Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Chemistry 2018-19

CBSE Curriculum for Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Chemistry 2018-19

8. CHEMISTRY (Code No. 043) CBSE
2018-19
Rationale
Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized
discipline based, content -oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and other applied areas. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the senior secondary
stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with rigour and depth taking care
that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past one decade. Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio -molecules, natural resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage. At international level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds, symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, application of concepts in chemistry to industry/ technology, logical
sequencing of units, removal of obsolete content and repetition, etc.
Objectives
The curriculum of Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage aims to:
•    promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of chemistry.
•    make  students  capable  of  studying  chemistry  in  academic  and  professional  courses  (such  as medicine, engineering, technology) at tertiary level.
• expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in future studies and their application in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
•    equip students to face various challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
•    develop problem solving skills in students.
•    expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications.
•    apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
•    acquaint students with different aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
•    develop an interest in students to study chemistry as a discipline.
•    integrate life skills and values in the context of chemistry.
CLASS-XI (THEORY) (2018-19)
CBSE COURSE STRUCTURE
Total Periods (Theory 160+ Practical 60)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                      Total Marks 70
Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
Unit I Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry O8 08
Unit II Structure of Atom 10
Unit III Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 06 04
Unit IV Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 14 20
Unit V States of Matter: Gases, Liquids and solids 18
Unit VI Chemical Thermodynamics 16
Unit VII Equilibrium 14
Unit VIII Redox Reactions 06 20
Unit IX Hydrogen 08
Unit X s -Block Elements 10
Unit XI p -Block Elements 18
Unit XII Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques 14 18
Unit XIII Hydrocarbons 12
Unit XIV Environmental Chemistry 06
Total 160 70
Unit I:    Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry                                                     8 Periods
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II:   Structure of Atom                                                                             10 Periods
Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms,
stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III:  Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties                 06 Periods
Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater
than 100
Unit IV:  Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure                                      14 Periods
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving      s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital
theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit V:  States of Matter: Gases, Liquids and Solids                                        18 Periods
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea)
Liquid State: vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Solid  state:  Classification  of  solids  based  on  different  binding  forces:  molecular,  ionic,
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point
defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit VI:  Chemical Thermodynamics                                                               16 Periods
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of AU and AH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction). Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non- spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Unit VII: Equilibrium                                                                                       14 Periods
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect
(with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions                                                                              06 Periods
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox
reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Unit IX:  Hydrogen                                                                                         08 Periods
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and
uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use;
hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X:   s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)                       10 Periods
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,
anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends  in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses. Preparation and Properties of  Some  Important Compounds: Sodium  Carbonate,  Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of
Magnesium and Calcium
Unit XI:  p -Block Elements                                                                            18 Periods
General Introduction to p -Block Elements
Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first
element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.
Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon
Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation
states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure  only)  ;  Phosphorus  –  allotropic  forms,  compounds  of  Phosphorus:
Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Unit XII:  Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques            14 Periods
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions,
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons                                                                            12 Periods
Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes  –  Nomenclature,  isomerism,  conformation  (ethane  only),  physical  properties,
chemical  reactions  including  free  radical  mechanism  of  halogenation,  combustion  and pyrolysis.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical
properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen,
water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of
preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic   Hydrocarbons:   Introduction,   IUPAC   nomenclature,   benzene:   resonance,
aromaticity,  chemical  properties:  mechanism  of  electrophilic  substitution.  Nitration,
sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry                                                               06 Periods
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control  of
environmental pollution.
PRACTICALS
CBSE PRACTICAL SYLLABUS                                                                        Total Periods 60
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used:
A.   Basic Laboratory Techniques
1.   Cutting glass tube and glass rod
2.   Bending a glass tube
3.   Drawing out a glass jet
4.   Boring a cork
B.   Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances
1.   Determination of melting point of an organic compound.
2.   Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.
3.   Crystallization of impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, Copper Sulphate, Benzoic Acid.
C.   Experiments based on pH
(a)  Any one of the following experiments:
•      Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solution of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
•      Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
•      Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
(b)  Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.
D.   Chemical Equilibrium
One of the following experiments:
a)   Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either of the ions.
Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks
Volumetric Analysis 08
Salt Analysis 08
Content Based Experiment 06
Project Work 04
Class record and viva 04
Total 30
b)   Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6] concentration of either of the ions.
and chloride ions by changing the
E.   Quantitative Estimation
i)    Using a chemical balance.
ii)   Preparation of standard solution of Oxalic acid.
iii)  Determination of strength of a given solution of Sodium Hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of Oxalic acid.
iv)  Preparation of standard solution of Sodium Carbonate.
v)   Determination of strength of a given solution of Hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard Sodium Carbonate solution.
F.   Qualitative Analysis
(a)  Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
Cations- Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+,Ba2+,    Mg2+, [NH ]+
2-      2-                2-                2-
–        –        –    –                3-                  2-                      –
Anions – [CO3]
, S , [SO3]
, [SO4]
, [NO3] , Cl ,Br , I , [PO4]
, [C2O4]
, CH3COO
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
(b)  Detection of -Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine in organic compounds.
PROJECT
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects
•    Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
•     Study   of the methods of purification of water.
• Testing the hardness, presence of Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, etc., depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
•    Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of Sodium Carbonate on it.
•     Study   the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.
•    Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
•     Study   the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
•     Study   of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students Class XI
Note: Same Evaluation scheme and general guidelines for visually impaired students as given for Class XII may be followed.
A.   List of apparatus for identification for assessment in practicals (All experiments)
Beaker, Tripod stand, Wire gauze, glass rod, funnel, filter paper, Bunsen burner, test tube, test tube stand, dropper, test tube holder, ignition tube, china dish, tongs, funnel, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, standard flask, pipette, burette, conical flask, funnel, clamp stand, dropper, wash bottle, filter paper
•    Odour detection in qualitative analysis
•    Procedure/Setup of the apparatus
B.   List of Experiments
A.   Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances
1. Crystallization of an impure sample of any one of the following: copper sulphate, benzoic acid
B.   Experiments based on pH
1.   Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper
2.   Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
C.   Chemical Equilibrium
1.   Study   the   shift   in   equilibrium   between   ferric   ions   and   thiocyanate   ions   by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either ions.
2+
2.   Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]
concentration of either of the ions.
D.   Quantitative estimation
1.   Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
and chloride ions by changing the
2.   Determination of molarity of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against
standard solution of oxalic acid.
E.   Qualitative Analysis
1.   Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
2.   Cations- NH4+
2-         2-
2-        –                      –
Anions – [CO3]
,  S , [SO3]
, Cl , CH3COO
(Note: insoluble salts excluded)
3.   Detection of Nitrogen in the given organic compound.
4.   Detection of Halogen in the given organic compound.
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording
observations. Prescribed Books:
1.           Chemistry Part -I, Class-XI, Published by NCERT.
2.           Chemistry Part -II, Class-XI, Published by NCERT.
CHEMISTRY (Code No. 043)
CBSE QUESTION PAPER DESIGN CLASS – XI (2018-19)
Time 3 Hours                                                                                                                      Max. Marks: 70
S. Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer – II (SA-II)
(3marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, Identify, define,or recite, information) 2 1 1 7 10%
2 Understanding- Comprehension -to be familiar with meaning and to understand  conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information) 2 4 1 21 30%
3 Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 2 4 1 21 30%
4 High Order Thinking Skills (Analysis
& Synthesis-
Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information, Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources)
2 1 1 10 14%
5 Evaluation- (Appraise,  judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) 1 2 2 11 16%
TOTAL 5X1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
CBSE QUESTION WISE BREAK UP
Type of Question Mark per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I 2 7 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.   Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in
one question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all the three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.   The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating
similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same
CLASS XII (2018-19) THEORY
Total Periods (Theory 160 + Practical 60)
Time: 3 Hours                                                                                                                               70 Marks
Unit No. Title No. of Periods Marks
Unit I Solid State 10 23
Unit II Solutions 10
Unit III Electrochemistry 12
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics 10
Unit V Surface Chemistry 08
Unit VI General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 08 19
Unit VII p-Block Elements 12
Unit VIII d -and f -Block Elements 12
Unit IX Coordination Compounds 12
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 10 28
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 10
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 10
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 10
Unit XIV Biomolecules 12
Unit XV Polymers 08
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday Life 06
Total 160 70
Unit I: Solid State                                                                                            10 Periods
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic
solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of  atoms per unit  cell in a cubic unit  cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions                                                                                             10 Periods
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases
in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van’t Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry                                                                                  12 Periods
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations
of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation
between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics                                                                            10 Periods
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and  first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious
equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry                                                                             08 Periods
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements                08 Periods
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic method
and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
Unit VII: Some p -Block Elements                                                               12 Periods
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only) ; Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends    in  physical  and  chemical  properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and  uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties  and  uses  of  Sulphur-dioxide,  Sulphuric  Acid:  industrial  process  of  manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: “d” and “f” Block Elements                                                               12 Periods
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization  enthalpy,  oxidation  states,  ionic  radii,  colour,  catalytic  property,  magnetic
properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and
KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds                                                                   12 Periods
Coordination  compounds  –  Introduction,  ligands,  coordination  number,  colour,  magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes                                                                 10 Periods
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism
of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Haloarenes:  Nature  of  C-X bond,  substitution  reactions  (Directive  influence  of  halogen  in monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers                                                             10 Periods
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary
alcohols  only),  identification  of  primary,  secondary  and  tertiary  alcohols,  mechanism  of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols:  Nomenclature,  methods  of  preparation,  physical  and  chemical  properties,  acidic
nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII:  Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids                                         10 Periods
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical  and  chemical  properties,  mechanism of  nucleophilic addition,  reactivity of  alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen                                           10 Periods
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in text.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules                                                                                    12 Periods
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-
L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins -Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of
proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers                                                                                         08 Periods
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization,  some  important  polymers:  natural  and  synthetic  like  polythene,  nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life                                                               06 Periods
Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
PRACTICALS
Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks
Volumetric Analysis 08
Salt Analysis 08
Content Based Experiment 06
Project Work 04
Class record and viva 04
Total 30
PRACTICALS SYLLABUS                                                                                        60 Periods
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments.
Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
A.   Surface Chemistry
(a)  Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol – aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
(b)  Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
(c)  Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.
B.   Chemical Kinetics
(a)    Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
(b)  Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i)   Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different
concentration of Iodide ions.
(ii)   Reaction between Potassium Iodate, (KIO3) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C.   Thermochemistry
Any one of the following experiments
i)    Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
ii)    Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
iii)  Determination of enthaply change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.
D.   Electrochemistry
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO or ZnSO 4) at room temperature.
E.   Chromatography
i)    Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
ii)   Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
F.   Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
i)    Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.
ii)    Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
G.   Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any one of the following compounds
i)    Acetanilide
ii)   Di -benzal Acetone
iii)  p-Nitroacetanilide
iv)  Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Aniline dye.
H.   Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.
I.    Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given
food stuffs.
J. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution
of:
i)    Oxalic acid,ss
ii)   Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation – Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,[NH ]+
2-      2-                2-                2-
–        –        –    –                3-                  2-                      –
Anions – [CO3]
, S , [SO3]
, [SO4]
, [NO2] , Cl ,Br , I , [PO4]
, [C2O4]
, CH3COO
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
PROJECT
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects.
·   Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
·   Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
·   Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
·   Study  of  the  effect  of  Potassium  Bisulphate  as  food  preservative  under  various  conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.)
·   Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
·   Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.
·   Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
·   Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric power, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the
approval of the teacher.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII Evaluation Scheme
Time Allowed: Two hours                                                                                                                     Max. Marks: 30
Identification/ Familiarity with the apparatus 5 marks
Written test (based on given/ prescribed practicals 10 marks
Practical Record 5 marks
Viva 10 marks
Total 30 marks
General Guidelines
•    The practical examination will be of two hour duration.
•    A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
•    The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students.
•    The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.
•     The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of
15practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
•    A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.
• All questions included in the question papers should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
• These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
• The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.
•    Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment.
• The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/materials/ chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.
A.  Items for Identification/Familiarity of the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)
Beaker, glass rod, tripod stand, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, Whatman filter paper, gas jar, capillary tube, Pestle and mortar, Test tubes, tongs, test tube holder, test tube stand, burette, Pipette, conical flask, standard flask, clamp stand, Tripod stand, burner, wire gauze, funnel, filter paper
Hands-on Assessment
•    Identification/familiarity with the apparatus
•     Odour detection in qualitative analysis
B.  List of Practicals
The experiments have been divided into two sections: Section A and Section B. The experiments mentioned in Section B are mandatory.
A  Surface Chemistry
SECTION- A
(1)  Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
(2)  Preparation of one lyophobic sol Lyophobic sol – Ferric hydroxide
B   Chromatography
(1)  Separation  of  pigments  from  extracts  of  leaves  and  flowers  by  paper  chromatography  and determination of Rf values (distance values may be provided).
C   Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
(1)  Alcoholic and Carboxylic groups.
(2)  Aldehydic and Ketonic
D   Characteristic tests of carbohydrates and proteins in the given food stuffs.
E   Preparation of Inorganic Compounds- Potash Alum
F Quantitative analysis
SECTION-B (Mandatory)
(1)  (a)    Preparation of the standard solution of Oxalic acid of a given volume
(b)     Determination of molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of Oxalic acid.
(2)  The above exercise [F 1 (a) and (b)] to be conducted using Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohr’s salt)
G     Qualitative analysis:
(1) Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt. Cations- NH4+
2-            2-
2-        –                      –
Anions – [CO3]
,   S , [SO3]
, Cl , CH3COO
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Note:  The  above  practicals  may  be  carried  out  in  an  experiential  manner  rather  than  recording
observations.
Prescribed Books:
1.  Chemistry Part -I, Class-XII, Published by NCERT.
2.  Chemistry Part -II, Class-XII, Published by NCERT.
CHEMISTRY (Code No. 043) QUESTION PAPER DESIGN CLASS – XII (2018-19)
Time 3 Hours                                                                                                                      Max. Marks: 70
S.
No.
Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer – II (SA-II)
(3 marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, Identify, define, or recite, information) 2 1 1 7 10%
2 Understanding -Comprehension
–to be familiar with meaning and           to           understand
conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information)
2 4 1 21 30%
3 Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 2 4 1 21 30%
4 High Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate  between different pieces of information, Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources) 2 1 1 10 14%
5 Evaluation- (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) 1 2 2 11 16%
TOTAL 5×1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
QUESTION WISE BREAK UP
Type of Question Mark per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I 2 7 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.   Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in one
question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all the three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.   The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating
similar templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.

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