1) ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Introduction; Sub- atomic particles; Atomic models – Thomson’s Model; Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom, Drawbacks; Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom; Nature of electromagnetic radiation; Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory; Bohr’s model for Hydrogen atom; Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen; Limitations of Bohr’s model; Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles; Dual behaviour of matter; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom; Orbitals and quantum numbers; Shapes of atomic orbitals; Energies of orbitals; illing of orbitals in atoms. Aufbau Principle, Pauli’s exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; Electronic configurations of atoms; Stability of half filled and completely
2) CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES: Need to classify elements; Genesis of periodic classification; Modern
periodic law and present form of the periodic table; Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100; Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table; Electronic configuration and types of elements s,p,d.and f blocks; Trends in physical properties: (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius (c)Variation of size in inner transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro negativity; Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states, (b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship; Periodic trends and chemical reactivity.
3) CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding, Octet rule, Representation of simple molecules, formal charges, limitations of octat rule; Ionic or electrovalent bond – Factors favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride, Lattice enthalpy; General properties of ionic compounds; Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, and bond enthalpy, bond order, resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theories; Predicting the geometry of simple molecules; Valence bond theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals strength of sigma and pi bonds- Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds; Hybridisation- different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple covalent molecules; Coordinate bond -definition with examples; Molecular orbital theory – Formation of molecular orbitals, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for combination of atomic orbitals – Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals -Bonding in some homo nuclear diatomic molecules- H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and O2; Hydrogen bonding-cause of formation of hydrogen bond – Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular- General properties of hydrogen bonds.
4) STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS: Intermolecular forces; Thermal Energy; Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal interactions; The Gaseous State; The Gas Laws; Ideal gas equation; Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures; Kinetic molecular theory of gases; Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation) deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation; Distribution of molecular speeds – rms, average and most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules; Behaviour of real gases – Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real gases; Liquefaction of gases; Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter molecular interactions – Vapour pressure, Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea only. No mathematical derivation).
5) STOICHIOMETRY: Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant figures, dimensional analysis; Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions, Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Avogadro Law, Principles, Examples; Atomic and molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass. Concept of equivalent weight; Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds; Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations; Methods of Expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality; Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions, oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer; Oxidation number concept; Types of Redox reactions-combination, decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions; Balancing of redox reactions – oxidation number method Half reaction (ion-electron) method; Redox reactions in Titrimetry.
6) THERMODYNAMICS: Thermodynamic Terms; The system and the surroundings; Types of systems and surroundings; The state of the system; The Internal Energy as a State Function. (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics; Applications; Work; Enthalpy, H- a useful new state function; Extensive and intensive properties; Heat capacity; The relationship between Cp and Cv; Measurement of DU and DH: Calorimetry; Enthalpy change, DrH of reactions – reaction Enthalpy (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during transformations, (c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations (e) Hess’s law of constant Heat summation; Enthalpies for different types of reactions. (a) Standard enthalpy of combustion (ΔcHq), (b) Enthalpy of atomization (ΔaHq), phase transition, sublimation and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (ΔbondHq ), (d) Enthalpy of solution (ΔsolHq) and dilution; Spontaneity. (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b) Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and spontaneity; Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium; Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics.
7) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES: Equilibrium in Physical process; Equilibrium in chemical process – Dynamic Equilibrium; Law of chemical Equilibrium – Law of mass action and Equilibrium constant; Homogeneous; Equilibria, Equilibrium constant in gaseous systems. Relationship between KP and Kc; Heterogeneous Equilibria; Applications of Equilibrium constant; Relationship etween Equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient Q and Gibbs energy G; Factors affecting Equilibria.-Le-chatlier principle application to industrial synthesis of Ammonia and Sulphur trioxide; Ionic Equilibrium in solutions; Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases; Ionisation of Acids and Bases – Ionisation constant of water and its ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants of weak acids-ionisation of weak bases-relation between Ka and Kb-Di and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic Bases-Factors affecting acid strength-Common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions; Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solution-Preparation of Acidic buffer; Solubility Equilibria of sparingly soluble salts. Solubility product constant Common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.
8) HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in the periodic table; Dihydrogen-Occurance and Isotopes; Preparation of Dihydrogen; Properties of Dihydrogen; Hydrides: Ionic, covalent, and non-stiochiometric hydrides; Water: Physical properties; structure of water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water, Temporary and permanent hardness of water; Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation; Physical properties; structure and chemical properties; storage and uses; Heavy Water; Hydrogen as a fuel.
9) THE s – BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group 1 Elements : Alkali metals; Electronic configurations; Atomic and Ionic radii; Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties; Chemical properties; Uses; General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: Oxides; Halides; Salts of oxo Acids; Anomalous properties of Lithium: Differences and similarities with other alkali metals, Diagonal relationship; similarities between Lithium and Magnesium; Some important compounds of Sodium: Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium hydrogen carbonate; Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium.
Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth elements; Electronic configuration; Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties, Chemical properties; Uses; General characteristics of compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals: Oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxoacids (Carbonates; Sulphates and Nitrates); Anomalous behavior of Beryllium; its diagonal relationship with Aluminium; Some important compounds of calcium: Preparation and uses of Calcium Oxide; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcium Carbonate; Plaster of Paris; Cement; Biological importance of Calcium and Magnesium.
10) p- BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP 13 (BORON FAMILY): General introduction – Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties; Important trends and anomalous properties of boron; Some important compounds of boron – Borax, Ortho boric acid,diborane; Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.
11) p-BLOCK ELEMENTS – GROUP 14 (CARBON FAMILY): General introduction – Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro
negativity; Physical & Chemical properties; Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon; Allotropes of carbon; Uses of carbon; Some important
compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide,Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
12) ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions; Environmental Pollution; Atmospheric pollution; Tropospheric Pollution; Gaseous Air Pollutants (Oxides of Sulphur; Oxides of Nitrogen; Hydrocarbons; Oxides of Carbon (CO, CO2). Global warming and Green house effect; Acid Rain- Particulate Pollutants- Smog; Stratospheric Pollution: Formation and breakdown of Ozone- Ozone hole- effects of depletion of the Ozone Layer; Water Pollution: Causes of Water Pollution; International standards for drinking water; Soil Pollution: Pesticides, Industrial Wastes; Strategies to control environmental pollution- waste Management- collection and disposal; Green Chemistry: Green chemistry in day-to-day life; Dry
cleaning of clothes; Bleaching of paper; Synthesis of chemicals
13) ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES AND HYDROCARBONS: General introduction; Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of organic compounds; Structural representations of organic compounds; Classification of organic compounds; Nomenclature of organic compounds; Isomerism; Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms; Fission of covalent bond; Nucleophiles and electrophiles; Electron movements in organic reactions; Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds: inductive effect, resonance, resonance effect, electromeric effect, hyperconjugation; Types of Organic reactions; Methods of purification of organic compounds; Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds; Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds.
HYDROCARBONS Classification of Hydrocarbons; Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only); Preparation of alkanes; Properties – Physical properties and chemical Reactivity, Substitution reactions – Halogenation(free radical mechanism), Combustion, Controlled Oxidation, Isomerisation, Aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis; Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of ethene, Isomerism (structural and geometrical); Methods of preparation; Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: Addition of Hydrogen, halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect, Markovnikov’s, antiMarkovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, Ozonolysis and Polymerization; Alkynes – Nomenclature and isomerism, structure of acetylene. Methods of preparation of acetylene; Physical properties, Chemical reactions- acidic character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, Halogen, Hydrogen halides and water. Polymerization; Aromatic Hydrocarbons: omenclature and isomerism, Structure of benzene, Resonance and aromaticity; Preparation of benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel-Craft’ alkylation and acylation; Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity
14) SOLID STATE: General characteristics of solid state; Amorphous and crystalline solids; Classification of crystalline solids based on different binding forces (molecular, ionic, metallic and covalent solids); Probing the structure of solids: X-ray crystallography; Crystal lattices and unit cells. Bravais lattices primitive and centred unit cells; Number of atoms in a unit cell (primitive, body centred and face centred cubic unit cell); Close packed structures: Close packing in one dimension, in two dimensions and in three dimensions- tetrahedral and octahedral voids- formula of a compound and number of voids filled- locating tetrahedral and octahedral voids; Packing efficiency in simple cubic, bcc and in hcp, ccp lattice; Calculations involving unit cell dimensions-density of the unit cell; Imperfections in solids-types of point defects-stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects; Electrical properties-conduction of electricity in metals, semiconductors and insulators- band theory of metals; Magnetic properties.
15) SOLUTIONS: Types of solutions; Expressing concentration of solutions – mass percentage, volume percentage, mass by volume percentage, parts
per million, mole fraction, molarity and molality; Solubility: Solubility of a solid in a liquid, solubility of a gas in a liquid, Henry’s law; Vapour pressure of liquid solutions: vapour pressure of liquid- liquid solutions. Raoult’s law as a special case of Henry’s law -vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids; Ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties and determination of molar mass-relative lowering of vapour pressure-elevation of boiling point-depression of freezing point-osmosis and osmotic pressure-reverse osmosis and water purification; Abnormal molar masses-van’t Hoff factor.
16) ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS:
ELECTROCHEMISTRY: Electrochemical cells; Galvanic cells: measurement of electrode potentials; Nernst equation-equilibrium constant from Nernst equation- electrochemical cell and Gibbs energy of the cell reaction; Conductance of electrolytic solutions- measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions-variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration-strong lectrolytes and weak electrolytes-applications of Kohlrausch’s law; Electrolytic cells and electrolysis: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis-products of electrolysis; Batteries: primary batteries and secondary batteries; Fuel cells; Corrosion of metals-Hydrogen economy. CHEMICAL KINETICS: Rate of a chemical reaction; Factors influencing rate of a reaction: dependance of rate on concentration- rate expression and rate constant- order of a reaction, molecularity of a reaction; Integrated rate equations-zero order reactions-first order reactions- half life of a reaction; Pseudo first order reaction; Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction -effect of catalyst; Collision theory of chemical reaction rates.
17) SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption and absorption: Distinction between adsorption and absorption-mechanism of adsorption-types of adsorption-characteristics of physisorption-characteristics of chemisorptions-adsorption isotherms-adsorption from solution phase-applications of adsorption; Catalysis: Catalysts, promoters and poisons-auto catalysis- homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis-adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalysis-important features of solid catalysts: (a)activity (b)selectivity-shape-selective catalysis by zeolites-enzyme catalysis-characteristics and mechanism- catalysts in industry; Colloids; Classification of colloids: Classification based on physical state of dispersed phase and dispersion mediumclassification based on nature of interaction between dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on type of particles of the dispersed phase- multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids- cleansing action of soaps-preparation of colloids-purification of colloidal olutionsproperties of colloidal solutions: Tyndal effect, colour, Brownian movement-charge on colloidal particles, electrophoresis; Emulsions; Colloids Around us- application of colloids.
18) GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY: Occurrence of metals; Concentration of ores-levigation, magnetic separation, froth floatation, leaching; Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore-conversion to oxide, reduction of oxide to the metal; Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy – Ellingham diagram-limitations-applications-extraction of iron, copper and zinc from their oxides; Electrochemical principles of metallurgy; Oxidation and reduction; Refining of crude metal-distillation, liquation poling, electrolysis, zone refining and vapour phase refining; Uses of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
19) p-BLOCK ELEMENTS:
GROUP-15 ELEMENTS : Occurrence- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electronegativity, physical and chemical properties; Dinitrogen-preparation, properties and uses; Compounds of nitrogen-preparation and properties of ammonia; Oxides of nitrogen; Preparation and properties of nitric acid; Phosphorous-allotropic forms; Phosphine-preparation and properties; Phosphorous halides; Oxoacids of phosphorous
GROUP-16 ELEMENTS: Occurrence- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, lectronegativity, physical and chemical properties; Dioxygen-preparation, properties and uses; Simple oxides; Ozone-preparation, properties, structure and uses; Sulphur-allotropic forms; Sulphur dioxide-preparation, properties and uses; Oxoacids of sulphur; Sulphuric acid-industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses.
GROUP-17 ELEMENTS: Occurrence, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, physical and chemical properties; Chlorine- preparation, properties and uses; Hydrogen chloride- preparation, properties and uses; Oxoacids of halogens; Interhalogen compounds.
GROUP-18 ELEMENTS : Occurrence, electronic configuration, ionization enthalpy, atomic radii, electron gain enthalpy, physical and chemical properties(a) Xenon-fluorine compounds- XeF2,XeF4 and XeF6 -preparation, hydrolysis and formation of fluoro anions-structures of XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6 (b) Xenon-oxygen compounds XeO3 and XeOF4 – their formation and structures
20) d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS & COORDINATION COMPOUNDS:
d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS : Position in the periodic table; Electronic configuration of the d-block elements; General properties of the transition elements (d-block) -physical properties, variation in atomic and ionic sizes of transition series, ionisation enthalpies, oxidation states, trends in the M²+/M and M³+/M²+ standard electrode potentials, trends in stability of higher oxidation states, chemical reactivity and Eθ values, magnetic properties, formation of coloured ions, formation of complex compounds, catalytic properties, formation of interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Some important compounds of transition elements-oxides and oxoanions of metals-preparation and properties of potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate-structures of chromate, dichromate, manganate and permanganate ions; Inner transition elements(f-block)-lanthanoids- electronic configuration-atomic and ionic sizes-oxidation states- general characteristics; Actinoids-electronic configuration atomic and ionic sizes, oxidation states, general characteristics and comparison with lanthanoids; Some applications of d and f block elements. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS: Werner’s theory of coordination compounds; Definitions of some terms used in coordination compounds; Nomenclature of coordination compounds-IUPAC nomenclature; Isomerism in coordination compounds- (a)Stereo isomerism-Geometrical and optical isomerism (b)Structural isomerism-linkage, coordination, ionisation and hydrate isomerism; Bonding in coordination compounds. (a)Valence bond
theory – magnetic properties of coordination compounds-limitations of valence bond theory (b) Crystal field theory (i) Crystal field splitting in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination entities (ii) Colour in coordination compounds-limitations of crystal field theory; Bonding in metal carbonyls; Stability of coordination compounds; Importance and applications of coordination compounds.
21) POLYMERS: Introduction; Classification of Polymers -Classification based on source, structure, mode of polymerization, molecular forces and growth polymerization; Types of polymerization reactions-addition polymerization or chain growth polymerization-ionic polymerization, free radical mechanism-preparation of addition polymers-polythene, teflon and polyacrylonitrile-condensation polymerization or step growth polymerizationpolyamides- preparation of Nylon 6,6 and nylon 6-poly esters-terylene-bakelite, melamine-formaldehyde polymers; copolymerization-Rubber-natural rubber-vulcanisation of rubber-Synthetic rubbers-preparation of neoprene and buna-N; Molecular mass of polymers-number average and weight average molecular masses- poly dispersity index(PDI); Biodegradable polymers-PHBV, Nylon 2-nylon 6; Polymers of commercial importancepolypropene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride (PVC), urea-formaldehyde resin, glyptal and bakelite – their monomers, structures and uses.
22) BIOMOLECULES: Carbohydrates – Classification of carbohydrates- Monosaccharides: preparation of glucose from sucrose and starch- Properties and structure of glucose- D,L and (+), (-) configurations of glucose- Structure of fructose; Disaccharides: Sucrose- preparation, tructure; Invert sugar- Structures of maltose and lactose-Polysaccharides: Structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen- Importance of carbohydrates; Aminoacids: Natural aminoacids-classification of aminoacids – structures and D and L forms-Zwitter ions; Proteins: Structures, classification, fibrous and globular- primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins- Denaturation of proteins; Enzymes: Enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action; Vitamins: Explanation-names- classification of vitamins – sources of vitamins-deficiency diseases of different types of vitamins; Nucleic acids: chemical composition of nucleic acids, structures of nucleic acids, DNA finger printing biological functions of nucleic acids; Hormones: Definition, different types of hormones, their production, biological activity, diseases due to their abnormal activities.
23) CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE: Drugs and their classification: (a) Classification of drugs on the basis of pharmocological effect (b) Classification of drugs on the basis of drug action (c) Classification of drugs on the basis of chemical structure (d) Classification of drugs on the basis of molecular targets; Drug-Target interaction-Enzymes as drug targets (a) Catalytic action of enzymes (b) Drug-enzyme interaction, receptors as drug targets; Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs: antacids, antihistamines, neurologically active drugs: tranquilizers, analgesics-nonnarcotic, narcotic analgesics, antimicrobials-antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants- antifertility drugs; Chemicals in food-artificial sweetening agents, food preservatives, antioxidants in food; Cleansing agents-soaps and synthetic detergents – types and examples.
24) HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES: Classification and nomenclature; Nature of C-X bond; Methods of preparation: Alkyl halides and aryl halides-from alcohols, from hydrocarbons (a) by free radical halogenation (b) by electrophilic substitution (c) by replacement of diazonium group(Sandmeyer reaction) (d) by the addition of hydrogen halides and halogens to alkenes-by halogen exchange(Finkelstein reaction); Physical properties-melting and boiling points, density and solubility; Chemical reactions: Reactions of haloalkanes (i)Nucleophilic substitution reactions (a) SN² mechanism (b) SN¹ mechanism (c) stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions-optical activity (ii) Elimination reactions (iii) Reaction with metals-Reactions of haloarenes: (i) Nucleophilic substitution (ii)Electrophilic substitution and (iii) Reaction with metals; Polyhalogen compounds: Uses and environmental effects of dichloro methane, trichloromethane, triiodomethane, tetrachloro methane, freons and DDT
25) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING C, H AND O (Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids): ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols,phenols and ethers -classification; Nomenclature: (a)Alcohols, (b)phenols and (c) ethers; Structures of hydroxy and ether functional groups; Methods of preparation: Alcohols from alkenes and carbonyl compounds (reduction and reaction with Grignard reagents); Phenols from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid, diazonium salts, cumene; Physical propertics of alcohols and phenols; Chemical reactions of alcohols and phenols (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-Acidity of alcohols and phenols, esterification (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-O bondreactions with HX, PX3, dehydration and oxidation (iii) Reactions of phenols- electrophilic aromatic substitution, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer – Tiemann reaction, reaction with zinc dust, oxidation; Commercially important alcohols (methanol,ethanol); Ethers-Methods of preparation: By dehydration of alcohols, Williamson synthesis- Physical properties-Chemical reactions: Cleavage of C-O bond and electrophilic substitution of aromatic ethers. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group; Preparation of aldehydes and ketones-(1) by oxidation of alcohols (2) by dehydrogenation of alcohols (3) from hydrocarbons -Preparation of aldehydes (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles and esters(3) from hydrocarbons-Preparation of ketones(1) from acyl chlorides (2)from nitriles (3)from benzene or substituted benzenes; Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones; Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones-nucleophilic addition, reduction, oxidation, reactions due to – Alpha Hydrogen and other reactions (Cannizzaro reaction,electrophilic substitution reaction); Uses of aldehydes and ketones. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Nomenclature and structure of carboxylgroup; Methods of preparation of carboxylic acids (1)from primary alcohols and aldehydes (2) from alkylbenzenes(3)from nitriles and amides (4)from Grignard reagents (5) from acyl halides and anhydrides (6) from esters; Physical properties; Chemical reactions: (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-acidity, reactions with metals and alkalies (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond-formation of anhydride, reactions with PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2, esterification and reaction with ammonia (iii) Reactions involving-COOH roupreduction, decarboxylation (iv) Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon part – halogenation and ring substitution; Uses of arboxylic acids.
26) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN:
AMINES Structure of amines; Classification; Nomenclature; Preparation of amines: reduction of nitro compounds, ammonolysis of alkyl halides, reduction of nitriles, reduction of amides, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis and Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction; Physical properties; Chemical reactions: basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbyl amine reaction, reaction with nitrous acid, reaction with aryl sulphonyl chloride, electrophilic substitution of aromatic amines-bromination, nitration and sulphonation. DIAZONIUM SALTS Methods of preparation of diazonium salts (by diazotization) Physical properties; Chemical reactions: Reactions involving displacement of Nitrogen; Sandmeyer reaction, Gatterman reaction, replacement by i) iodiode and fluoride ions ii) hydrogen, hydroxyl and Nitro groups; reactions involving retention of diazo group; coupling reactions; Importance of diazonium salts in synthesis of aromatic compounds. CYANIDES AND ISOCYANIDES
Structure and nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides; Preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions of cyanides and socyanides.