Lord Dalhousie (1849 – 56) in Indian History

Lord Dalhousie (1849 – 56) in Indian History:

  • Introduced the policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’
  • Indian states annexed through the Doctrine of Lapse were Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur (1849) Baghatpur (1850), Udaipur (1852) Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854).
  • Introduced the Woods Despatch known as the Magnacarta of English Education in India prepared by Charles Wood in 1854.
  • Boosted up the development of Railways and laid the first Railway line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane and Second from Calcutta to Raniganj.
  • Gave a great impetus to Post and Telegraph. Telegraphic lines were laid – first line from Calcutta to Agra.
  • Shimla was made summer Capital and Army Head Quarters.
  • Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1856.
  • In 1853 started recruitment of the Covenanted Civil Service by competitive examination.
  • A Post Office Act was passed in 1854. Postage stamps were issued for the first time.
  • In 1855 the Santhal Uprising took place.
  • Abolished the title of the Nawab of Carnatic.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 36) in Indian History

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 36) in Indian History:

  • Abolished restriction on press
  • He is called the ‘‘Liberator of Press’’
  • First Afghan war was started during the Governor Generalship of Lord Auckland.
  • Slavery was abolished by Governor general Lord Ellenborough.

Lord William Bentinck (1828- 35) in Indian History

Lord William Bentinck (1828- 35) in Indian History:

  • First Governor General of India by the government of India Act of 1833.
  • Known as benevolent Governor General.
  • Banned the practice of Sati in 1829. Suppressed Tughi in 1830.
  • Banned female infanticide.
  • Created the province of Agra in 1834.
  • Made English to be the court language in higher court but Persian continued in Lower courts.
  • Appointed Macaulay as president of the committee of public instruction, Mecaulays Minutes was submitted in 1835.

Lord Hastings (1813-23) in Indian History

Lord Hastings (1813-23) in Indian History:

  • He was made Marques of Hastings due to his success in the Gorkhar war or the Anglo Nepalis war.
  • He abolished the Peshwaship and annexed his territories to the Bombay presidency after the third Anglo-Maratha war (1818)
  • Introduced the Ryotwari System in Madras presidency by Governor Thomas Munroe in 1820 under the governor generalship of Hastings.
  • Mahalwari System of land revenue was introduced in North West Province by James Thomson.

Lord Wellesley (1793 – 1798) in Indian History

Lord Wellesley (1793 – 1798) in Indian History:

  • Described himself as Bengali Tiger.
  • He created the Madras presidency.
  • Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance.
  • The first state to sign the Subsidiary Alliance system was Hyderabad in 1798. Then Mysore, Tanjore, Awadh, Peshwar, Bhonsle, Sindhia, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Mecheri, Bundi, Bharatpur and Berar signed the subsidiary treaty.
  • Lord Wellesley fought the second Maratha war.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote the Tuhfat-ul- Muwahiddin (gift to the Monotheists) during his period.

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 93) in Indian History

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 93) in Indian History:

  • He introduced Permanent settlement in 1793.
  • The Police system was introduced in India.
  • Cornwallis Code was introduced. It was based on the separation of powers

 

Executors of British Policies in Indian History

Executors of British Policies in Indian History:

  • Warren Hastings : (1772-85) He introduced quinquennial settlement of land revenue in 1772.
  • He codified the Hindu and Muslim laws.
  • He founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of William Jones in 1784.
  • The trial of Maharaja Nandakumar (1775) and his Judicial Murder was during the period of Warren Hastings
  • He abolished the Dual Government in Bengal in 1772.
  • After his return to England he was impeached there in 1785.
  • By the Regulating Act 1775 of appointed him the first Governor General.
  • First Anglo – Maratha war took place during his period.
  • In 1780 James Augustus Hickey started a weekly paper called Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser during the period of Warren Hastings.
  • Warren Hastings established a Muhammedan Madrasa in Calcutta.

Subsidiary Alliance system and other Policies in Indian History

Subsidiary Alliance system and other Policies in Indian History:

  • Subsidiary Alliance System was used by Wellesley to bring Indian States within the orbit of British political power.
  • First Indian ruler to join the Subsidiary Alliance System was the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • Lord Wellesley is consdiered as the ‘Akbar of English East India Company’ by Marshman.
  • Permanent Revenue Settlement was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Benaras and northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793. It was planned by Johnshore.
  • Ryotwari System was introduced in Bombay, Madras and Assam. This system was similar to Akbar’s revenue policy Zabti system.
  • Mahalwari System was introduced in Awad region, Punjab, NWFP and parts of Central India.

 

Maratha Wars in Indian History

Maratha Wars in Indian History:

  • First Anglo Maratha war (1775-82) It ended by the treaty of Salbai.
  • Second Anglo-Maratha War was from 1803 to 1805.
  • The treaty of Bassein was signed between the last Peshwa Baji RaoII and the English in 1802.
  • The second Maratha War was ended by the treaty of Rajghat, 1806.
  • The third Anglo Maratha war was from 1817- 1818. Thus by the end of third Maratha war the Maratha power disappeared and the English created the State of Sathara.