Vanyajiraka consists of dried fruit of Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze (Fam. Asteracem), an annual, robust, erect herb, found throughout India upto 1850 m in Himalaya and Khasi hills and often cultivated.
Sanskrit : Aranyajirakah, Brhatpali, Somaraji, Vanajirakah
Assamese : —
Bengali : Somaraaj
English : Purple Flebane, Worm Seed Fleabane
Gujrati : Kaaleejeeree, Kadavijeeree
Hindi : Kaalijeeree, Karajiri, Soharaai
Kannada : Kaadujeerage, Kaarijirige
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Krimishatru, Kattujirakam
Marathi : Kadujire
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Kaattuchirakam, Chittilai
Telugu : Adavijilakaroa, Garetikamma
Urdu : —
The fruits are cypsela, indehiscent, 3 to 5 mm long and 1 to 2 mm in diameter; tapering towards base, pappus present over flattened upper end; surface exhibits about 20 longitudinal ridges, hairy, blackish-brown to black in colour; taste, bitter and odour indistinct.
T.S. of fruit exhibits about 20 ridges and furrows; the epidermis is single layered, covered externally with thick cuticle; trichomes are of two types – covering and glandular; covering trichomes unicellular, elongated with tapering ends, present mostly on the ridges; glandular hairs, sessile with unicellular heads are seen in the furrows; rest of the pericarp consists of thin walled parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles are present below the ridges, followed by discontinuous and laterally extending arches of thick walled and lignified sclerenchymatous tissues; testa is single layered followed by thin walled parenchymatous cells of the cotyledon, most of them consisting of aleurone grains and a few exhibit oil globules.
Powder – The powder exhibits fragments of fibres, fibre sclereids, scalariform vascular elements, thin walled parenchymatous cells with aleurone grains and oil globules, covering as well as glandular trichomes thin walled radially elongated cells of pappus.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 2.0 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 7.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of petroleum ether extract on Silica Gel G 60 precoated plate (Merck) using Petroleum ether (60-80oC); Diethyl ether: Acetic acid (70:32:2), shows under UV (366 nm) one spot at Rf. 0.48 (light blue); on exposure to iodine vapours 4 spots appear at Rf. 0.48 (dark orange), 0.57, 0.68 and 0.84 (all faint orange); after spraying with 5% ethanolic sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 110oC for 30 minutes, 4 spots appear at Rf. 0.48 (black) 0.57, 0.68 and 0.84 (all faint brown).
CONSTITUENTS – Sterols, avenasterol and vernosterol, a bitter principle, essential oil,resins and fixed oil consisting of myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and vernolic acids
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Tiksna
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Stambhana, Vatahara, Jantunasaka, Netrya
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Madhusnuhi Rasayana
THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Sopha, Svasa, Gulma, Hikka, Jvara, Kasa, Krmi, Kustha, Mutraghata, Raktavikara, Vrana, Kandu, Svitrakustha
DOSE – 1-3 g.