The Formation of the Muslim League (1906) in Indian History

The Formation of the Muslim League (1906) in Indian History:

  • All India Muslim League was founded under the Leadership of Aga Khan to divert the Muslims from the National Political Movement. On December 30th Nawab Salimulla Khan of Dhaka became its first President.
  • Muhammed Iqbal, who presided over the Allahabad session of the League in 1930 gave the idea of Separate Muslim State in North West India. Hence Iqbal is known as the father of the idea of Pakistan. But the name ‘Pakistan’ was framed by Rahmat Ali.
  • Mohammed Ali Jinnah gave his famous Two Nation Theory in March 1940, at the Lahore session of the Muslim League.
  • Sarojini Naidu called Jinnah the Prophet of Hindu- Muslim Unity.
  • Later Jinhah became the first Governor General of Pakistan. He is also known as the father of Pakistan.

HN Kunzru in Indian History

HN Kunzru in Indian History:

  • He founded the Seva Samiti at Allahabad in 1914 with the objective of organising social service during the natural calamities and promoting education sanitation, physical culture etc.

Deva Samaj in Indian History

Deva Samaj in Indian History:

  • It was started in 1887 by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri at Lahore.
  • The religious text of this Samaj was Deva Shastra and the teaching Devadharma.

Jyotiba Phule in Indian History

Jyotiba Phule in Indian History:

  • Belonging to the low caste of Mali from Maharashtra, struggled against upper caste domination and Brahamincal supremacy through his Sathyashodhak Samaj founded in 1873.
  • He wrote Ghulam-giri in 1872 exposing the conditions of the backward castes.
  • He pioneered the Widow Remarriage Movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education of women.

 

Young Bengal Movement in Indian History

Young Bengal Movement in Indian History:

  • Started by Henry Vivian Derozio, teacher in the Calcutta Hindu College.
  • His followers were known as the Derozians They attacked the old traditions and decadant customs.
  • In 1828 he started the Academic Association.

Theosophical Society in Indian History

Theosophical Society in Indian History:

  • The Theosophical Society was founded by Madame Blavatsky and Col. H.S.Olcott in Newyork in 1875.
  • In 1882 it shifted its head quarters to Adayar near Madras.
  • Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History
  • Dr.Annie Basant came to India in 1893, was its notable President.
  • In 1898 she started the Central Hindu School at Benaras, it later became Benaras Hindu University under Madan Mohan Malavya (1916).
  • She was the first woman to become the president of INC in 1917.
  • She started the Home Rule League with the Cooperation of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916 with Dadabhai Naoroji as its President.

 

Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History

Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History:

  • Shri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa (1834 – 1886) was born in Kumarpukur village in the Hoogly village of Bengal.
  • His early name was Shuddirama Gadhadhar Chatterjee.
  • He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali temple. So he is called the Saint of Dakshineswar.
  • The most famous disciple of Ramakrishna was Vivekananda (1861 – 1903).
  • Vivekananda was born in a Kayastha family of Calcutta.
  • He attended the Parliament of Reigions at Chicago in 1893, September 11.
  • He was invited to the Congress of the History of Religions at Paris in 1900.
  • He founded the Ramakrishana Mission on Ist May 1897.
  • 1899 the Matha or the centre of the mission was shifted to Belur.
  • He started two papers – the monthly Prabudha Barat in English and Udbodhana a Bengali fortnightly.
  • He is called the‘patriot saint of India’.
  • He was also described as a ‘‘Cyclonic Hindu’’.
  • In 1898 Sister Nivedita, (Margaret Elizebth Noble) an Irish lady was initiated to brahmacharya by Vivekananda.

Arya samaj in Indian History

Arya samaj in Indian History:

  • It was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi in 1875.
  • He considered Vedas as eternal and infalliable and said ‘Go back to Vedas’
  • Dayanand Saraswati (1824 – 1883) was a Sanyasi from Gujarat.
  • He was the first to teach an aggressive, reformed and militant Hinduism.
  • Dayanand, was known in his early life as Mul Shankar.
  • He founded the Arya Samaj at Bombay in 1575.
  • He is known as Luther of Hinduism.
  • He was the first to use the terms – Swarajya Swabhasha and Swadharma
  • He was the first to consider Hindi as a National Language.
  • He started the Suddhi Movement to re-convert to Hinduism those who were converted to other religions.
  • His book Satyartha Prakash is a commentary on Vedas.
  • He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic College in 1866.
  • Aryaprakash was the news paper started by Dayanand Saraswati.

Prarthana Samaj in Indian History

Prarthana Samaj in Indian History:

  • Founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang (not by MG Ranade) as an offshoot of the Brahmasamaj.
  • It was later joined by M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar.

Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj in Indian History

Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj in Indian History:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy is known as the father of Modern India, ‘Herald of New Age’, ‘Bridge between Past and Future. ‘First Modern Man in India’ Father of Indian Renaissance, Pathfinder of his Century etc.
  • Believed in monotheism and opposed idol worship.
  • Established the ‘Atmiya Sabha’ in Calcutta in 1815 inorder to propagate monotheism and to fight against the evil customs and practices in Hinduism.
  • He got legitimisation to his views from Upanishads.
  • In 1821 he started a paper called Samvat Kaumudi.
  • In 1822 he started Mirat-ul-Akbar, which was the first journal in Persian.
  • In the same year Rammohan and Dwarakanath Tagore jointly started a newspaper called Bangadatta.
  • In 1825 he started the Vedanta College at Calcutta.
  • In 1828, August he founded the BrahmaSabha Later in 1845 the name Brahmasamaj was given to it by Devendranath Tagore.
  • Against the Brahmasabha orthodox Hindus lead by Raja Radhakant Deb started Dharmasabha.
  • In 1829 December 4 Sati was abolished by governor general William Bentinck.
  • In 1831 he went to England to argue the case of Akbar II before the Board of Control.
  • The Mughal Emperor Akbarshah II gave Ram Mohan the title ‘Raja’.
  • After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy Brahmasamaj was divided into several sects.
  • Adi Brahmasamaj lead by Devendra Nath Tagore and Bharatiya Brahmasamaj led by Keshav Chandra Sen were started in 1866.
  • Sadharana Brahma Samaj was started by Anandmohan Bose in 1878.
  • Devendra Nath Tagore was the founder of Tatvabodhinisabha in Calcutta in 1839.
  • Keshav Chandrasen started a paper called Indian Mirror in 1861.
  • Brahmasamaj reached outside Bengal under Keshav Chandra Sen.
  • Keshav Chandra Sen was the first Indian who attempted to reform the society on an all India basis.
  • Surendra Nath Banerjee was the first Indian to took up his political activity on an all India basis.
  • ‘Precepts to Jesus’ is a book written by Rajaram Mohan Roy.
  • Thuhafath ul – muvahiddin or Gift to Monotheists is also a work of Raja Ram Mohan Roy