portuguese introduced European painting in India during the reign of Shah Jahan
  • In 1658 Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangazeb and he died in 1666, after eight years. His daughter Jahan Ara was also kept in prison along with him at the Agra fort.
  • Shah Jahan’s son Dhara Shukoe was a famous scholar. He translated Bhagavat Gita and Sixty Upanishads into Persian. He also wrote a book titled Mujm-ul-Behrain (Mingling of the Oceans) He also translated Atharva Veda into Persian.
  • ShahJahan was a famous Lyricist. He wrote Lyrics in Hindi.
  • The famous Peacock Throne was built by Shah Jahan. It was abducted from here by Nadirsha in 1739 during his Indian invasion (Persian conqueror). Now it is kept at the London Tower Museum, Britain.
  • French travellers Bernier and Tavernier and Italian traveller Manucci visited India during ShahJahan’s period.

Jahangir in Indian History

Jahangir in Indian History:

  • Early name of Jahangir was Salim. Akbar called him Sheika Baba.
  • Jahangir came to the throne in 1605.
  • Jahangir was the son of Akbar and Jodabai.
  • He married Mehrunnisa, an Afghan widow in 1611 Later he gave her the titles, Noor Mahal (light of the palace) Noor Jahan (light of the world) and Padusha Begum.
  • In 1606 Jahangir executed fifth Sikh Guru Guru Arjun Dev, because he helped Jahangir’s son Prince Khusru to rebel against him.
  • In 1609, Jahangir received William Hawkins, an envoy of King James I of England, who reached India to obtain trade concession.
  • In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of Jahangir as the first ambassador of James I of England in the court of Jahangir. As a result of his efforts first English factory was established at Surat in Gujarat.
  • Period of Jahangir is considered as the Golden Age of Mughal Painting. Jahangir himself was a painter. Ustad Mansur and Abul Hassan were famous painters in the court of Jahangir.
  • Jahangir built Shalimar and Nishant Gardens in Srinagar.
  • Jahangir suspended a chain of Justice known as Zndiri Adal infront of his court.
  • Anarkali was Jahangair’s lover. Mughal-i-Asam directed by K. Asif is a famous film which tells the love story of Jahangir and Anarkali.
  • Jahangir wrote his autobiography Tuzukh -i- Jahangiri in Persian language.
  • Jahangir died in 1627 and was cremated at Shahdhara in Lahore.

Akbar the Great in Indian History

Akbar the Great in Indian History:

  • Father – Humayun
  • Mother – Hamida Bhanu Begum
  • Step mother – Magam Anaga
  • Guardian – Bairam Khan
  • First Guardian – Munim Khan
  • Akbar Akbar was born at Amarkot in Sindh in 23 Nov. 1542.
  • He came to the throne on February 14, 1556 at the age of 14 at Kalanur.
  • Hemu the Hindu Prime Minister of Muhammed Adilshah of Bihar occupied Agra and accepted the title Maharaja Vikramaditya.
  • Akbar killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Paniput in 1556 November 2.
  • Akbar became an independent ruler at the age of 18 in 1560, after dismissing Bairamkhan.
  • Later he married Bairam Khans widow Salima Begum.
  • In 1561 he defeated the musician Sulthan of Malwa – Baz Bahadur.
  • In 1562 Akbar married Joda Bhai, the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber
  • In 1564, he abolished the religious tax Jaziya. Jaziya was impossed for the first time by Firozshah Tughlaq.
  • In 1572 he captured Gujarat and in memory of that he built a new capital city Fathepur sikri (city of Victory) near Agra.
  • The early name of Fathepur Sikri was city of Sikri.
  • Buland Darwaza is the gate way of Fathepur Sikri, built by Akbar.
  • In 1575 Akbar constructed a prayer house in Fathepur Sikri known as Ibadatkhana.
  • In 1579 he issued the Infallibility Decree by which he made himself the supreme head in religious matters.
  • In 1580 the first Jesuit missionaries arrived at the court of Akbar.
  • In 1585 Ralph Fitch the first English man to reach India, reached Akbar’s court.
  • Ralph Fitch is known as pioneer English man or torch bearer Englishman.
  • In 1582 Akbar founded a new religion for universal peace and monotheism known as ‘Din Ilahi’ means Divine Faith.
  • In 1583 he started a new Calendar called Ilahi Calendar.
  • In 1576 Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap of Mewar in the battle of Haldighat. Haldighat is a mountain pass in the Aravally hills in Rajasthan.
  • The Portuguese introduced tobacco for the first time in India in the court of Akbar in 1604.
  • Akbar was the Mughal Emperor when the English East India Company was being founded in 1600 December 31.
  • Akbar died in 1605.
  • His tomb is situated at Sikhandra near Agra.
  • Akbar was an illiterate person, but he was a patron of men of eminence. He maintained a Scholastic Assembly in his court. They included the following personalities.
  • Abul Fazal : Akbar’s court historian who wrote Akbar’s biographical works Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Namah.
  • Abul Faizi : Persian poet and brother of Abul Fazal. He translated Mahabharata into Persian in name ‘Razam Namah’ and Bhaskaracharya’s mathematical work Leelavati into Persian.
  • Mian Tansen : His original name was Ram Thanu Pande. He was the court Musician of Akbar. He composed a Raga, Rajdarbari in honour of Akbar.
  • Birbal : His real name was Mahesh Das. He is the court jester of Akbar
  • Raja Todarmal : RajaTodarmal was Akbar’s finance or revenue minister. He formulated Akbar’s revenue system Zabti and Dashala systems. Raja Todermal also translated Bhagavatapurana into Persian.
  • Maharaja Mansing : Akbar’s military commander
  • Badauni : a historian who translated Ramayana into Persian – Tarjuma -1-Ramayan
  • Tulasidas : Hindi poet who wrote Ramacharitamanas.
  • Akbar’s military system was known as Mansabdari system, which included Ranks from 10 – 7000
  • Akbar was also responsible for the introduction Persian as the official language of Mughals.
  • He divided the Mughal Empire into 12 Subahs (provinces) for the administrative conveniences.
  • Akbar was also the first ruler to organise Hajj. Pilgrimage at the government expense. The Port Cambay in Gujarat is known as the ‘Gate way to Mecca from Mughal India’.
  • Akbar was an accomplished Sitar player.
  • Mughal – Rajput friendly relation began during the period of Akbar.

Humayun in Indian History

Humayun in Indian History:

  • Humayun was born in 1507 in Kabul as the son of Babur and Mahim Sulthana.
  • He became the Mughal Emperor on 29 December 1530 at the age of 23.
  • He divided the empire among his brothers – Askari, Hindal and Kamran.
  • The word ‘Humayun’ means ‘fortunate’ But Human is considered as the most unfortunate Mughal ruler.
  • Human was an accomplished mathematician and astronomer.
  • In 1539 by the Battle of Chausa, Humayun was defeated for the first time by Shershah Suri.
  • In the next year (1540) Shershah completely defeated Humayun in the battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dynasty.
  • After the lapse of 15 years Humayun re-captured the Empire by defeating the last Sur ruler Sikhandar Shah Suri by the battle of Sirhindh in 1555, July.
  • After the restoration Humayun ruled for only six months.
  • The period from 1540 to 1555 is known as the period of temporary eclipse of the Mughal.
  • Humayun died by an accidental fall from the straicase of his Library ‘Shermandal’ at the Puranakwila in Delhi on 24 January 1556.
  • The Purnakwila was constructed by Humayun but its construction was completed by Shershah.
  • Humayun’s biography Humayun Namah was written by Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum. The language used to write this biography was a mixture of Turkish and Persian.
  • In 1533 Humayun built the city of Dinpana (world refuge) in Delhi.
  • Humayun’s tomb is situated in Delhi (first building in India having double domes)
  • Humayun tomb is known as predecessor of Tajmahal, because Taj was modelled after this, also known as a dormitory of the house of Timur. Mirak Mirza Ghias is its architect.

Babur in Indian History

Babur in Indian History:

  • Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was the fifth descendant of Timur on Father’s side and the fourteenth descendant of Chengizkhan on mothers side.
  • Babur was born in Farghana in Turkey on 14 Feb. 1483 as the som of Umer Sheik Mirza ad Qulik Nigarkhanum.
  • Babur’s father Umershiek Mirza was the grand son of Amir Timur and the ruler of Farghana.
  • Babur became the ruler of Samarkhand at the Age of 11.
  • He captured Kabul in 1504.
  • Then Babur attacked India 5 times for want of wealth.
  • Babur’s first Attack of India was in 1519 Bhera was the first place captured by Babur.
  • In 1524 Daulatkhan, Ibrahim Lodhi’s brother invited Babur to India.
  • On 21 April 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Lodhi Sulthan in the First Battle of Panipat.
  • On 16 March 1527 he defeated Rana Sangha of Mewar, in the Battle of Khanwa.
  • The Rajputs in 1528 under Medini Raj of Malwa fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi, but were defeated.
  • In 1529 the Afghans under Muhammed Lodhi fought against Babur in the Battle of Ghaghra but were defeated.
  • In 1530 December 26, Babur died and was cremated at Kabul
  • Babur was the first to use Artillery in India.
  • His memoirs or autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Baburnamah was written in Turkish language, Babur’s mothertongue.
  • Babur said ‘I dont like India and Indians’.
  • Babur was the first Mughal ruler to keep in hand the Kohinur Diamond.
  • Babur was a contemporary of Krishnadeva Raya of Vijaya Nagara Empire.

The Mughal Empire in Indian History

The Mughal Empire in Indian History:

  • The Mughals were originally Turks.
  • They belonged to the Chaghtai branch of the Turkish race.
  • Period of the Mughal empire is known as Second Classical Age. First Classical Age is the period Guptas.
  • Mughal Empire is also known as Timurid Empire because of its relation to Amir Timur.
  • Mughal Emperors are 20 in number. They ruled India from 1526 to 1857. Only six are considered great They are:

Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur (1526 – 1530)

Naziruddin Mirza Muhammed Humayun (1530 -40 & 1555 – 1556)

Jalaluddin Muhammed Akbar – (1556 – 1605)

Nuruddin Muhammed Jahangir (1605 – 1627)

Shahabuddin Muhammed Shah Jahan (1628 -1658)

Muhiyuddin Muhammed Aurangazeb Alamgir (1658 – 1707)

 

Bahmani and Vijayanagara Kingdoms in Indian History

Bahmani and Vijayanagara Kingdoms in Indian History:

  • The decline of the Sulthanate of Delhi gave birth to two mighty states in South India the Bahmani Kingdom of Gulbaraga and the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • The Bahmanis were Muslim rulers, while the rulers of the Vijayanagar were Hindus.
  • The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar Khan (Hassan) who took the title of Alauddin 395 Bahman Shah. He selected Gulbaraga as its capital and renamed it Ahsanabad.
  • There were total eighteen Sulthans and they ruled from 1347 to 1527.
  • Muhammed Gawan was the famous minister of Bahmini kingdom.
  • The last prince of the Bahmani Kingdom was Kalimullah.
  • By 1527, the Bahmani kingdom was split up into five independent principalities.
  • The Adil Shahis of Bijapur -founder – Yusuf Adilshah (1489 – 90)
  • The Nizam Shahis of Ahamadnagar – founder – Malik Ahmad (1499)
  • The Imadshahis of Berar – founder -Fateh Ulla Imadshanti (1490)
  • The Qutubshahi kingdom of Golconda – founder – Qutabshah (1512)
  • The Baridshahis of Bidar – founder – Amir Ali Barid (1527).

Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526) in Indian History

Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526) in Indian History:

  • Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi in 1451. The dynasty lasted upto 1526.
  • Lodhi dynasty was the first Afghan dynasty or first Pathan dynasty in India.
  • Sikhandar Lodhi, who ruled from 1489 to 1517 shifted the capital from Delhi to Agra.
  • Sikhandar Lodhi is considered as the Maker of Agra City.
  • Last Lodhi Sulthan or last Delhi Sulthan was Ibrahim Lodhi. Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar defeated him. His brother Daulat Khan Lodhi invited Babar to India to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi in 1524.
  • Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 April 21.
  • The title Sulthan was started by the Turkish rulers. Muhammed Ghazni was the first to assume the title Sulthan.
  • The official language of the Delhi Sulthanate was Persian.

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451) in Indian History

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451) in Indian History:

  • Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan in 1414.
  • Last Sayyid Sulthan was Alauddin Alamshah or Shah Alam I. He was killed by Bahalol Lodhi in 1451.