Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Biology 2018-19

CBSE Curriculum for Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Biology 2018-19

BIOLOGY (Code No. 044) CBSE
The present syllabus provides the students with new concepts along with an extended exposure to
contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing on the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to  real life through the use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture.  The updated syllabus also focuses on reducing the curriculum load while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of the subject continue to be available within its framework. The prescribed syllabus is expected to:
promote understanding of basic principles of Biology;
encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and  society;
promote   rational/scientific   attitude   towards   issues   related   to   population,   environment   and development;
enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions;
create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings;
appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes;
It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the syllabus in a
more contextual and friendly manner as they study its various units.
BIOLOGY (Code No. 044)
CBSE COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS XI (2018-19) (THEORY)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                              Max. Marks: 70
Unit Title No. of Periods Marks
I Diversity of Living Organisms 23 07
II Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals 22 12
III Cell: Structure and Function 35 15
IV Plant Physiology 40 18
V Human Physiology 40 18
Total 160 70
Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms                                                                                                      23 Periods
Chapter-1: The Living World
What  is  living?  Biodiversity;  Need  for  classification;  three  domains  of  life;  taxonomy  and  systematics; concept  of  species  and  taxonomical  hierarchy;  binomial  nomenclature;  tools  for  study  of  taxonomy-
museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Chapter-2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
Salient  features  and  classification  of  plants  into  major  groups  –  Algae,  Bryophyta,  Pteridophyta,
Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).
(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)
Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants                                                               22 Periods
Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology and modifications: Internal Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem,
leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of different tissues.
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Animal  tissues;  Morphology,  anatomy  and  functions  of  different  systems  (digestive,  circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)
Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function                                                                                              35 Periods
Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function);
nucleus.
Chapter-9: Biomolecules
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
Unit-IV Plant Physiology                                                                                                                           40 Periods
Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport
of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis.
Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role;  deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen
cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic  photophosphorylation;  chemiosmotic  hypothesis;  photorespiration;  C3  and  C4  pathways;
factors affecting photosynthesis.
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron
transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth
regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
Unit-V Human Physiology                                                                                                                         40 Periods
Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins,  carbohydrates  and  fats;  egestion;  nutritional  and  digestive  disorders  –  PEM,  indigestion,
constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function  – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and  regulators,  hypo –  and  hyperactivity and  related  disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.
Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
PRACTICALS
Time Allowed: Three hours                                                                                                        Max. Marks: 30
Evaluation Scheme
One Major Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 1,3,7,8) 5 Marks
One Minor Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 6,9,10,11,12,13) 4 Marks
Slide Preparation Part A (Experiment No- 2,4,5) 5 Marks
Spotting Part B 7 Marks
Practical Record+Viva Voce 4 Marks
Project Record + Viva Voce 5 Marks
Total 30Marks
A: List of Experiments                                                                                                                                  60 Periods
1.   Study and description of three locally available common flowering plants, one from each of the
families Solanaceae, Fabacceae and Liliaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae  can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams). Types of root (Tap and adventitious); stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. Detection in suitable plant and animal materials.
8. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
9. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
10. Test for presence of urea in urine.
11. Test for presence of sugar in urine.
12. Test for presence of albumin in urine.
13. Test for presence of bile salts in urine.
B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)
1. Study of the parts of a compound microscope.
2. Study of the specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.
3. Study of virtual specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Amoeba, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
6. Study of different modifications in roots, stems and leaves.
7. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).
8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing:
a) Anaerobic respiration
b) Phototropism
c) Effect of apical bud removal
d) Suction due to transpiration
10. Study of human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.
11. Study of external morphology of cockroach through virtual images/models.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students
Class XI
Note: The ‘Evaluation schemes’ and ‘General Guidelines’ for visually impaired students as given for Class XII may be followed.
A. Items for Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus / equipments / animal and plant material / chemicals etc. for assessment in practicals(All experiments)
Plants of –
Solanaceae- Brinjal, Petunia, any other Fabaceae- Rice, Wheat, any other Liliaceae- Any of the Lilies
A compound microscope, seeds of monocot and dicot- maize and gram or any other Model of Human skeleton to show –
Ball and socket joints of girdles and limbs Rib cage
Test tube, honey comb, Mollusc shell, Models of Pigeon and Star fish, mushroom, petridish, succulents
such as Aloe vera/kalenchoe, raisins, beaker, potatoes, scalpel, chromatography paper, chromatography chamber, alcohol, specimen/model of cockroach.
B. List of Practicals
1. Study three locally available common flowering plants of the families – Solanaceae, fabaceae, Liliaceae and identify:
Types of roots as Tap and Adventitious Types of stems as Herbaceous or Woody Types of leaves as Compound or Simple
2. Study the parts of a compound microscope- eye piece and objective lense, mirror, stage, coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
3. Differentiate between monocot and dicot plants on the basis of venation patterns.
4. Study the following parts of human skeleton (Model): Ball and socket joints of thigh and shoulder
Rib cage
5. Study honey bee through comb, snail through shell, Starfish through model, Pigeon through model.
6. Identify the given specimen of a fungus – Mushroom.
7. Study the adaptive features of xerophytic plants.
8. Study the process of osmosis through endosmosis in raisins.
9. Identify and relate the given experimental set up with aim of experiment:
Paper Chromatography or
Potato Osmometer
10. Study the external features/morphology of cockroach through model.
Note:  The  above  practicals  may  be  carried  out  in  an  experiential  manner  rather  than  recording observations.
Prescribed Books:
1. Biology Class-XI, Published by NCERT
2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
BIOLOGY (Code No. 044)
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN Class – XI (2018-19)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                                     Max. Marks: 70
S.No Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer-II (SA-II)
(3 marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, Identify, define,
or recite, information)
2 1 1 7 10%
2. Understanding- (Comprehension -To be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information) 2 4 1 21 30%
3. Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 2 4 1 21 30%
4. High Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, Compare, Contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information, Organize and/or integrate unique
pieces of information from a variety of sources)
2 1 1 1 12 17%
5. Evaluation- (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) 1 1 2 09 13%
TOTAL 5×1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
CBSE QUESTION WISE BREAK UP
Type of Question Mark(s) per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I 2 7 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.   Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in
one question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.   The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating
similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.
CLASS XII (2018-19)
(THEORY)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                                 Max. Marks: 70
Unit Title No. of Periods Marks
VI Reproduction 30 14
VII Genetics and Evolution 40 18
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 30 14
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 30 10
X Ecology and Environment 30 14
Total 160 70
Unit-VI Reproduction                                                                                                                               30 periods
Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction
– asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution                                                                                                        40 Periods
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-
dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia;
chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare                                                                                                  30 Periods
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX Biotechnology and Its Applications                                                                                     30 Periods
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.
Unit-X Ecology and Environment                                                                                                          30 Periods
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms  and  environment:  Habitat  and  niche,  population  and  ecological  adaptations;  population
interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
CBSE PRACTICALS
Time allowed: 3 Hours                                                                                                                      Max. Marks: 30
Evaluation Scheme
One Major Experiment 5 Marks
One Minor Experiment 4 Marks
Slide Preparation 5 Marks
Spotting 7 Marks
Practical Record+Viva Voce 4 Marks
Project Record + Viva Voce 5 Marks
Total 30Marks
A.   List of Experiments                                                                                                                    60 Periods
1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B.   Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9.  Common  disease  causing  organisms  like  Ascaris,  Entamoeba,  Plasmodium,  any  fungus  causing ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII
Evaluation Scheme
Time Allowed: Two hours                                                                                                                  Max. Marks: 30
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 5 marks
Written test (Based on given / prescribed practicals) 10 marks
Practical Records 5 marks
Viva 10 marks
Total 30 marks
General Guidelines
The practical examination will be of two hour duration. A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students.
The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.
The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.
All questions included in the question paper should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.
Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment.
The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory / principle / concept, apparatus / materials / chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.
Class XII
A. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)
Beaker, flask, petridishes, soil from different sites- sandy, clayey, loamy, small potted plants, aluminium foil, paint brush, test tubes, starch solution, iodine, ice cubes, Bunsen burner/water bath, large colourful flowers, Maize inflorescence, model of developmental stages highlighting morula and blastula of frog, beads of different shapes (cubes, round) /size, smooth and rough, tags of different shapes, bags, Ascaris, Cacti (Opuntia).
B. List of Practicals
1. Study of the soil obtained from at least two different sites for their texture and water holding capacity.
2. Study of presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
3. Study of the effect of different temperatures on the activity of salivary amylase.
4. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects).
5. Identification of T.S of morula or blastula of frog.
6. Study of Mendelian inheritance pattern using beads of different colour/sizes.
7. Prepararation of pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, colour blindness.
8. Study of emasculation, tagging and bagging by trying out an exercise on controlled pollination.
9. Identify common disease causing organisms like Ascaris and learn some common symptoms of the
disease that they cause.
10. Comment upon the morphological adaptations of plants found in xerophytic conditions.
Note:  The  above  practicals  may  be  carried  out  in  an  experiential  manner  rather  than  recording observations.
Prescribed Books:
1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
BIOLOGY (Code No. 044)
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN Class – XII (2018-19)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                                       Max. Marks: 70
S.No Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer-II (SA-II)
(3 marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions,
to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, Identify, define,
or recite, information)
2 1 1 7 10%
2. Understanding- (Comprehension -To be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information) 2 4 1 21 30%
3. Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example,
or solve a problem)
2 4 1 21 30%
4. High Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, Compare, Contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information, Organize and/or integrate unique
pieces of information from a variety of sources)
2 1 1 1 12 17%
5. Evaluation- (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) 1 1 2 9 13%
TOTAL 5×1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
QUESTION WISE BREAK UP
Type of Question Mark(s) per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 05 05
SA-I 2 07 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.   Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in
one question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.   The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of
questions same.

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