Vanda consists of the dried leaf of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. f.) Ettingsh. syn. Loranthus falcatus Linn. f. (Fam. Loranthacem), an epiphyte, mostly on fruit trees, and distributed throughout India.
Sanskrit : Vrksadani, Bandaka, Vrksaruha, Samharsa
Assamese : —
Bengali : Maandaa
English : Mistletoe
Gujrati : Baando
Hindi : Bandaa
Kannada : Bandanike, Bandhulu
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Ittikkanni, Itil
Marathi : Baandagul, Banda
Oriya : Vrudhongo
Punjabi : Pulluri
Tamil : Baadanikaa, Jiddu
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Leaves petiolate, exstipulate, opposite, decussate, simple, ovate to oblanceolate, glabrous, soft and leathery when young, brittle when dry; margin entire; base decurrent; apex acute; slightly astringent; odour resembling those of tealeaves.
Transverse section of the leaf shows a thick cuticle, upper and lower epidermis composed of squarish cells with convex periclinal outer walls; surface views of upper and lower nearly similar; stomata paracytic, present on both surfaces; mesophyll of lamina consisting of 2 to 4 layers inner to upper and lower epidermis made up of compactly arranged short rectangular cells and irregularly arranged parenchyma cells of middle layers but possesing a few intercellular spaces; occassional vascular strands passing through this middle portion; isolated sclereids about 50 n thick containing prismatic crystals of about 12 n present in parenchyma; midrib buldging prominently on both the surfaces and containing a group of 3 to 5 vascular bundles; xylem of vascular bundles oriented towards upper epidermis and consisting of tracheids, vessels and parenchyma; phloem present towards lower epidermis and consisting of thin walled cells; bundle sheath absent; each vascular bundle associated with patch of collenchymatous cells outside the phloem; tannin (ranging from yellow to brown in colour) abundant in parenchyma cells of midrib and lamina region, especially in the 2 or 3 subepidermal layers; stomatal index 9 to 13 on upper surface and 10 to 14 on lower surface.
Powder – The powder shows angular epidermal cells and groups of thin walled, rectangular, closely packed parenchyma cells many of which contain tannins.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of the alcohol soluble extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using toluene : ethyl formate : formic acid (5:4:1) as mobile phase shows under U.V. (366 nm) spots at Rf. 0.06 (Brown); 0.39(Blue); 0.46 (Blue); 0.55 (Red); 0.81 (Pink). On spraying with anisaldehyde: sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110o C two spots appear at Rf 0.35(Light Green), 0.45 (Orange).
CONSTITUENTS – Leaves contain flavonoids such as Quercetin, quercetrin;Tannins comprising of gallic and chebulinic acid.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Sukrajanana, Grahi, Kaphahara, Mutravirecaniya, Pittahara, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Vatahara, Vrsya, Vranaropana, Sramahara, Netrya, Grahanasana, Mangalakara, Garbhasthapana
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – (No formulations)
THERAPEUTIC USES – Bhagandara, Hikka, Mutraroga, Raktapitta, Visamajvara, Visaroga, Vrana, Vandhyatva, Vata-Smari
DOSE – 10 – 20 ml juice.