ROHISA (Whole Plant) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) Wats.

ROHISA (Whole Plant)

Rohisa consists of dried leaf, stem and root of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Fam. Poacem) a perennial, sweet scented grass, 1.5 to 3.5 m high, occurs wild in dry localities and cultivated in many parts of India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : —
Assamese : —
Bengali : Agam Ghaas, Agiyaa Ghaas
English : Rosha Grass, Rusa grass
Gujrati : Rondso, Ronsdo
Hindi : Rohis, Roosaa, Roosaaghaas, Mirchagandha
Kannada : Dunllu, Harehullu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Sambhaarppullu
Marathi : Rohish gavat
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Agya ghass
Tamil : Kaavattampillu, Munkipul, Chooraippul
Telugu : Kaamakchhi – Kassuvu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Root – Short, stout and woody; roots fibrous; many culms arise from root stumps.

Culm – Erect, terete, smooth shiny, upto 6 mm in dia., internodes 5 to 16 cm long, solid.

Leaf – Blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate tapering to long filiform acuminate point, cordate and amplexicaul at base, upto 50 cm long and 3.5 cm broad; upper leaves are smaller, leaf surface glabrous, margin scabrid; midrib prominent and protruded on the lower surface; leaf sheath shorter than the internodes, glabrous, striate, auriculate, tight and clasping the culm, ligules membranous, 2 to 3 cm long.

Inflorescence – Spathate panicle, compound, upto 30 cm long; primary axis bears 2 or 3 branches at each node, these end in a spatheole which bears a pair of racemes, spatheole
1.8 mm long become reddish at maturity; racemes 1.5-2.0 cm long become subsessile or shortly pedicelled, lower raceme base and lower most pedicel swollen; sessile spikelet about 3.5 mm long, lower glume 1 mm wide, ovate, with deep median groove, broadly winged, 2 nerved; awn 12 to 18 mm long; pedicellate spikelet about 4 mm long, glabrous; lower glume lanceolate, 8 nerved, flower hermaphrodite or male, stamens-3, anthers 1 or 2 mm long, style 2, stigma pilose.

b) Microscopic

Root – T.S. shows thin walled epiblema with unicellular root hairs; cortex composed of thin walled, parenchymatous cells; large air chambers present in the cortex; endodermis single layered and pericycle two cell layered; central vascular strand has outer 2 or 3 layers of sclerenchymatous cells followed by 3 to 5 cells deep zones of thin walled phloem with a row of circular cavities of 12 to 25 n diam.; 5 to 10 cell layer thick zone encloses xylem vessels; which are 35 to 50 n in diam.; pith cells thick walled and devoid of any cell contents.

Stem – T.S. shows thick cuticle; epidermis devoid of any appendages; hypodermis 6 to 10 cells deep and composed of sclerenchymatous cells; vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue with a row of smaller vascular bundles in the hypodermis; cells of ground tissue thin walled, parenchymatous; vascular bundles present in the ground tissue enclosed by 2 or 3 layers of sclerenchymatous cells.

Leaf – T.S. shows isobilateral structure, with a spongy mesophyll between; outline showing a slightly concave upper surface and a convex lower surface; midrib protruded towards lower side; cells of upper epidermis interrupted by the presence of bulliform or motor cells; lower epidermal cells are more uniform in size and smaller; stomata present on both surfaces, characteristically placed in a straight line between veins, mesophyll consists of chlorenchymatous cells placed radially around smaller vascular bundles; bundle sheath present around smaller vascular bundles, on either side of the midrib vascular bundle; group of sclerenchymatous fibres are found and may extend upto bundle sheath; vascular bundle of midrib usually has two conspicuous metaxylem vessels. Lower epidermis can be distinguished from the upper epidermis by its having more number of stomata, smaller epidermal cells and presence of microhairs and papillm; stomata of the lower epidermis – oval, mostly with low dome shaped long cells present between the veins; long cells of lower epidermis possess 1 or 2 papillm, while papillm are absent on the long cells of upper epidermis; short cells over the veins in rows of more than 5 cells and may be in pairs; silica bodies abundant over the veins mostly dumbbell shaped, occasionally cross-shaped, narrow and crenate; prickle and micro hairs present; micro hairs two celled, observed only on lower epidermis; the basal cell of micro hairs is wide as compared to distal cell; distal cell tapers to an acutely pointed apex.

Powder – Brown, fibrous, free flowing, shows debris from leaves showing characteristic graminaceous stomata, silica bodies, and micro hairs; also contains pitted parenchyma and fiber.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Essential oil Not less than 0.2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.10

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of essential oil on silica gel ‘G’ plate using hexane : ethyl acetate (90:10) shows seven spots at Rf 0.25, 0.38, 0.47, 0.57, 0.64, 0.71 and 0.78 on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil (0.5 percent) containing terpenes such as geraniol, geranyl acetate, citronellol, linalool, geranyl butyrate, myrcene,α- and β-pinene.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa, Tiksna
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Pittahara, Kaphavatasamaka, Balagrahahara, Pumstvaghna

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Bala Taila, Masabaladi Kvatha Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Apasmara, Aruci, Hrdroga, Jvara, Kasa, Kustha, Prameha, Raktapitta, Pinasa, Kaphajvara, Kantha Roga, Katisula, Vrscika-Visa

DOSE – 10-20 g.

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VIDARIKANDA (Tuber) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Pueraria tuberosa DC

VIDARIKANDA (Tuber)

Vidarikanda is the dried tuber of Pueraria tuberosa DC. (Fam. Fabacem), a large, perennial climber with tuberous roots, upto 60 cm long and 30 cm thick, even weighing upto 35 kg, from about 5 or 10 kg; they are distributed nearly throughout India.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Iksugandha, Vidari
Assamese : —
Bengali : Shimiya, Shimiabatraji, Bhui Kumdo
English : Indian Kudju
Gujrati : Khakharvel, Vidaree, Vidareekand
Hindi : VidareeKand, Bilaikand, Sural, Patal Kand
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Bendriya bel, Bindree, Vendrichavel
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Siali
Tamil : Nilpushni Kezhugu
Telugu : Nelagummudu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Dried cut pieces of tuber, 3 to 5 cm large, 2 to 4 cm broad and fibrous; outer surface where present, light brown in colour; outer surface, where epidermis is present, is light brown with transverse warts and ridges; cut surface creamy; fleshy, transverse small warts and ridges are found on the surface, texture smooth; sweet in taste, no particular smell (cut pieces of the tubers of Ipomoea digitata, substitute of P. tuberosa, are cubical, smooth, light cream in colour and can easily be distinguished).

b) Microscopic

T.S. of whole root tuber is slightly wavy in outline, epidermis not discernible; 3 to 4 layers of cork cells, followed by 5 to7 layers of parenchymatous cells present; cork cambium-brown in colour and 2 or 3 cells thick, endodermis well developed; pericycle fibrous followed by 2 layers of stone cells filled with sandy crystals; phloem consist of sieve tubes, companion cells, patches of bast fibres and phloem parenchyma; xylem pentarch in young root, consist of vessels with scalariform cross perforation, tracheids, xylem fibres and parenchyma; medullary rays broad and parenchymatous. The medullary rays and phloem cells are filled with starch grains which are polygonal, 2 to 5 nm in diameter, simple or two to many-compound, hilum usually indistinct, occasionally a central cleft, lamellm indistinct. In macerated preparation crystal fibres are multicellular, articulated, each cell carrying a crystal of calcium oxalate, some of the articulated fibres are swollen in the middle like a bulb pipette.

Powder – Greyish-brown, no characteristic odour, bitter in taste; shows parenchyma filled with starch, septate fibres in the form of crystals fibres as well as shaped bulb like pipette; vessels with simple and scalariform cross perforation plates, stone cells, and starch as described under microscopy; powder treated with 1N NaOH in methanol and nitro-cellulose in amylacetate gives light green fluorescence under UV 254 nm.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Moisture content Not more than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.9.
Total ash Not more than 11 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid insoluble ash Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol soluble extractive Not less than 13 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 22 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Starch Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.13

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the methanolic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethyl acetate : methanol (80 : 20 : 0.5) shows under UV (366 nm) blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.19, 0.25, 0.34, 0.38. On spraying with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and heating for ten minutes at 120oC, spots appear at Rf. 0.19 (green), 0.34 (Magenta), 0.45 (green), 0.48 (blue), 0.62 (blue), 0.67 (red) and 0.92 (dark pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Pterocarpan-tuberosin, pterocarpanone-hydroxytuberosone, two pterocarpenes-anhydrotuberosin and 3-O-methylanhydrotuberosin, and a coumestan tuberostan. An isoflavone-puerarone and a coumestan-puerarostan.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Balya, Hrdya, Jivaniya, Mutral, Pittahara, Svarya, Vajikarana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Varnya, Brhana, Stanyadu, Rasayani

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Satavaryadi Ghrta, Mahavisagarbha Taila, Marmagutika, Nityananda Rasa, Sarasvatarista, Asvagandhadyarista

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Daha, Kasa, Ksaya, Mutrakrcchra, Raktadosa, Raktapitta, Visamajvara, Visarpa, Sukraksaya

DOSE – 3-6 g.

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RUMIMASTAGI (Resin) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Pistacia lentiscus Linn

RUMIMASTAGI (Resin)

Rumimastagi is a resin obtained from Pistacia lentiscus Linn. (Fam. Anacardiacem), a shrub or small tree indigenous to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : —
Assamese : —
Bengali : Rumi-Mastungi
English : Mastic
Gujrati : Rumi Mastagee
Hindi : Rumi Mastagee, Rumi Mastiki, Mastagee
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Rumaa Mastakee
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : —
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : Rumee Mastagee

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

The resin occurs in small, hard, pear shaped, ovoid or nearly globular, sometimes elongated tears, about 2 to 8 mm in diameter; pale yellow in colour; brittle, breaking into clear glossy fracture, interior transparent, crushing to a sandy powder, taste, slightly agreeable; odour, aromatic.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 2.6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.34 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 94 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 0.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

ASSAY

The drug on steam distillation yields colourless oil (1.5-2.0% v/w), which is heavier than water. (Method in Appendix 2.2.10.).

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ precoated plates (Merck), using Toluene : Methanol (95:5); under UV (254nm) shows one spot at Rf. 0.17 (blue fluorescence): on spraying with Vanillin-sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 110oC for 30 minutes, twelve spots appear at Rf. 0.12, 0.17, 0.23 (all violet), 0.40 (blue), 0.41 (purple), 0.44, 0.46, 0.49, 0.56, 0.69, 0.80 and 0.86 (all blue).

CONSTITUENTS – Resin, volatile oil, a bicyclic terpenoid and fatty acids.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Vrsya, Varnya, Vajikarana, Rakta Sangrahika, Mukhadurgandhanasaka, Dasansthiratakara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Eladi, Kameda, Sukrama Vati

THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimandya, Sotha, Svasa, Adhmana, Grahani, Kasa, Mutrakrcchra, Raktasrava, Vatapittaja Vikara

DOSE – 1-2 g.

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VIRALA (Stem Bark) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Diospyros exsculpta Buch-Ham

VIRALA (Stem Bark)

Virala consists of dried stem bark of Diospyros exsculpta Buch. – Ham. syn. D. tomentosa Roxb. (Fam. Ebenacem), a small or occasionally large tree found distributed in sub-Himalyan tract, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Tindukah, Tinduki
Assamese : —
Bengali : Kend, Gaab
English : Gaub Persimon, Indian Persimon
Gujrati : Timbaru
Hindi : Gaabh, Tendu, Kendu
Kannada : Holitupare, Kushaarta
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Panchchi, Pananchi, Panachcha
Marathi : Temburani
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Tendu
Tamil : Panichchai, Tumbika
Telugu : Tinduki, Tumikechettu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Bark available in pieces of variable lengths, usually 1 to 1.5cm thick, light brown in colour, surface uneven with exfoliating rectangular scales, slightly curved, outer surface ash coloured, inner surface brownish, striate but smooth; fracture, granular; odour, characteristic, taste, sweet and astringent.

b) Microscopic

T.S. shows a thick portion of rhytidome; cork consists of 5 or 6 layers of tangentially elongated rectangular, dorsoventrally compressed thin walled cells, a few strongly liginified and filled with reddish brown masses; cortex consists of 4 to 6 layers of thin walled parenchymatous cells, many containing prismatic calcium oxalate crystals, measuring 20 to 70 n and starch grains about 6 to 10 n; tanniniferous cells present; phloem traversed by uniseriate medullary rays; sieve tube associated with companion cells; phloem parenchyma consists of cells with thin, dark reddish brown walls many of the cells contain calcium oxalate crystals mostly prismatic type but a few clusters also observed; patches of fibres present with a fairly large lumen; sclereids occur in groups of 8 to 10, oval to elongate in shape, measuring 45 to 175 n in length with thick striated walls, the lumen is very small often reduced to a line; pit canals present.

Powder -Ash colour, coarse; fragments of thick-walled cork cells with dense brown content; sclereids elongated and oval shaped showing pit canals with narrow lumen; calcium oxalate crystal in the form of prisms and clusters; a few yellowish tannin cells.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 15 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 1.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ (E . Merck grade) plate using Chloroform : Acetone (98 : 2) shows under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.88 (blue) and 0.93 (green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde – Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105oC six spots appear at Rf. 0.32 (pink), 0.49 (pink), 0.56 (grey), 0.71(dark pink), 0.88 (pink) and 0.93 (pink).

CONSTITUENTS – Triterpenoids (Lupeol, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Oleanolic acid) and Sterol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Grahi, Kaphahara, Pittahara, Vranaropana, Jihvajadyakara, Savarnakara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Nayagrodhadi Kvatha Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Aruci, Atisara, Bhagna, Medoroga, Prameha, Raktapitta, Udarda, Vibandha, Vrana, Yoniroga, Pittaroga, Karnasrava, Agnidagdha Vrana, Atidagdha Vrana, Trsa, Daha

DOSE – 5 – 10 g.

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SARALA (Exudate) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Pinus roxburghii Sagrent

SARALA (Exudate)

Sarala is an exudate obtained by tapping the wood of Pinus roxburghii Sargent syn. P. longifolia Roxb. (Fam. Pinacem), a monoecious conifer found in north-western Himalayas at an altitude between 460 and 1500 m.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Srih, Srivestaka, Srivasah, Sriniketah, Sryahvhah, Vrksadhupakah
Assamese : —
Bengali : Sarala gaachh
English : Oleo-resine of Pine
Gujrati : Teliyo devdaar, Pilo berajo
Hindi : Cheed-Ka-Gond, Gandhabirojaa
Kannada : Saral, Sriveshtaka
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Charalam, Saralam
Marathi : Sarala deeka
Oriya : Sidhaa, Saral
Punjabi : Cheed
Tamil : Pinaimaaru
Telugu : Saral
Urdu : Cheed

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Blackish brown in colour, semi solid, mostly associated with debris from needles, wood chips and bark of the source tree; odour, terebinthene.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 0.6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 74 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 0.15 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Volatile oil Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix 2.2.10

ASSAY

G.L.C. –
G.L.C. of Turpentine oil on the Gas Chromatograph Model NUCON – 5765, Column & Stationary phase : 30m fused silica capillary column walls coated with FFAP, Carrier Gas : Helium, 1.5 ml. min-1, Column Temperature : 90o C for 2 min. then programmed at the rate of 7o C min-1 to 220o C, Injection port Temperature : 220o C, Detector Temperature : 240o C, Recorder : 2mV, signal attenuation 1:100, Chart speed : 1 cm.min-1, Sample size : 0.10 ml (For GC analyses, pure (0.1ml) is injected with a 1.0 ml syringe).
The identification of compounds is done by comparing the retention time of peaks and by peak enrichment technique with standard samples run under similar operating conditions such as l-α- pinene (Rt = 6.31 min.); l-β-pinene (Rt = 7.18 min.); car-3-ene (Rt = 7.76 min.); longifolene (Rt = 15.46 min.).

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of rosin (Material left after separation of essential oil) on a precoated silica gel G plate, using methanol : hexane (5:95). One spot at Rf. 0.80 on spraying with 2% vanillin in sulfuric acid (dark pink to purple flourescent) and on spray with 0.04 per cent bromocresol green solution shows yellow spot.

CONSTITUENTS – l-α-pinene, l-β-pinene, car-3-ene, longifolene and other mono & sesquiterpenes.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha, Tiksna
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Kaphahara, Raksoghna, Vatahara, Visaghna, Durgandhahara, Dustavranasodhaka, Varnaprasadana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Amrtaprasa Curna, Kustadi Taila

THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimandya, Adhmana, Grahabadha, Krmiroga, Kantharoga, Kandu, Kotha, Kustha, Murccha, Sotha, Tvakroga, Urustambha, Vatavyadhi, Yonidosa, Jatrurdhavaroga, Sveda-Daurgandhya, Karnasula, Nadivrana, Pidaka, Yukaroga

DOSE – 1-3 g.

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VISALA (Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Trichosanthes bracteata (Lam) Voigt

VISALA (Root)

Visala consists of dried root of Trichosanthes bracteata (Lam.) Voigt (Fam. Cucurbitacem), a large perennial, upto 9 m in height, dioecious, branched, woody tendril climber, commonly growing in moist thickets from the Himalayas to the south, ascending upto an altitude of 2,500 m.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Mahakala, Gavadani
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maakaal
English : —
Gujrati : Raataan Indraayan
Hindi : Maakaal, Mahar Kaundala, Lal Indraayan, Mahakaal
Kannada : Avagudehannu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Kaakkattonti
Marathi : Kaundal, Kavandal
Oriya : Mahaakaal
Punjabi : Kmhree, Aankorattai
Tamil : Korattai
Telugu : Erraa Chedupucca
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Well developed fibrous roots, pale yellow to creamish-brown, available in pieces, 4 to 15 cm long, 0.3 to 2 cm thick; cylindrical and slightly curved; deeply grooved longitudinally; external surface, dusty, shrivelled, rough due to exfoliating cork, longitudinal fissures and root scars; fracture, fibrous; taste, bitter and astringent.

b) Microscopic

Root- Root shows multi-layered cork, outer layers exfoliating, inner of rectangular cells, cortex narrow with a row of sclereids externally and shows presence of patches of fibres; phloem, narrow of small polygonal cells; bulk of root composed of large rounded vessels arranged in radiating rows interspersed by dominant strands of multiseriate medullary rays filled completely with starch grains; pith absent.

Powder– Deep creamish-brown; abundant sclereids of various shapes, mostly in groups, isodiametric sclereids 20 to 30 n, thick-walled with round lumen, strongly striated; fibres, singly and in groups; cork cells; well developed reticulately thickened and border-pitted vessels; starch grains, mostly simple.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol (9:1) shows spots at Rf 0.16, 0.42, 0.63, 0.69, 0.77 and 0.83 (all purple) on spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105oC for about ten minutes.

CONSTITUENTS – Saponins, trichosanthin.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kaphahara, Pittahara, Vamaka, Visaghna, Prasutikrta

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Paniya Kalyanaka Ghrta, Visaladi Curna

THERAPEUTIC USES – Granthi, Gulma, Jvara, Kamala, Kasa, Kustha, Prameha, Slipada, Svasa, Vrddhi, Vrana, Amadosa, Antarvrddhi, Stanapida, Plihodara, Gandamaya, Mudhagarbha

DOSE – 1 -3 g.

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SARPAGANDHA (Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Rauwlolfia serpentina (Linn) Benth.ex.Kurz

SARPAGANDHA (Root)

Sarpagandha consists of air dried root of Rauwolfia serpentina (Linn.) Benth. ex Kurz (Fam. Apocynacem); a perennial undershrub widely distributed in India in the sub-Himalayan tracts upto 1,000 m as well as, in the lower ranges of the Eastern and Western Ghats and in the Andamans.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Nakuli, Candrika, Chandramarah
Assamese : —
Bengali : Chaandar
English : Rauvolfia Root, Serpentina Root
Gujrati : Amelpodee
Hindi : Chhotaa Chaand, Dhavalbaruaa
Kannada : Sutranaabhu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Amalpori
Marathi : Adkai, Chandra
Oriya : Dhanbarua, Sanochado
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Sarppaganti
Telugu : Sarpagandhi
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Pieces of roots mostly about 8 to 15 cm long and 0.5 to 2 cm in thickness, subcylindrical, curved, stout, thick and rarely branched; outer surface greyish-yellow to brown with irregular longitudinal fissures; rootlets 0.1mm in dia; fracture, short, slight odour and bitter taste.

b) Microscopic

Root– Root comprises of stratified cork of about 18 layers, of which the cells of 8 to 12 layers are smaller, suberized and unlignified; cells of remaining layers large, suberized and lignified; phelloderm parenchymatous, some cells packed with starch grains and prismatic and clusters crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem tissue consists of sieve cells, companion cells and parenchymatous cell containing starch grains and crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem fibres absent; phloem parenchyma occasionally filled with granular substances; starch grains mostly simple but compound granules also occur with 2 to 4 components; individual granules spherical, about 5 to 15 nm in diameter, with well marked hilum simple or split in a radiate form; stone cells are absent (distinction from many other species such as R. canescens, R. micrantha, R. densiflora, R. perakensis and R. vomitoria); secondary xylem is traversed by well developed lignified medullary rays of about 1 to 5 cell wide but uniseriate rays are more prominent; vessels singly or in pairs; xylem parenchyma cells lignified; fibres present; cells of medullary rays thick walled also filled with starch grains and calcium oxalate prisms.

Powder – Coarse to fine, yellowish-brown, free flowing, odour slight, bitter in taste; characterized by spherical, simple to compound starch grains, calcium oxalate prisms and clusters; vessels with simple perforation, occasionally tailed; tracheids lignified; xylem fibres irregular in shape, occurs singly or in small groups, walls lignified, tips occasionally forked or truncated; wood parenchyma cells are filled with calcium oxalate crystals and starch grains; stone cells phloem fibres absent.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the methanol and Ammonia extract of root powder on silica gel ‘G’ plate using Toluene : Ethyl acetate : Diethylamine (70 : 20: 10) shows eight spot on spraying with Dragendorff reagent at Rf. 0.11, 0.13, 0.25, 0.37, 0.47, 0.51, 0.61 and 0.82 (all reddish brown). The spot at Rf. 0.82 is of reserpine.

CONSTITUENTS – Rauwolfia contains indole alkaloids, such as reserpinine, serpentinine and ajmalicine.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipani, Kaphahara, Mutral, Pacani, Rucya, Vatahara, Visaghna, Nidraprada, Kamavasadaka, Hrdavasadaka.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Sarpagandhadi Curna, Sarpagandhayoga, Sarpagandha Vati, Sarpagandha Ghana Vati

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Anidra, Apasmara, Bhutabadha, Bhrama, Jvara, Krmiroga, Madaroga, Unmada, Yonisula, Raktavita, Manasaroga, Visucika, Vrana.

DOSE – 1-2 g.

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VYAGHRANAKHA (Fruit) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Capparis horrida Linn

VYAGHRANAKHA (Fruit)

Vyaghranakha consists of mature fruit of Capparis sepiaria Linn. syn. C. zeylanica Linn. f. (Fam. Capparidacem), a perennial climbing shrub with hooked stipular spines, distributed throughout India, in the plains.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Ahimsra, Vyaghrayudha
Assamese : —
Bengali : —
English : —
Gujrati : —
Hindi : Baghanai, Kanthari, Kareruaa
Kannada : Kathiramullu, Mulhukallari
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Ardanti, Vyaghranakh, Wag, Wagati
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Atandai, Kattukathiri, Marandan, Thoratti
Telugu : Nalla uppi
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Subglobose, many seeded berry; green when young, red brown when ripe, 3 to 4 cm in diameter, on a greatly thickened stalk; seeds are trigonal, 4 to 5 mm long, 3 to 4 mm wide, 2 to 3 mm thick with white thin covering; seed coat hard.

b) Microscopic

Fruit – Epicarp shows thick cuticle covering the single layered epidermal cells followed by thick walled parenchyma, filled with yellow contents, mesocarp composed of thick walled parenchyma, having groups of pitted sclereids at places along with some vascular strands, endocarp contains collapsed cells, abundant oil globules present.

Seed – T.S. shows testa having thick cuticle; with a single layered, laterally elongated, loosely packed, pigmented, epidermal cells, followed by 8 to 10 layers of compactly arranged circular pitted stone cells with very thick wall and narrow lumen; tegmen consists of collapsed cells; endosperm parenchyma filled with oil and aleurone grains, oil cells with yellowish oil at some places.

Powder – Reddish brown, sticky, shows sclereids, parenchymatous cells filled with oil and cells filled with aleurone grains.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 30 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 26 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ (0.2 mm thick ness) plate using toluene : methanol (6:3) shows nine bands at Rf. 0.12, 0.23, 0.32, 0.53, 0.56, 0.61, 0.64, 0.71, 0.86 (all brown), on spraying with 5% Ethanolic-sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Thioglucoside glucocapparin, n-triacontane, S-amyrin and fixed oil.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kaphahara, Vatahara, Varnya, Visaghna, Kandughna

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Bala Taila

THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhrama, Jvara, Kandu, Kotha, Kustha, Pravahika, Raktapradara, Sarpavisa, Vatavikara, Vrana, Visvikara, Pidaka, Graharoga, Mukhadurgandha

DOSE – 2-6 g.

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SVETAPUNARNAVA (Root) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Borhaavia verticillata Poir

SVETAPUNARNAVA (Root)

Svetapunarnava consists of root of Boerhaavia verticillata Poir. (Fam. Nyctaginacem), a herbaceous weed with a tendency to climb, widely distributed in the plains throughout India during rainy season.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Vrsciva
Assamese : —
Bengali : Shatapunyaa
English : Horse purslene, Blunt leaved Hogweed
Gujrati : Vasedo, Vasedee
Hindi : Safed Punarnavaa, Gada Poornaa
Kannada : Maachchugoni, Vinleey Duvelladkilu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : Pundharighentuli
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Itsita
Tamil : Sharunnai, Mukkarattai-Kirai

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Roots occur in small pieces of 5 to 7.5 cm in length and upto 2 cm in thickness; texture rough; lenticels dot like or slightly transversely elongated, arranged in transverse rows; colour brown, freshly cut surface creamish to light brown; odour and taste not distinctive.

b) Microscopic

Root shows anamolous secondary growth; periderm present and consisting of phellem, phellogen and phelloderm; part of phellem and phellogen sloughed off and phelloderm mostly crushed but forms a continuous layer around the stelar region; the phellogen consists of 4 or 5 layers of rectangular and tangentially elongated cells; cortex composed of parenchymatous cells that are usually crushed; raphides present in some cells of cortex; centre of the root occupied by xylem consisting mostly of vessels, fibres and tracheids; concentric but irregular rings of cambium, patches of xylem and phloem, and parenchyma alternate in turn towards the periphery; medullary rays are not distinct; starch abundant in parenchyma; most of the starch grains rounded or hemispherical in shape; the compound starch grains, however, are scanty.

Powder – The powder show raphides (usually broken) and fragments of fibres, and vessel members showing scalariform thickenings; starch present.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 16 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene:ethylacetate:acetic acid (5:4.5:0.5), shows under U.V. (366nm) spots at Rf 0.37, 0.59, 0.80 (All Blue). On spraying with anisaldehyde: sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110oC spots appear at Rf 0.19(Greyish Black), 0.59 (Greyish Black), 0.69 (Blue), 0.79 (Purple).

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Madhura, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Kaphahara, Vatahara, Visaghna, Pittasamaka, Agnidipaka, Jvarahara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Kumaryasava (A), Punarnavadyrista, Dhanvantara Ghrta, Dadhika Ghrta

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sopha, Sotha, Hrdroga, Kasa, Pandu, Pliharoga, Sula, Sarpavisa, Udararoga, Vrscikavisa, Visavikara, Urahksata, Rakta Vikara, Paittika Jvara, Caturthikajvara, Srava, Vatakantaka, Vidradhi Alarkavisa, Musakavisa

DOSE – 5-15 g.

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TAILAPARNAH (Leaf) in Ayurveda Botanical Name Eucalyptus globules Labill

TAILAPARNAH (Leaf)

Tailaparnah consists of mature leaf of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Fam. Myrtacem) a large tree attaining a height of 90 m or more, native to Australia, but planted world wide and introduced in Nilgiris, Anamalai and Palni hills, Simla and Shillong at an altitude of 1500-2500 m.

SYNONYMS

Sanskrit : Nilaniryasa, Ekalipth, Sugandha Patrah
Assamese : —
Bengali : —
English : Blue gum, Eucalyptus
Gujrati : —
Hindi : Yukeliptas
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Yukkaalimaram
Marathi : Nilgiri
Oriya : —
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Yukkaalimaram
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : —

DESCRIPTION

a) Macroscopic

Drug consists of mature leaves, more or less scimitar shaped, thick, leathery, greyish-green, petiolate, upto 26 cm long and 4 cm broad; petioles 2.0 to 3.5 cm long and 0.5 to 1.5 mm thick, sometimes twisted; apex acute to acuminate, base obtuse; midrib prominent, particularly on the lower surface; margin of leaf entire and somewhat thickened, brittle and possess numerous brown to dark brown corky warts. In transmitted light, numerous oil glands can be seen as transluscent dots; upper surface smooth, lower surface slightly rough due to the presence of projecting veins; venation – unicostate reticulate; lateral veins anastamose near the margin forming a continuous line; odour strong and characteristic.

b) Microscopic

Leaf – T.S. shows typical isobilateral structures with two or three rows of palisade cells on both upper and lower sides, surfaces show thick cuticle; numerous sunken stomata and large ovoid schizogenous oil cavities of 160 to 200 n diam.; idioblasts present with rosettes or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals; rosette crystals 25 to 35n in size, prismatic crystals 15 to 25n in size; vascular bundle of midrib are crescent shaped with one vascular strand present on each side, all having interrupted patches of sclerenchyma; corky warts comprising of 10 or more layers of cells; laminary bundles enclosed in bundle sheath, the cells of which extend to the epidermis on both sides; upper and lower epidermal cells have straight walls; stomata anomocytic; stomatal index on both upper and lower surface 5 to 10; the palisade ratio on upper surface 5 to 17 and lower surface 3 to 6.

Powder – Yellowish brown, free flowing, characterized by the presence of cluster and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; epidermis straight walled with sunken stomata; fibers present.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH

Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 9 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 21 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Essential oil Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.10

T.L.C.

T.L.C. of hexane extract on silica gel 60 F 254 plate using Toluene : Acetone (95:05) shows four spots at Rf 0.22, 0.35, 0.41 and 0.49 on spraying with Vanillin- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.

CONSTITUENTS – Essential oil containing terpenes such as 1,8 – cineole, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, p-menthone, α-and γ-terpinene, fenchone, α- β- thujone, citral, verbenone.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Snigdha
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Dipana, Hrdya, Kaphahara, Mutrala, Pacana, Vatahara, Durgandhinasaka, Agnimandya, Balaprada

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Ekadasasatikaprasanini Failam, Mahasugandhika Taila, Pancavaktra Rasa, Pancaguna Taila, Martandabhairava Rasa, Jvaramari Rasa

THERAPEUTIC USES – Sula, Agnimandya, Svasa, Hrdroga, Jvara, Krmi, Ksaya, Puyameha, Pliharoga, Pratisyaya, Pravahika, Svarabheda, Visamajvara, Jirnakasa, Bastiroga

DOSE – 1-2 g.

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