VANDA (Leaf) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Leaf)

Vanda consists of the dried leaf of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Vrksadani, Bandaka, Vrksaruha, Samharsa
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Bandanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Ittikkanni, Itil
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : Pulluri
Tamil : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Telugu : Jeevakamu

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Leaves petiolate, exstipulate, opposite, decussate, simple, ovate to oblanceolate, glabrous, soft and leathery when young, brittle when dry; margin entire; base decurrent; apex acute; slightly astringent; odour resembling those of tealeaves.

b) Microscopic

Transverse section of the leaf shows a thick cuticle, upper and lower epidermis composed of squarish cells with convex periclinal outer walls; surface views of upper and lower nearly similar; stomata paracytic, present on both surfaces; mesophyll of lamina consisting of 2 to 4 layers inner to upper and lower epidermis made up of compactly arranged short rectangular cells and irregularly arranged parenchyma cells of middle layers but possesing a few intercellular spaces; occassional vascular strands passing through this middle portion; isolated sclereids about 50 n thick containing prismatic crystals of about 12 n present in parenchyma; midrib buldging prominently on both the surfaces and containing a group of 3 to 5 vascular bundles; xylem of vascular bundles oriented towards upper epidermis and consisting of tracheids, vessels and parenchyma; phloem present towards lower epidermis and consisting of thin walled cells; bundle sheath absent; each vascular bundle associated with patch of collenchymatous cells outside the phloem; tannin (ranging from yellow to brown in colour) abundant in parenchyma cells of midrib and lamina region, especially in the 2 or 3 subepidermal layers; stomatal index 9 to 13 on upper surface and 10 to 14 on lower surface.

Powder – The powder shows angular epidermal cells and groups of thin walled, rectangular, closely packed parenchyma cells many of which contain tannins.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethyl formate : formic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (366 nm) spots at Rf. 0.06 (Brown); 0.39(Blue); 0.46 (Blue); 0.55 (Red); 0.81 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde: sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110o C two spots appear at Rf 0.35(Light Green), 0.45 (Orange).

CONSTITUENTS – Leaves contain flavonoids such as Quercetin, quercetrin;Tannins comprising of gallic and chebulinic acid.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sukrajanana, Grahi, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Pittahara, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana, Sramahara, Netrya, Grahanasana, Mangalakara, Garbhasthapana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana, Vandhyatva, Vata-Smari

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Stem) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Stem)

Vanda consists of the dried stem of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Bandhulu, Badanike
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikkanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Small twigs of mrial branches ranging from 2 mm to 2.5 cm in thickness; the bark of stem thin, dark brown and specked with lighter brown, uniformly distributed lenticles; the wood reddish-brown after removal of thin bark; stem slightly rough to touch; fracture irregular; fractured surface dark brown; no distinct taste or odour.

b) Microscopic

A transverse section of stem reveals a circular outline with a thick cuticle, and epidermis made up of squarish or barrel shaped cells with convex outer periclinal walls and interrupted here and there by lenticular openings; cork made up of thin-walled, crushed rectangular cells; cortex consisting of many layers of tangentially elongated and rounded cells interspersed with sclereids upto 85 n in size and in groups of 2 to 4; many cells of cortex, especially those of outer few layers contain tannins ranging in colour from yellow, orange to dark brown; groups of pericyclic fibres form a ring outside phloem; cambium present; xylem surrounding the central pith and composed of well developed vessels, fibre and parenchyma, 1 to 4 seriate medullary rays composed of radially elongated cells present; pith consists of thin walled, rounded or polygonal parenchymatous cells; small groups of sclereids, up to 85 n each in size present in both pith and medullary rays; prismatic crystals present in association with sclereids and medullary ray cells.

Powder – Powder shows vessel elements with simple pitted thickenings, groups of sclereids containing prismatic crystals (size of crystal 30 to 35 n long and 15 to 17 n wide) and fragments of parenchyma cells containing tannins.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract of the drug in chloroform as a mobile phase shows under UV (366 nm) spots Rf 0.13 (Grey); 0.24 (Green); 0.35 (Blue); 0.56 (Yellow); 0.76 (Grey); 0.85 (Orange Pink); 0.96 (Pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Young shoots contain nearly 10 per cent tannins and the stem contains β-amyrin-0-acetate, oleonolic acid its methyl ester acetate,β-sitosterol and stigmasterol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Mangalakara, Netrya, Pittahara, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Aerial Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Aerial Root)

Vanda consists of the dried aeial root of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Badanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikkanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Adventitious root greyish brown outside, yellowish to brown inside, slender, contorted and knotty in appearance, sending out haustoria into the host plant or, also into its own branches; rarely branched; fracture, irregular; odour and taste not distinct.

b) Microscopic

A transverse section of adventitious root is circular in outline; cuticle and epidermis sloughed off; outermost zone consists of broken tissue of cork and cortex followed by cork cambium made of rectangular cells; cortex wide, many layered, made of thin walled rounded cells and selereids upto 50 n size, present singly or in groups of 2 to 4; many cells of cortex contain tannin; patches of pericyclic fibres surround the vascular ring; phloem composed of small thin walled cells present outside the xylem and separated from it by the vascular cambium; xylem interrupted by short, 1 or 2 seriate medullary rays composed of radially elongated cells; xylem composed of scattered vessels, parenchyma and fibres; pith wide, composed of rounded parenchymatous cells interspersed with thick walled fibres of about 5 n in dia.

Powder – Powder shows tracheids and vessel members with simple pitted thickenings, broken fibres; stone cells with faint incomplete radial striations, upto 50 n in size and containing prismatic crystals.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract of the drug on silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol (80:20) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (at 366 nm) spots at Rf 0.35 (Blue); 0.58 (Blue); 0.90 (Blue).

CONSTITUENTS – Catechin and leucocynidin in the bark.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Mangalakara, Netrya, Pittahara, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Mutravirecaniya Kasaya Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Flower) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Flower)

Vanda consists of flowers of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), a semi-parasite, mainly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Badanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, regular, complete, coloured, apetalous, epigynous with cup or disc shaped receptacle, pentamerous; perianth-tepals 5, free and strap shaped towards the distal end and in the form of a sickle-shaped tube towards the basal end; surrounded at the base by a cup-shaped calyx; the perianth tube measures about 40 to 55 mm in length; it is narrow at the base and gradually widens towards the upper part; the perianth lobes become strongly reflexed at maturity. Inside the perianth tube are 5 cushion shaped nectarines; androecium stamens 5, epiphyllous, starting from two-thirds of length of perianth tube and continuing to the tip of perianth lobes, appressed to the style in young flowers; filaments orange coloured; anthers monothecous, dark, basifixed; gynoecium ovary 1, inferior, obscurely unilocular; style long, filamentous; stigma capitate; placentation basal, one ovule in each locule.

b) Microscopic

Powder – The powder shows characteristically triradiate, smooth walled, pollen grains upto 45 n in size and having a depression in the centre at distal end of each arm, and endothelial tissue.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethylformate : formic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (at 366 nm) spots at Rf value 0.11, 0.16, 0.26 (Blue), 0.45 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde : sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 110oC spots at Rf. 0.07 (Black); 0.12 (Green Black); 0.22 (Blue); 0.31 (Yellow); 0.40 (Yellow); 0.88 (Green) appear.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Raksoghna, Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Netrya, Pittahara, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice

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VANDA (Fruit) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Fruit)

Vanda consists of the dried fruit of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : –
Kashmiri : Ittikkanni, Itil
Malayalam : Baandagul, Banda
Marathi : Vrudhongo
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Pulluri
Tamil : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Telugu : Jeevakamu

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

The fruit is an ovate pseudo berry, upto 3 mm in thickness and 3 to 8 mm in length; greenish-yellow when mature and turning brown when dry; the top of the fruit is crowned by a persistent calyculus; the fruit contains an elongated, flask-shaped seed upto 5 mm long and 2 mm thick, rugose, brown, hard, and enclosed in a shiny, viscid film.

b) Microscopic

T.S. of the pseudoberry shows the outer tissues of thalamus separated by a zone of viscid mass from the inner tissues of the seed. Fruit tissue consist of an outer epicarp formed of a single layer of epidermis composed of squarish or rounded, thickly cuticularized cells followed by 3 or 4 layers of thick walled, larged sized, squarish cells containing tannins; mesocarp consist of multiple layers of small relatively clear cells with interspersed groups of stone cells. Fruit wall delimited inside by multiple layers of large, rounded, thin walled parenchymatous cells containing yellow to dark brown tannins; the seed consists of an outer viscid zone delimited towards inside by a ring of tissues made of several layers of isodiametric cells mostly containing brown pigment in outer 2 or 3 layers and a ring of vascular bundles. Inner to this is a zone comprising of radially elongated, compactly arranged thin-walled cells rich in starch towords the center; centre of the seed occupied by a mass of uniform, isodiametric, parenchymatous embryonic cells.

Powder – Cellular debris and stone cells with circular striations 20 to 35 n are seen, groups of cells containing tannins also present.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 17 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene: ethylacetate: acetic acid (5:4.5:0.5), shows under U.V. (366nm) spots at Rf. 0.23 (Greyish Black), 0.57, 0.72 (Pink), 0.81 (Blue), 0.89 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde- sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 110o C spots appear at Rf. 0.22, 0.37 (Blue), 0.52 (Purple), 0.57 (Greyish Black), 0.67, 0.72 (Dark Blue), 0.75 (Purple).

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Grahi, Kaphahara, Pittahara, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Visaghna, Vranaropana, Raksoghna Sramahara, Grahanasana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Asmari, Arsa, Kantharoga, Mutraghata, Mutrakrcchra, Mutraruja, Netraroga, Raktapitta, Slipada, Vatarakta, Vatavikara, Vrana, Mutrasarkara, Garbhasrava, Sopharoga, Amatisara, Visamjvara

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml.

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VANYAJIRAKA (Fruit) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze

VANYAJIRAKA (Fruit)

Vanyajiraka consists of dried fruit of Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze (Fam. Asteracem), an annual, robust, erect herb, found throughout India upto 1850 m in Himalaya and Khasi hills and often cultivated.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Aranyajirakah, Brhatpali, Somaraji, Vanajirakah
Assamese : —
Bengali : Somaraaj
English : Purple Flebane, Worm Seed Fleabane
Gujrati : Kaaleejeeree, Kadavijeeree
Hindi : Kaalijeeree, Karajiri, Soharaai
Kannada : Kaadujeerage, Kaarijirige
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Krimishatru, Kattujirakam
Marathi : Kadujire
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Kaattuchirakam, Chittilai
Telugu : Adavijilakaroa, Garetikamma
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

The fruits are cypsela, indehiscent, 3 to 5 mm long and 1 to 2 mm in diameter; tapering towards base, pappus present over flattened upper end; surface exhibits about 20 longitudinal ridges, hairy, blackish-brown to black in colour; taste, bitter and odour indistinct.

b) Microscopic

T.S. of fruit exhibits about 20 ridges and furrows; the epidermis is single layered, covered externally with thick cuticle; trichomes are of two types – covering and glandular; covering trichomes unicellular, elongated with tapering ends, present mostly on the ridges; glandular hairs, sessile with unicellular heads are seen in the furrows; rest of the pericarp consists of thin walled parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles are present below the ridges, followed by discontinuous and laterally extending arches of thick walled and lignified sclerenchymatous tissues; testa is single layered followed by thin walled parenchymatous cells of the cotyledon, most of them consisting of aleurone grains and a few exhibit oil globules.

Powder – The powder exhibits fragments of fibres, fibre sclereids, scalariform vascular elements, thin walled parenchymatous cells with aleurone grains and oil globules, covering as well as glandular trichomes thin walled radially elongated cells of pappus.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2.0 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 7.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of petroleum ether extract on Silica Gel G 60 precoated plate (Merck) using Petroleum ether (60-80oC); Diethyl ether: Acetic acid (70:32:2), shows under UV (366 nm) one spot at Rf. 0.48 (light blue); on exposure to iodine vapours 4 spots appear at Rf. 0.48 (dark orange), 0.57, 0.68 and 0.84 (all faint orange); after spraying with 5% ethanolic sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 110oC for 30 minutes, 4 spots appear at Rf. 0.48 (black) 0.57, 0.68 and 0.84 (all faint brown).

CONSTITUENTS – Sterols, avenasterol and vernosterol, a bitter principle, essential oil,resins and fixed oil consisting of myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and vernolic acids

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Tiksna
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Stambhana, Vatahara, Jantunasaka, Netrya

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Madhusnuhi Rasayana

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Sopha, Svasa, Gulma, Hikka, Jvara, Kasa, Krmi, Kustha, Mutraghata, Raktavikara, Vrana, Kandu, Svitrakustha

DOSE – 1-3 g.

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ROHISA (Whole Plant) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats.

ROHISA (Whole Plant)

Rohisa consists of dried leaf, stem and root of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Fam. Poacem) a perennial, sweet scented grass, 1.5 to 3.5 m high, occurs wild in dry localities and cultivated in many parts of India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : —
Assamese : —
Bengali : Agam Ghaas, Agiyaa Ghaas
English : Rosha Grass, Rusa grass
Gujrati : Rondso, Ronsdo
Hindi : Rohis, Roosaa, Roosaaghaas, Mirchagandha
Kannada : Dunllu, Harehullu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Sambhaarppullu
Marathi : Rohish gavat
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Agya ghass
Tamil : Kaavattampillu, Munkipul, Chooraippul
Telugu : Kaamakchhi – Kassuvu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Root – Short, stout and woody; roots fibrous; many culms arise from root stumps.

Culm – Erect, terete, smooth shiny, upto 6 mm in dia., internodes 5 to 16 cm long, solid.

Leaf – Blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate tapering to long filiform acuminate point, cordate and amplexicaul at base, upto 50 cm long and 3.5 cm broad; upper leaves are smaller, leaf surface glabrous, margin scabrid; midrib prominent and protruded on the lower surface; leaf sheath shorter than the internodes, glabrous, striate, auriculate, tight and clasping the culm, ligules membranous, 2 to 3 cm long.

Inflorescence – Spathate panicle, compound, upto 30 cm long; primary axis bears 2 or 3 branches at each node, these end in a spatheole which bears a pair of racemes, spatheole
1.8 mm long become reddish at maturity; racemes 1.5-2.0 cm long become subsessile or shortly pedicelled, lower raceme base and lower most pedicel swollen; sessile spikelet about 3.5 mm long, lower glume 1 mm wide, ovate, with deep median groove, broadly winged, 2 nerved; awn 12 to 18 mm long; pedicellate spikelet about 4 mm long, glabrous; lower glume lanceolate, 8 nerved, flower hermaphrodite or male, stamens-3, anthers 1 or 2 mm long, style 2, stigma pilose.

b) Microscopic

Root – T.S. shows thin walled epiblema with unicellular root hairs; cortex composed of thin walled, parenchymatous cells; large air chambers present in the cortex; endodermis single layered and pericycle two cell layered; central vascular strand has outer 2 or 3 layers of sclerenchymatous cells followed by 3 to 5 cells deep zones of thin walled phloem with a row of circular cavities of 12 to 25 n diam.; 5 to 10 cell layer thick zone encloses xylem vessels; which are 35 to 50 n in diam.; pith cells thick walled and devoid of any cell contents.

Stem – T.S. shows thick cuticle; epidermis devoid of any appendages; hypodermis 6 to 10 cells deep and composed of sclerenchymatous cells; vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue with a row of smaller vascular bundles in the hypodermis; cells of ground tissue thin walled, parenchymatous; vascular bundles present in the ground tissue enclosed by 2 or 3 layers of sclerenchymatous cells.

Leaf – T.S. shows isobilateral structure, with a spongy mesophyll between; outline showing a slightly concave upper surface and a convex lower surface; midrib protruded towards lower side; cells of upper epidermis interrupted by the presence of bulliform or motor cells; lower epidermal cells are more uniform in size and smaller; stomata present on both surfaces, characteristically placed in a straight line between veins, mesophyll consists of chlorenchymatous cells placed radially around smaller vascular bundles; bundle sheath present around smaller vascular bundles, on either side of the midrib vascular bundle; group of sclerenchymatous fibres are found and may extend upto bundle sheath; vascular bundle of midrib usually has two conspicuous metaxylem vessels. Lower epidermis can be distinguished from the upper epidermis by its having more number of stomata, smaller epidermal cells and presence of microhairs and papillm; stomata of the lower epidermis – oval, mostly with low dome shaped long cells present between the veins; long cells of lower epidermis possess 1 or 2 papillm, while papillm are absent on the long cells of upper epidermis; short cells over the veins in rows of more than 5 cells and may be in pairs; silica bodies abundant over the veins mostly dumbbell shaped, occasionally cross-shaped, narrow and crenate; prickle and micro hairs present; micro hairs two celled, observed only on lower epidermis; the basal cell of micro hairs is wide as compared to distal cell; distal cell tapers to an acutely pointed apex.

Powder – Brown, fibrous, free flowing, shows debris from leaves showing characteristic graminaceous stomata, silica bodies, and micro hairs; also contains pitted parenchyma and fiber.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Essential oil Not less than 0.2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.10

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of essential oil on silica gel ‘G’ plate using hexane : ethyl acetate (90:10) shows seven spots at Rf 0.25, 0.38, 0.47, 0.57, 0.64, 0.71 and 0.78 on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil (0.5 percent) containing terpenes such as geraniol, geranyl acetate, citronellol, linalool, geranyl butyrate, myrcene,α- and β-pinene.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Tiksna
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Pittahara, Kaphavatasamaka, Balagrahahara, Pumstvaghna

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Bala Taila, Masabaladi Kvatha Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Apasmara, Aruci, Hrdroga, Jvara, Kasa, Kustha, Prameha, Raktapitta, Pinasa, Kaphajvara, Kantha Roga, Katisula, Vrscika-Visa

DOSE – 10-20 g.

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VIDARIKANDA (Tuber) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Pueraria tuberosa DC

VIDARIKANDA (Tuber)

Vidarikanda is the dried tuber of Pueraria tuberosa DC. (Fam. Fabacem), a large, perennial climber with tuberous roots, upto 60 cm long and 30 cm thick, even weighing upto 35 kg, from about 5 or 10 kg; they are distributed nearly throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Iksugandha, Vidari
Assamese : —
Bengali : Shimiya, Shimiabatraji, Bhui Kumdo
English : Indian Kudju
Gujrati : Khakharvel, Vidaree, Vidareekand
Hindi : VidareeKand, Bilaikand, Sural, Patal Kand
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Bendriya bel, Bindree, Vendrichavel
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Siali
Tamil : Nilpushni Kezhugu
Telugu : Nelagummudu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Dried cut pieces of tuber, 3 to 5 cm large, 2 to 4 cm broad and fibrous; outer surface where present, light brown in colour; outer surface, where epidermis is present, is light brown with transverse warts and ridges; cut surface creamy; fleshy, transverse small warts and ridges are found on the surface, texture smooth; sweet in taste, no particular smell (cut pieces of the tubers of Ipomoea digitata, substitute of P. tuberosa, are cubical, smooth, light cream in colour and can easily be distinguished).

b) Microscopic

T.S. of whole root tuber is slightly wavy in outline, epidermis not discernible; 3 to 4 layers of cork cells, followed by 5 to7 layers of parenchymatous cells present; cork cambium-brown in colour and 2 or 3 cells thick, endodermis well developed; pericycle fibrous followed by 2 layers of stone cells filled with sandy crystals; phloem consist of sieve tubes, companion cells, patches of bast fibres and phloem parenchyma; xylem pentarch in young root, consist of vessels with scalariform cross perforation, tracheids, xylem fibres and parenchyma; medullary rays broad and parenchymatous. The medullary rays and phloem cells are filled with starch grains which are polygonal, 2 to 5 nm in diameter, simple or two to many-compound, hilum usually indistinct, occasionally a central cleft, lamellm indistinct. In macerated preparation crystal fibres are multicellular, articulated, each cell carrying a crystal of calcium oxalate, some of the articulated fibres are swollen in the middle like a bulb pipette.

Powder – Greyish-brown, no characteristic odour, bitter in taste; shows parenchyma filled with starch, septate fibres in the form of crystals fibres as well as shaped bulb like pipette; vessels with simple and scalariform cross perforation plates, stone cells, and starch as described under microscopy; powder treated with 1N NaOH in methanol and nitro-cellulose in amylacetate gives light green fluorescence under UV 254 nm.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Moisture content Not more than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.9.
Total ash Not more than 11 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid insoluble ash Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol soluble extractive Not less than 13 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 22 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Starch Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.13

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the methanolic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethyl acetate : methanol (80 : 20 : 0.5) shows under UV (366 nm) blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.19, 0.25, 0.34, 0.38. On spraying with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and heating for ten minutes at 120oC, spots appear at Rf. 0.19 (green), 0.34 (Magenta), 0.45 (green), 0.48 (blue), 0.62 (blue), 0.67 (red) and 0.92 (dark pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Pterocarpan-tuberosin, pterocarpanone-hydroxytuberosone, two pterocarpenes-anhydrotuberosin and 3-O-methylanhydrotuberosin, and a coumestan tuberostan. An isoflavone-puerarone and a coumestan-puerarostan.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Balya, Hrdya, Jivaniya, Mutral, Pittahara, Svarya, Vajikarana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Varnya, Brhana, Stanyadu, Rasayani

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Satavaryadi Ghrta, Mahavisagarbha Taila, Marmagutika, Nityananda Rasa, Sarasvatarista, Asvagandhadyarista

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Daha, Kasa, Ksaya, Mutrakrcchra, Raktadosa, Raktapitta, Visamajvara, Visarpa, Sukraksaya

DOSE – 3-6 g.

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RUMIMASTAGI (Resin) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Pistacia lentiscus Linn

RUMIMASTAGI (Resin)

Rumimastagi is a resin obtained from Pistacia lentiscus Linn. (Fam. Anacardiacem), a shrub or small tree indigenous to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : —
Assamese : —
Bengali : Rumi-Mastungi
English : Mastic
Gujrati : Rumi Mastagee
Hindi : Rumi Mastagee, Rumi Mastiki, Mastagee
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Rumaa Mastakee
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : —
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : Rumee Mastagee

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

The resin occurs in small, hard, pear shaped, ovoid or nearly globular, sometimes elongated tears, about 2 to 8 mm in diameter; pale yellow in colour; brittle, breaking into clear glossy fracture, interior transparent, crushing to a sandy powder, taste, slightly agreeable; odour, aromatic.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 2.6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.34 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 94 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 0.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

ASSAY

The drug on steam distillation yields colourless oil (1.5-2.0% v/w), which is heavier than water. (Method in Appendix 2.2.10.).

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ precoated plates (Merck), using Toluene : Methanol (95:5); under UV (254nm) shows one spot at Rf. 0.17 (blue fluorescence): on spraying with Vanillin-sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 110oC for 30 minutes, twelve spots appear at Rf. 0.12, 0.17, 0.23 (all violet), 0.40 (blue), 0.41 (purple), 0.44, 0.46, 0.49, 0.56, 0.69, 0.80 and 0.86 (all blue).

CONSTITUENTS – Resin, volatile oil, a bicyclic terpenoid and fatty acids.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Vrsya, Varnya, Vajikarana, Rakta Sangrahika, Mukhadurgandhanasaka, Dasansthiratakara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Eladi, Kameda, Sukrama Vati

THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimandya, Sotha, Svasa, Adhmana, Grahani, Kasa, Mutrakrcchra, Raktasrava, Vatapittaja Vikara

DOSE – 1-2 g.

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VIRALA (Stem Bark) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Diospyros exsculpta Buch-Ham

VIRALA (Stem Bark)

Virala consists of dried stem bark of Diospyros exsculpta Buch. – Ham. syn. D. tomentosa Roxb. (Fam. Ebenacem), a small or occasionally large tree found distributed in sub-Himalyan tract, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Tindukah, Tinduki
Assamese : —
Bengali : Kend, Gaab
English : Gaub Persimon, Indian Persimon
Gujrati : Timbaru
Hindi : Gaabh, Tendu, Kendu
Kannada : Holitupare, Kushaarta
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Panchchi, Pananchi, Panachcha
Marathi : Temburani
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Tendu
Tamil : Panichchai, Tumbika
Telugu : Tinduki, Tumikechettu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Bark available in pieces of variable lengths, usually 1 to 1.5cm thick, light brown in colour, surface uneven with exfoliating rectangular scales, slightly curved, outer surface ash coloured, inner surface brownish, striate but smooth; fracture, granular; odour, characteristic, taste, sweet and astringent.

b) Microscopic

T.S. shows a thick portion of rhytidome; cork consists of 5 or 6 layers of tangentially elongated rectangular, dorsoventrally compressed thin walled cells, a few strongly liginified and filled with reddish brown masses; cortex consists of 4 to 6 layers of thin walled parenchymatous cells, many containing prismatic calcium oxalate crystals, measuring 20 to 70 n and starch grains about 6 to 10 n; tanniniferous cells present; phloem traversed by uniseriate medullary rays; sieve tube associated with companion cells; phloem parenchyma consists of cells with thin, dark reddish brown walls many of the cells contain calcium oxalate crystals mostly prismatic type but a few clusters also observed; patches of fibres present with a fairly large lumen; sclereids occur in groups of 8 to 10, oval to elongate in shape, measuring 45 to 175 n in length with thick striated walls, the lumen is very small often reduced to a line; pit canals present.

Powder -Ash colour, coarse; fragments of thick-walled cork cells with dense brown content; sclereids elongated and oval shaped showing pit canals with narrow lumen; calcium oxalate crystal in the form of prisms and clusters; a few yellowish tannin cells.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 15 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 1.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ (E . Merck grade) plate using Chloroform : Acetone (98 : 2) shows under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.88 (blue) and 0.93 (green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde – Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105oC six spots appear at Rf. 0.32 (pink), 0.49 (pink), 0.56 (grey), 0.71(dark pink), 0.88 (pink) and 0.93 (pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Triterpenoids (Lupeol, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Oleanolic acid) and Sterol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Grahi, Kaphahara, Pittahara, Vranaropana, Jihvajadyakara, Savarnakara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nayagrodhadi Kvatha Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Aruci, Atisara, Bhagna, Medoroga, Prameha, Raktapitta, Udarda, Vibandha, Vrana, Yoniroga, Pittaroga, Karnasrava, Agnidagdha Vrana, Atidagdha Vrana, Trsa, Daha

DOSE – 5 – 10 g.

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