SETS AND FUNCTIONS
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets, Subsets. Susets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of ets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2. Relations & Functions
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, codomain and ange of a relation, Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of function, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions:
Positive and negative angles, Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle, Truth of the identity sin2 x+cos2x= 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs, Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sin x, sin y, cos x & cos y.
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction :
Processes of the proof by inductin, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the lest inductivesubset of realnumbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simpleapplications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quardratic Equations :
Need for complex numbers, especially – 1, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation, Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.
3. Linear Inequalities :
Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one varibale and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables, solution of system of linear inequalities in two varibales-graphically.
4. Permutations & Theorem:
Fundamental principla counting. Factroial n. permutations and combinations, derivation of formula and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem :
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series :
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A.P.) arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.) general term of a G.P. sum of n terms of a G.P. geometric mean (G.M.) relation between A.M. and
G.M. sum to n terms of the special series. 3 n, 3 n2 and 3n3
1. Straight Lines :
Briet recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slopeintercept form, two-point from, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Section :
Sections of cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as
a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse
and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. lntroduction to Three-dimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between
two points and section formula.
1. Limits and Derivatives :
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea
of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product
and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
1. Mathematical Reasoning :
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases – consolidating the unerstanding of “if
and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words-difference between contradiction, converse and contapositive.
STATISTICS & PROBABILITY
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
2. Probability :
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exc lusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events.
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Relations and Functions :
Types of relations : reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.’
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions :
Definition, range, domaia, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trgonometric functions
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, Zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multplication and scalar mulitiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of martices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertibel matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants :
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inerse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
1. Continuity and Differentiability :
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their
derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagranges mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric intepretations.
2. Applications of Derivatives :
Applications of derivatives : rate of change, increasing/ decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation,
maxima and minima a (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations.)
3. Integrals :
Integration as nverse process of differntiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type.Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals :
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only,) area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly indentifiable).
5. Differential Equations :
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order first degree.
VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
1. Vectors :
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction consines/ ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vecters, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. three – dimensional Geometry :
Direction consines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines, Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane, Distance of a point from a plane.
1. Linear Programming
lntroduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible region, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints).
1. Probability :
Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.