SVETAPUNARNAVA (Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Borhaavia verticillata Poir

SVETAPUNARNAVA (Root)

Svetapunarnava consists of root of Boerhaavia verticillata Poir. (Fam. Nyctaginacem), a herbaceous weed with a tendency to climb, widely distributed in the plains throughout India during rainy season.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Vrsciva
Assamese : —
Bengali : Shatapunyaa
English : Horse purslene, Blunt leaved Hogweed
Gujrati : Vasedo, Vasedee
Hindi : Safed Punarnavaa, Gada Poornaa
Kannada : Maachchugoni, Vinleey Duvelladkilu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Pundharighentuli
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Itsita
Tamil : Sharunnai, Mukkarattai-Kirai

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Roots occur in small pieces of 5 to 7.5 cm in length and upto 2 cm in thickness; texture rough; lenticels dot like or slightly transversely elongated, arranged in transverse rows; colour brown, freshly cut surface creamish to light brown; odour and taste not distinctive.

b) Microscopic

Root shows anamolous secondary growth; periderm present and consisting of phellem, phellogen and phelloderm; part of phellem and phellogen sloughed off and phelloderm mostly crushed but forms a continuous layer around the stelar region; the phellogen consists of 4 or 5 layers of rectangular and tangentially elongated cells; cortex composed of parenchymatous cells that are usually crushed; raphides present in some cells of cortex; centre of the root occupied by xylem consisting mostly of vessels, fibres and tracheids; concentric but irregular rings of cambium, patches of xylem and phloem, and parenchyma alternate in turn towards the periphery; medullary rays are not distinct; starch abundant in parenchyma; most of the starch grains rounded or hemispherical in shape; the compound starch grains, however, are scanty.

Powder – The powder show raphides (usually broken) and fragments of fibres, and vessel members showing scalariform thickenings; starch present.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 16 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene:ethylacetate:acetic acid (5:4.5:0.5), shows under U.V. (366nm) spots at Rf 0.37, 0.59, 0.80 (All Blue). On spraying with anisaldehyde: sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110oC spots appear at Rf 0.19(Greyish Black), 0.59 (Greyish Black), 0.69 (Blue), 0.79 (Purple).

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Kaphahara, Vatahara, Visaghna, Pittasamaka, Agnidipaka, Jvarahara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Kumaryasava (A), Punarnavadyrista, Dhanvantara Ghrta, Dadhika Ghrta

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sopha, Sotha, Hrdroga, Kasa, Pandu, Pliharoga, Sula, Sarpavisa, Udararoga, Vrscikavisa, Visavikara, Urahksata, Rakta Vikara, Paittika Jvara, Caturthikajvara, Srava, Vatakantaka, Vidradhi Alarkavisa, Musakavisa

DOSE – 5-15 g.

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TAILAPARNAH (Leaf) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Eucalyptus globules Labill

TAILAPARNAH (Leaf)

Tailaparnah consists of mature leaf of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Fam. Myrtacem) a large tree attaining a height of 90 m or more, native to Australia, but planted world wide and introduced in Nilgiris, Anamalai and Palni hills, Simla and Shillong at an altitude of 1500-2500 m.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Nilaniryasa, Ekalipth, Sugandha Patrah
Assamese : —
Bengali : —
English : Blue gum, Eucalyptus
Gujrati : —
Hindi : Yukeliptas
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Yukkaalimaram
Marathi : Nilgiri
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Yukkaalimaram
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Drug consists of mature leaves, more or less scimitar shaped, thick, leathery, greyish-green, petiolate, upto 26 cm long and 4 cm broad; petioles 2.0 to 3.5 cm long and 0.5 to 1.5 mm thick, sometimes twisted; apex acute to acuminate, base obtuse; midrib prominent, particularly on the lower surface; margin of leaf entire and somewhat thickened, brittle and possess numerous brown to dark brown corky warts. In transmitted light, numerous oil glands can be seen as transluscent dots; upper surface smooth, lower surface slightly rough due to the presence of projecting veins; venation – unicostate reticulate; lateral veins anastamose near the margin forming a continuous line; odour strong and characteristic.

b) Microscopic

Leaf – T.S. shows typical isobilateral structures with two or three rows of palisade cells on both upper and lower sides, surfaces show thick cuticle; numerous sunken stomata and large ovoid schizogenous oil cavities of 160 to 200 n diam.; idioblasts present with rosettes or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals; rosette crystals 25 to 35n in size, prismatic crystals 15 to 25n in size; vascular bundle of midrib are crescent shaped with one vascular strand present on each side, all having interrupted patches of sclerenchyma; corky warts comprising of 10 or more layers of cells; laminary bundles enclosed in bundle sheath, the cells of which extend to the epidermis on both sides; upper and lower epidermal cells have straight walls; stomata anomocytic; stomatal index on both upper and lower surface 5 to 10; the palisade ratio on upper surface 5 to 17 and lower surface 3 to 6.

Powder – Yellowish brown, free flowing, characterized by the presence of cluster and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; epidermis straight walled with sunken stomata; fibers present.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 9 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 21 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Essential oil Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.10

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of hexane extract on silica gel 60 F 254 plate using Toluene : Acetone (95:05) shows four spots at Rf 0.22, 0.35, 0.41 and 0.49 on spraying with Vanillin- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil containing terpenes such as 1,8 – cineole, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, p-menthone, α-and γ-terpinene, fenchone, α- β- thujone, citral, verbenone.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Hrdya, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Pacana, Vatahara, Durgandhinasaka, Agnimandya, Balaprada

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Ekadasasatikaprasanini Failam, Mahasugandhika Taila, Pancavaktra Rasa, Pancaguna Taila, Martandabhairava Rasa, Jvaramari Rasa

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Agnimandya, Svasa, Hrdroga, Jvara, Krmi, Ksaya, Puyameha, Pliharoga, Pratisyaya, Pravahika, Svarabheda, Visamajvara, Jirnakasa, Bastiroga

DOSE – 1-2 g.

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TINISAH (Wood) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Ougenia oojeinensis (Roxb)Hochr

TINISAH (Wood)

Tinisah consists of wood of Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr. syn. O. dalbergioides Benth. (Fam. Fabacem), a small to medium sized deciduous tree, found in the outer Himalayas and sub Himalayan tracts from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1500 m and extending through the whole of the northern and central India into greater part of Deccan Peninsula.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Tinih, Syandanah, Rathadru
Assamese : —
Bengali : Tinish
English : Sandan
Gujrati : Tanacha
Hindi : Sandan, Saanana, Tinisaa
Kannada : Karimutale, Kalabangaa
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Totukara, Malavenna
Marathi : Timas, Syandan
Oriya : Vanjan
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Narivengai, Naiponai
Telugu : Tellamotuku, Dargu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Wood pieces are roughly cubic and about 2 to 3 cm in size; outer part yellow or cream, internal part light to dark brown in colour; cut surfaces are fibrous, wood pieces devoid of any odour.

b) Microscopic

Sap wood – Diffuse porous, vessels in cross sections solitary, in short radial multiples or in clusters, forming oblique chains, about 30 to 220 n in diam. with reticulate thickenings and simple pits, without gummy deposits; frequency of vessels per sq. mm is 14 to 18; axial parenchyma is paratracheal, aliform, confluent – broad and filled with simple starch grains 4 to 21 n in dia. with prominent striations and slit like centric hilum; fibres present in patches; marginal fibres possess abundant prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, 4 to 10 n in size; fibres are occasionally septate; rays uni- to multiseriate, heterogenous, usually homocellular, some cells may contain minute starch grains of about 8 n diam.; cells contain no tannin.

Heart wood – T.S. shows vessels of same size as those of sap wood but are usually filled with brownish gummy material and possess bordered pits; frequency of vessels per sq. mm is 6 to 8; axial parenchyma is paratracheal, aliform and is usually filled with brownish substance but lack starch grains; marginal fibres contain abundant prismatic crystals of same size as observed in the sapwood, ray, axial parenchyma and fibres contain tannins.

Powder – Brown, fibrous, free flowing, characterized by the presence of several lumps of brown gummy material, xylem parenchyma, medullary ray cells, simple starch grains, xylem vessels with several small slit like pits and fibres containing crystals of calcium oxalate.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of methanol extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate using diethyl ether : hexane (78:22) shows six spots at Rf 0.47, 0.50, 0.62, 0.65, 0.72 and 0.86 on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Flavonoids mainly homoferreirin and ougeinin.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kusthaghna, Medohara, Pittahara, Rasayana, Visaghna, Vranaropana, Kaphasosana, Sonitasthapana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Ayaskrti

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sotha, Svitra, Daha, Krmi, Kustha, Medoroga, Prameha, Pravahika, Raktatisara, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Vrana, Atisara, Panduroga

DOSE – 50 – 100 ml Kvatha.

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TINTIDIKAH (Aerial Part) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Rhus parviflora Roxb

TINTIDIKAH (Aerial Part)

Tintidikah consists of mature dried aerial part of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Fam. Anacardiacem), an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub commonly found on the dry hot slopes of Himalayas from Punjab to Nepal and in the hills of Peninsular India at an altitude of 600-2100 m.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Tintidika
Assamese : —
Bengali : —
English : Sumac
Gujrati : —
Hindi : Tungalaa, Samakadana, Raitung
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : —
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Khatte Masoor, Raitung, Tungaa
Tamil : —
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : Sumaak

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Stem – Young stem branched, reddish-brown, tomentose; stem pieces 10 to 15 cm long and upto 4 cm in diam., old ones woody with longitudinal striations and glandular protuberances, greenish-brown, bark separable from wood, inner surface of bark reddishbrown, wood light brown in colour; fracture, hard and fibrous.

Leaf – Trifoliate when intact, leaflets elliptic, oblong, obovate, petiolate, petiole 2.5 to 3.5 cm in length, tomentose, terminal leaflet large, obovate, 7 to 8.5 cm in length, 3 or 4 cm broad, rather thick, basal margin entire and cuneate, upper coarsely and irregularly crenate, pubescent, laterals relatively broader and more rounded at base, sessile, pubescent and smooth.

Fruit – Drupe, oval, yellowish-green to brownish-green, glabrous, shining, fruits present on panicles; calyx persistent; fruit wrinkled.

b) Microscopic

Stem – T.S. shows cork, cortex and stele; patches of cortical fibres, secretory canals and rhomboid crystals of calcium oxalate, measuring about 13 n well distributed in the cortex; xylem in the form of a continuous cylinder traversed by uni or biseriate medullary rays; border pitted and scalariform vessels present; lignified fibres septate, measuring 300 to 770 n in length and upto 50 n in width; pith parenchymatous, possessing tannins, starch grains and rhomboid crystals of calcium oxalate.

Petiole – T.S. shows a single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; abundant unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate trichomes measuring 30 to 360 n in length and 10 to 20 n in width; cortex consisting of 3 or 4 layers of collenchymatous cells and 5 or 6 layers of parenchymatous cells, some cells of collenchyma and parenchyma contain rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate, measuring upto 20 n; collateral vascular bundles 15 to 17 in number, surrounding a central parenchymatous pith and capped by an arch of pericyclic fibres; secretory canals present in phloem region.

Midrib – T.S. shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle; nonglandular, unicellular and uniseriate, multicellular trichomes abundantly present on the epidermis, followed by collenchymatous tissue; vascular bundles 5 to 7 in number, arranged in a circle, conjoint, collateral, each capped by an arch of fibres; secretory canals present in phloem region; pith consists of parenchymatous cells.

Lamina – T.S. shows dorsiventral structure, epidermal cells composed of cubical to slightly elongated and rectangular cells, externally covered with cuticle; below upper epidermis 2 or 3 layers of palisade parenchyma present; lower epidermis single layered with thick cuticle; unicellular and uniseriate, multicellular trichomes present on both surfaces, measuring upto 200 n in length and about 30 n in width; palisade parenchyma followed by loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells; mesophyll traversed by vascular bundles; each vascular bundle surrounded by bundle sheath, extending from upper epidermis to lower epidermis as bundle sheath extension. In surface view lower epidermis shows anomocytic type of stomata while upper epidermis is devoid of stomata; stomatal index 6 to 10 on lower epidermis; vein islet number 12 to 15; palisade ratio 2 to 4.

Powder – Brown, odour slightly strong, somewhat acrid in taste; fragments of palisade tissue, calcium oxalate crystals, trichomes, starch grains, bordered pitted vessels and vessels having scalariform thickenings.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol: acetic acid (80:20:2) shows under UV (254 nm) six spots at Rf. 0.11, 0.18, 0.29, 0.54 (all brown), 0.80 and 0.91 (both yellowish green). Under UV (366nm) seven fluorescent spots appear at Rf. 0.11, 0.18, 0.29, 0.54, 0.70 (all brown), 0.80 and 0.91 (both pink). On exposure to iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.11(pinkish brown), 0.15, 0.22 (brown), 0.38, 0.64, 0.74, 0.80 and 0.91 (all yellowish brown). On spraying with 5% ferric chloride solution seven spots appear at Rf. 0.15, 0.24 (both green), 0.41 (faint brown), 0.54 (blue), 0.73 (faint brown) 0.83 and 0.91 (both brown).

CONSTITUENTS – Tannins (Gallic acid); flavones (myricetin, quercetin, myricitrin, quercitrin, kampferol); glycosides (isorhmnetin-3-α-Larabinoside)

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Amla
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Amla
Karma : Dipana, Grahi, Jvaraghna, Kaphavatahara, Pittakara, Rocana, Vatahara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Yavani Sadava, Hinguvacadi Curna, Sri Ramabana Rasa

THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimandya, Aruci, Atisara, Pravahika, Trsna, Vatavikara

DOSE – 3 – 6 g.

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TRAPUSAM (Seed) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Cucumis sativus Linn.

TRAPUSAM (Seed)

Trapusam consists of dried seed of Cucumis sativus Linn. (Fam. Cucurbitacem), an annual trailing or climbing plant, numerous varieties widely cultivated throughout India upto an altitude of 1200 m. The seeds are devoid of mucilagenous outer layer.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Svetakarahatakam, Sudhavasah, Mutralam, Kantakiphalam
Assamese : —
Bengali : Ksheeraa, Shashaa
English : Cucumber
Gujrati : Taanslee
Hindi : Kheeraa
Kannada : Mullusavte, Santekaayi
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Vellari
Marathi : Tause, Khiraa
Oriya : Kantiaali Kaakudi
Punjabi : Khiraa
Tamil : Vellarikkaay, Pippinkaay
Telugu : Khirakaya
Urdu : Kheeraa

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Seeds compressed, elongated, ellipsoid, dorsiventrally convex and laterally ridged; size variable, about a cm or occasionally more in length and upto 0.5 cm wide; micropyle pointed, distinctly visible; outer surface glossy, brittle, peelable; yellowishwhite; kernel, oily, creamish-white; taste, mildly sweet, oily; not slippery to touch when moistened: odour, nil.

b) Microscopic

Outermost layer of testa absent; hypodermis sclerenchymatous, two layered, outer layer of small, circular, stone cells, inner layer of large, oval, thick walled, striated, lignified sclereids placed at right angle to outer layer; a large zone of mrenchyma filled with loosely packed parenchymatous cells; cotyledon lined by compact layer of cuticularized thin walled epidermis, cotyledon of several layers of elongated, closely packed parenchymatous cells, largely hexagonal, packed with aleurone grains, starch and fat globules; innermost two layers much more elongated, palisade like, and distinct; each cotyledon shows five distinct patches of small, thin walled, polygonal cells present midway, in a roughly trapezial shape.

Powder – Creamish-white to light-green, oily, shows groups of yellowish, wavy-walled sclereids from testa in surface view, also isolated ones; fragments of parenchymatous cells; annular or spiral xylem vessels in groups; abundant oil globules, aleurone grains, and starch grains.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol (20:0.5) shows spots at Rf 0.31 (purple), 0.40 (brown), 0.48 (purple), 0.52 (light purple), 0.60 (purple), 0.70 (light grey) and 0.78 (pinkish brown) on spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105oC for about ten minutes.

CONSTITUENTS – Fixed oil and sugars.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Balya, Kaphakara, Mutrala, Vatapittahara, Abhisyandi, Mutrabastivisodhaka, Agnisadana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Chardi, Mutrakrcchra, Raktavikara, Mutraghata, Raktapitta, Daurbalya, Daha, Anidra, Sirahsula, Sitajvara

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sitajvara, Anidra, Chardi, Daha, Daurbalya, Mutraghata, Mutrakrcchra, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Sirahsula

DOSE – 3-6 g powder.

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TUNI (Stem Bark) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Cedrela toona Roxb.

TUNI (Stem Bark)

Tuni consists of stem bark of Cedrela toona Roxb. (Fam. Meliacem), a large, rapidly growing, nearly evergreen tree attaining a height upto 18 m, and distributed in tropical Himalayas from the Indus eastward, ascending to 1000 m and also throughout the hills of Central and Southern India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Nandivrksa, Tuni, Tuna, Nandi
Assamese : —
Bengali : Toongaachha
English : Toon, Red ceder
Gujrati : Toonee
Hindi : Tun, Toonee, Tuni
Kannada : Mandurike, Kempu Gandagheri
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Madagirivempu, Ikana, Patukarana
Marathi : Toonee, Kurak
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Karamusuli, Shevagil Malavembu
Telugu : Nandichettu, Galimanu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Bark available in long pieces, channelled, of varying thickness; external surface, rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks, fissured, dark grey having lenticels, inner surface, red, laminated and fibrous; fracture, fibrous and splintery; odour, very mild and pleasant; taste, sharp and acrid.

b) Microscopic

Stem bark shows exfoliating cork, 8 to 10 layers consisting of tangentially elongated, radially arranged, thin-walled cells; cortex, 12 to 15 layers of rectangular parenchymatous cells, outer layers having cells filled with small rosette crystals of calcium oxalate at regular intervals; inner layers of cortex of isodiametric cells having abundant larger rosette crystals; occasionally stone cells may be present in outer cortex; phloem fibres abundant in patches, thick walled; medullary rays narrow, generally biseriate; starch grains, simple or compound, present in cortical region.

Powder – Light reddish-brown; shows occasional fragments of cork cells; fibres, large, abundant in groups, a few isolated, lignified with distinct lumen, tips bluntly pointed or having distinct indentation; stone cells, few, of varying shapes, elongated to isodiametric; phloem parenchyma, thin-walled, containing calcium oxalate rosettes and prisms; abundant prismatic and rosette calcium oxalate crystals, rosettes of varying sizes measuring 11 to 60 n, prisms, small; starch grains, simple or compound having 2 to 6 components, 3-component grains most common, round and oval measuring upto 10 n in dia., cleft hilum.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 9 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using petroleum ether : hexane : ethyl acetate : formic acid (10:30:15:1) shows spots at Rf. 0.34, 0.44, 0.57 and 0.88 (all purple) on spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105oC for about ten minutes.

CONSTITUENTS – Triterpenoids.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Grahi, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Bhagnasandhanaka

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nyagrodhadi Kvatha Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Daha, Gandamala, Kandu, Kustha, Prameha, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Visavikara, Vrana, Yoniroga, Bala Pravahika, Svetakustha, Medovikara

DOSE – 3-6 g kvatha-10-20 ml.

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VANDA (Leaf) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Leaf)

Vanda consists of the dried leaf of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Vrksadani, Bandaka, Vrksaruha, Samharsa
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Bandanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Ittikkanni, Itil
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : Pulluri
Tamil : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Telugu : Jeevakamu

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Leaves petiolate, exstipulate, opposite, decussate, simple, ovate to oblanceolate, glabrous, soft and leathery when young, brittle when dry; margin entire; base decurrent; apex acute; slightly astringent; odour resembling those of tealeaves.

b) Microscopic

Transverse section of the leaf shows a thick cuticle, upper and lower epidermis composed of squarish cells with convex periclinal outer walls; surface views of upper and lower nearly similar; stomata paracytic, present on both surfaces; mesophyll of lamina consisting of 2 to 4 layers inner to upper and lower epidermis made up of compactly arranged short rectangular cells and irregularly arranged parenchyma cells of middle layers but possesing a few intercellular spaces; occassional vascular strands passing through this middle portion; isolated sclereids about 50 n thick containing prismatic crystals of about 12 n present in parenchyma; midrib buldging prominently on both the surfaces and containing a group of 3 to 5 vascular bundles; xylem of vascular bundles oriented towards upper epidermis and consisting of tracheids, vessels and parenchyma; phloem present towards lower epidermis and consisting of thin walled cells; bundle sheath absent; each vascular bundle associated with patch of collenchymatous cells outside the phloem; tannin (ranging from yellow to brown in colour) abundant in parenchyma cells of midrib and lamina region, especially in the 2 or 3 subepidermal layers; stomatal index 9 to 13 on upper surface and 10 to 14 on lower surface.

Powder – The powder shows angular epidermal cells and groups of thin walled, rectangular, closely packed parenchyma cells many of which contain tannins.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethyl formate : formic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (366 nm) spots at Rf. 0.06 (Brown); 0.39(Blue); 0.46 (Blue); 0.55 (Red); 0.81 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde: sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110o C two spots appear at Rf 0.35(Light Green), 0.45 (Orange).

CONSTITUENTS – Leaves contain flavonoids such as Quercetin, quercetrin;Tannins comprising of gallic and chebulinic acid.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sukrajanana, Grahi, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Pittahara, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana, Sramahara, Netrya, Grahanasana, Mangalakara, Garbhasthapana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana, Vandhyatva, Vata-Smari

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Stem) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Stem)

Vanda consists of the dried stem of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Bandhulu, Badanike
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikkanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Small twigs of mrial branches ranging from 2 mm to 2.5 cm in thickness; the bark of stem thin, dark brown and specked with lighter brown, uniformly distributed lenticles; the wood reddish-brown after removal of thin bark; stem slightly rough to touch; fracture irregular; fractured surface dark brown; no distinct taste or odour.

b) Microscopic

A transverse section of stem reveals a circular outline with a thick cuticle, and epidermis made up of squarish or barrel shaped cells with convex outer periclinal walls and interrupted here and there by lenticular openings; cork made up of thin-walled, crushed rectangular cells; cortex consisting of many layers of tangentially elongated and rounded cells interspersed with sclereids upto 85 n in size and in groups of 2 to 4; many cells of cortex, especially those of outer few layers contain tannins ranging in colour from yellow, orange to dark brown; groups of pericyclic fibres form a ring outside phloem; cambium present; xylem surrounding the central pith and composed of well developed vessels, fibre and parenchyma, 1 to 4 seriate medullary rays composed of radially elongated cells present; pith consists of thin walled, rounded or polygonal parenchymatous cells; small groups of sclereids, up to 85 n each in size present in both pith and medullary rays; prismatic crystals present in association with sclereids and medullary ray cells.

Powder – Powder shows vessel elements with simple pitted thickenings, groups of sclereids containing prismatic crystals (size of crystal 30 to 35 n long and 15 to 17 n wide) and fragments of parenchyma cells containing tannins.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract of the drug in chloroform as a mobile phase shows under UV (366 nm) spots Rf 0.13 (Grey); 0.24 (Green); 0.35 (Blue); 0.56 (Yellow); 0.76 (Grey); 0.85 (Orange Pink); 0.96 (Pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Young shoots contain nearly 10 per cent tannins and the stem contains β-amyrin-0-acetate, oleonolic acid its methyl ester acetate,β-sitosterol and stigmasterol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Mangalakara, Netrya, Pittahara, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Aerial Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Aerial Root)

Vanda consists of the dried aeial root of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Badanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikkanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Adventitious root greyish brown outside, yellowish to brown inside, slender, contorted and knotty in appearance, sending out haustoria into the host plant or, also into its own branches; rarely branched; fracture, irregular; odour and taste not distinct.

b) Microscopic

A transverse section of adventitious root is circular in outline; cuticle and epidermis sloughed off; outermost zone consists of broken tissue of cork and cortex followed by cork cambium made of rectangular cells; cortex wide, many layered, made of thin walled rounded cells and selereids upto 50 n size, present singly or in groups of 2 to 4; many cells of cortex contain tannin; patches of pericyclic fibres surround the vascular ring; phloem composed of small thin walled cells present outside the xylem and separated from it by the vascular cambium; xylem interrupted by short, 1 or 2 seriate medullary rays composed of radially elongated cells; xylem composed of scattered vessels, parenchyma and fibres; pith wide, composed of rounded parenchymatous cells interspersed with thick walled fibres of about 5 n in dia.

Powder – Powder shows tracheids and vessel members with simple pitted thickenings, broken fibres; stone cells with faint incomplete radial striations, upto 50 n in size and containing prismatic crystals.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract of the drug on silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol (80:20) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (at 366 nm) spots at Rf 0.35 (Blue); 0.58 (Blue); 0.90 (Blue).

CONSTITUENTS – Catechin and leucocynidin in the bark.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Mangalakara, Netrya, Pittahara, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Mutravirecaniya Kasaya Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.

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VANDA (Flower) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh.

VANDA (Flower)

Vanda consists of flowers of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn.f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), a semi-parasite, mainly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Bandaka, Samharsa, Vrksadani, Vrksaruha
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Badanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Itil, Ittikanni
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Pulluri
Telugu : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, regular, complete, coloured, apetalous, epigynous with cup or disc shaped receptacle, pentamerous; perianth-tepals 5, free and strap shaped towards the distal end and in the form of a sickle-shaped tube towards the basal end; surrounded at the base by a cup-shaped calyx; the perianth tube measures about 40 to 55 mm in length; it is narrow at the base and gradually widens towards the upper part; the perianth lobes become strongly reflexed at maturity. Inside the perianth tube are 5 cushion shaped nectarines; androecium stamens 5, epiphyllous, starting from two-thirds of length of perianth tube and continuing to the tip of perianth lobes, appressed to the style in young flowers; filaments orange coloured; anthers monothecous, dark, basifixed; gynoecium ovary 1, inferior, obscurely unilocular; style long, filamentous; stigma capitate; placentation basal, one ovule in each locule.

b) Microscopic

Powder – The powder shows characteristically triradiate, smooth walled, pollen grains upto 45 n in size and having a depression in the centre at distal end of each arm, and endothelial tissue.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethylformate : formic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (at 366 nm) spots at Rf value 0.11, 0.16, 0.26 (Blue), 0.45 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde : sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 110oC spots at Rf. 0.07 (Black); 0.12 (Green Black); 0.22 (Blue); 0.31 (Yellow); 0.40 (Yellow); 0.88 (Green) appear.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Raksoghna, Sramahara, Sukrajanana, Garbhasthapana, Grahi, Grahanasana, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Netrya, Pittahara, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Vata-Smari, Vandhyatva, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana

DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice

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