St. Joseph’s College of Commerce (Autonomous)
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION – APRIL 2011
M.Com. – II Semester
Business Research Methodology
Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 100
SECTION – A
I)Answer any TEN questions from the following fifteen: (10 x 2 = 20)
(Your answers have to be precise, max. four sentences!)
- What is the purpose of literature survey? What is meant by ‘Research Gap’?
- What is Exploratory Research? How is it different from Pilot Study?
- Define: Intervening variable and Moderating Variable with a simple example
- What is Likert Scale? Why is it called a Summated Scale?
- Explain Stratified Random Sampling.
- What is a dichotomous question? How is it different from a polytomous question?
- How does a ‘construct’ differ from a ‘concept’?
- Judgemental or Purposive Sampling.
- Define deontology and relativism in business research.
- How is Causal Research different from Ex Post Facto research?
- Explain with an example: Variable and Parameter of Interest in a population.
- What are ‘Outliers’? How do they affect data interpretation?
- What are the two main reasons for Sampling Error?
- What is Data Mining? What is its ultimate goal?
- Give any two common methods of Projective Techniques.
SECTION – B
- II) Answer any FOUR questions from the following six: ( 4 x 5 = 20)
(Your answers have to be analytical and to the point!)
- Explain the Management Research Question Hierarchy (MRQH) with an example, in which you play the role of a beleaguered Advertisement Manager of a news paper.
- What do you understand by the F-distribution? Give a simple explanation of ANOVA and its use.
- Explain with a simple example each and using graphs: Frequency Polygon and Ogive.
- What are Secondary Data? What are the methods used in collecting them?
What are their advantages and disadvantages?
- What are Multi-variate analytical tools? Name at least two each used for parametric and non-parametric analysis respectively, briefly giving examples.
- Are the following Nominal, Ordinal, Interval or Ratio data? Why? Explain your reasoning briefly:
- Temperature measured on the Kelvin scale
(b) Military ranks
(c) Social security numbers
(d) Number of passengers on a flight from Mumbai to Delhi.
(e) Code numbers given to the religion of persons.
SECTION – C
III)Answer any THREE questions from the following five: (3 x 15 = 45)
(Your answers have to be descriptive and of essay type!)
- “The interview is a very widely used means of primary data collection and is central
to most Research Designs” – elaborate! What are the different methods and types of interviews?
What are the pre-requisites and basic tenets of interviewing?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of interviews in data collection?
What are the issues of subjectivity and objectivity in interviewing?
- What are “Scales” of measurement in Research Methodology? What are the three main
characteristics of good measurement? Classify and describe the different types of
Scaling techniques, giving an example to explain each one.
What are the three main errors which occur in Scaling?
Construct a “Stapel Scale” for the rating of Infosys as a global leader for any three
- Explain in detail “Regression Analysis” and “Correlation” with an example each.
What are the main differences between Regression analysis and Correlation analysis?
What are Scatter-plots? What is meant by “goodness of fit”?
- What is research? What are the various steps involved in planning the research
What are the main headings of a good “Research Proposal”? Write a Research Proposal
based on a hypothetical research problem in a business organisation – you can choose
your problem from any area of management.
- Give at least four valid reasons for using Sampling in research. Explain in detail at
least nine different methods of sampling techniques used under the two broad
headings: Random and Non-random sampling, giving an example for each method.
SECTION – D
IV)Answer any ONE question from the following two: ( 1 x 15 = 15)
(1) What do you understand by the expression: “Probability Sampling Distribution”? Explain by means of the typically used Frequencies vs. Variables Uni-modal Graph.
Explain briefly the terms: Confidence Interval, Central Limit Theorem, One-tailed and Two-tailed Tests and Degrees of Freedom.
What is a Student “t-test”?
Solve the following problem using the “t-test”:
A manufacturer of car batteries claims that the average capacity of a certain type of battery that the firm produces is at least 140 AH (ampere hours) with a standard deviation of 2.66 AH. An independent sample of 20 batteries gave a mean of 138.47 AH. Test at 5% level of significance the null hypothesis that the mean life is 140 AH against an alternative that is lower. Can the manufacturer’s claim be sustained on the basis of the sample?
(i) The t-test Formula can be written as: t = ( x̄ – μ Ho) / [ s /sqrt (n) ]
(ii)From the Distribution Table: Given α = 0.005, for 19 D.F. the Critical Value of t = +/- 1.729
(2) What is meant by Hypothesis Testing? Explain with a simple example: Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis. Briefly explain: (a) Level of Significance, (b) Decision Rule, and (c) Type I & Type II Errors.
What are Non-Parametric Tests of Significance? Explain Chi Square (c²) Test with a simple example. What are the steps in using the Chi Square (c²) Test in Hypothesis Testing?
Solve the following problem using the “c² – test”:
“The frequency of farms depending mainly upon raagi crops for an income is not related to underlying soil type.”
(A) State Ho and H1.
(B) Draw the necessary tables and work out the problem systematically
Area Soil Type Number of raagi Farms
I Marl 2
II Chalk 10
III Sandstone 8
IV Clay 2
V Limestone 4
(i) The c² Formula can be written as: c² = Sigma (O –E) ² / E
(ii) The Table of Critical Values for c² shows that with D.F. = 4, the Critical Value of c² is 9.49 at α = 0. 05