Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Physics 2018-19

CBSE Curriculum for Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Physics 2018-19

7. PHYSICS (Code No. 042) CBSE
Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from general education to discipline-based
focus on curriculum. The present updated syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as the comprehension level of learners. Due care has also been taken that the syllabus is comparable to the international standards. Salient features of the syllabus include:
·   Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
·   Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards.
·   Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning.
·   Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines.
·   Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts.
Besides, the syllabus also attempts to
·   strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject.
·   expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications.
·   develop  process-skills  and  experimental,  observational,  manipulative,  decision  making  and investigatory skills in the learners.
·   promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.
·   develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
PHYSICS (Code No. 042)
CBSE COURSE STRUCTURE
Class XI (Theory) (2018-19)
Time: 3 hrs.                                                                                                                          Max Marks: 70
No. of Periods Marks
Unit–I Physical World and Measurement 10 20
Chapter–1: Physical World
Chapter–2: Units and Measurements
Unit-II Kinematics 20
Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line
Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane
Unit–III Laws of Motion 14
Chapter–5: Laws of Motion
Unit–IV Work, Energy and Power 12 17
Chapter–6: Work, Energy and Power
Unit–V Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body 18
Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion
Unit-VI Gravitation 12
Chapter–8: Gravitation
Unit–VII Properties of Bulk Matter 20 16
Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids
Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter
Unit–VIII Thermodynamics 12
Chapter–12: Thermodynamics
Unit–IX Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory    of Gases 08
Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory
Unit–X Mechanical waves and Ray Optics 34 17
Chapter–14: Oscillations and waves
Chapter–15: Ray optics
Total 160 70
Unit I:      Physical World and Measurement                                                         10 Periods
Chapter–1: Physical World
Physics-scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
Chapter–2: Units and Measurements
Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and
derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Unit II:     Kinematics                                                                                           20 Periods
Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line
Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion, uniform and non-
uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity – time and position-time graphs.
Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane
Scalar and vector quantities; position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their
notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors, relative velocity, Unit vector; resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular components, Scalar and Vector product of vectors.
Motion  in  a  plane,  cases  of  uniform  velocity  and  uniform  acceleration-projectile  motion,
uniform circular motion.
Unit III:    Laws of Motion                                                                                     14 Periods
Chapter–5: Laws of Motion
Intuitive concept of force, Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s
second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion.
Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction,
lubrication.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on
a level circular road, vehicle on a banked road).
Unit IV:   Work, Energy and Power                                                                       12 Periods
Chapter–6: Work, Engery and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of
mechanical  energy  (kinetic  and  potential  energies);  non-conservative  forces:  motion  in  a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit V:     Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body                                       18 Periods
Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.
Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, law of conservation of angular momentum and
its applications.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison
of linear and rotational motions.
Moment of inertia, radius of gyration, values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical
objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Unit VI:   Gravitation                                                                                            12 Periods
Chapter–8: Gravitation
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential, escape velocity, orbital velocity of a
satellite, Geo-stationary satellites.
Unit VII:   Properties of Bulk Matter                                                                     20 Periods
Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear
modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic
brakes), effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity,  Stokes’  law,  terminal  velocity,  streamline  and  turbulent  flow,  critical  velocity,
Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved
surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter
Heat,  temperature,  thermal  expansion;  thermal  expansion  of  solids,  liquids  and  gases,
anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat capacity.
Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, qualitative ideas of
Blackbody radiation, Wein’s displacement Law, Stefan’s law, Green house effect.
Unit VIII: Thermodynamics                                                                                  12 Periods
Chapter–12: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics), heat, work
and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes.
Second  law  of  thermodynamics:  reversible  and  irreversible  processes,  Heat  engine  and refrigerator.
Unit IX:    Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases                      08 Periods
Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Unit X:     Mechanical Waves and Ray Optics                                                        16 Periods
Chapter–14: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion – time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time, periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M)  and its equation; phase;  oscillations  of a loaded spring- restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.
Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
Wave motion: Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion, displacement relation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves
in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Chapter–15: RAY OPTICS                                                                                         18 Periods
Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and
their magnifying powers.
CBSE PRACTICALS                                                                                                     Total Periods: 60
The record, to be submitted by the students, at the time of their annual examination, has to include:
·   Record of at least 15 Experiments [with a minimum of 6 from each section], to be performed by the students.
·    Record of at least 5 Activities [with a minimum of 2 each from section A and section B], to be demonstrated by the teachers.
·   Report of the project to be carried out by the students.
CBSE EVALUATION SCHEME
Time Allowed: Three hours Max. Marks: 30
Two experiments one from each section 8+8 Marks
Practical record (experiment and activities) 6 Marks
Investigatory Project 3 Marks
Viva on experiments, activities and project 5 Marks
Total 30 Marks
Experiments
SECTION–A
1.   To measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body and to measure internal diameter and depth
of a given beaker/calorimeter using Vernier Callipers and hence find its volume.
2.   To measure diameter of a given wire and thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.
3.   To determine volume of an irregular lamina using screw gauge.
4.   To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.
5.   To determine the mass of two different objects using a beam balance.
6.   To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.
7.   Using a simple pendulum, plot its L-T2  graph and use it to find the effective length of second’s pendulum.
8.   To study variation of time period of a simple pendulum of a given length by taking bobs of same size but
different masses and interpret the result.
9.   To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find the co-
efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.
10.  To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination θ by plotting graph between force and sinθ.
Activities (for the purpose of demonstration only)
1.   To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g., 0.2cm, 0.5 cm
2.   To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments
3.   To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars
4.   To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane
5.   To study the variation in range of a projectile with angle of projection
6.   To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on an inclined plane (using a double inclined plane)
7.   To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude & time
Experiments
SECTION–B
1.   To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2.   To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method
3.   To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body
4.   To determine specific heat capacity of a given solid by method of mixtures
5.   a)   To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer
b) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.
6.   To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two resonance
positions.
7.   To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
8.   To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
9.   To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
10. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
Activities (for the purpose of demonstration only)
1.   To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2.   To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.
3.   To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.
4.   To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by observing capillary rise.
5.   To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6.   To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre scale loaded at (i) its end (ii) in
the middle.
7.   To observe the decrease in presure with increase in velocity of a fluid.
8.   To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
9.   To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
10. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students
Class XI
Note: Same Evaluation scheme and general guidelines for visually impaired students as given for Class XII
may be followed.
A.   Items for Identification/Familiarity of the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)
Spherical ball, Cylindrical objects, vernier calipers, beaker, calorimeter, Screw gauge, wire, Beam
balance, spring balance, weight box, gram and milligram weights, forceps, Parallelogram law of vectors apparatus, pulleys and pans used in the same ‘weights’ used, Bob and string used in a  simple pendulum, meter scale, split cork, suspension arrangement, stop clock/stop watch, Helical spring, suspension arrangement used, weights, arrangement used for measuring extension, Sonometer,
Wedges, pan and pulley used in it, ‘weights’ Tuning Fork, Meter scale, Beam balance, Weight box, gram and milligram weights, forceps, Resonance Tube, Tuning Fork, Meter scale, Flask/Beaker used for adding water.
B.    List of Practicals
1.    To measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body using vernier calipers.
2.    To measure the internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter using vernier calipers
and hence find its volume.
3.    To measure diameter of given wire using screw gauge.
4.    To measure thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.
5.    To determine the mass of a given object using a beam balance.
6.    To find the weight of given body using the parallelogram law of vectors.
7.    Using a simple pendulum plot L-T and L-T2 graphs. Hence find the effective length of second’s pendulum using appropriate length values.
8.    To find the force constant of given helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.
9.    (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension
using a sonometer.
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension, for constant frequency,
using a sonometer.
10.   To find the speed of sound in air, at room temperature, using a resonance tube, by observing the
two resonance positions.
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.
Prescribed Books:
1.   Physics Part-I, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
2.   Physics Part-II, Textbook for Class XI, Published by NCERT
3.   Laboratory Manual of Physics, Class XI Published by NCERT
4.   The list of other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also).
PHYSICS (Code No. 042)
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN CLASS – XI (2018-19)
Time 3 Hours                                                                                                                      Max. Marks: 70
S.
.
Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer –II (SA-II)
(3 marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, identify, define, or recite information) 2 1 1 7 10%
2 Understanding- (Comprehension -to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information) 2 4 1 21 30%
3 Application – (Use abstract – information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 2 4 1 21 30%
4 Higher Order Thinking Skills – (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of                information, Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources) 2 1 1 10 14%
5 Evaluation – (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or
worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values)
1 2 2 11 16%
TOTAL 5×1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
Question Wise Break Up
Type of Question Mark per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I 2 7 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.   Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in one
question of 2 marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all the three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.   The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar
templates keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.
CLASS XII (2018-19)
(THEORY)
Time: 3 hrs.                                                                                                                          Max Marks: 70
No. of Periods Marks
Unit–I Electrostatics 22 15
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Unit-II Current Electricity 20
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit-III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 22 16
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 20
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves 04 17
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
Unit–VI Optics 25
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Unit–VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 08 10
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei 14
Chapter–12: Atoms
Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IX Electronic Devices 15 12
Chapter–14:   Semiconductor   Electronics:   Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Unit–X Communication Systems 10
Chapter–15: Communication Systems
Total 160 70
Unit I:          Electrostatics                                                                                                                        22 Periods
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit II:         Current Electricity                                                                                                               20 Periods
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III:    Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism                                          22 Periods
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to
ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.
Unit IV:    Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents                            20 Periods
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.
Unit V:     Electromagnetic waves                                                                        04 Periods
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
Basic  idea  of  displacement  current,  Electromagnetic  waves,  their  characteristics,  their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum  (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI:    Optics                                                                                                  25 Periods
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation,
plane polarised light, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit VII:   Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter                                                    08 Periods
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual  nature  of  radiation,  Photoelectric  effect,  Hertz  and  Lenard’s  observations;  Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter  waves-wave  nature  of  particles,  de-Broglie  relation,  Davisson-Germer  experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit VIII:   Atoms and Nuclei                                                                                 14 Periods
Chapter–12: Atoms
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter–13: Nuclei
Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX:    Electronic Devices                                                                                15 Periods
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction  transistor,  transistor  action,  characteristics  of  a  transistor  and  transistor  as  an
amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Unit X:     Communication Systems                                                                       10 Periods
Chapter–15: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation,
amplitude modulation.
PRACTICALS                                                                                              (Total Periods 60)
The record to be submitted by the students at the time of their annual examination has to include:
Record of at least 15 Experiments [with a minimum of 6 from each section], to be performed by the students.
Record of at least 5 Activities [with a minimum of 2 each from section A and section B], to be demonstrated by the teachers.
The Report of the project to be carried out by the students.
Evaluation Scheme
Time Allowed: Three hours                                                                                                 Max. Marks: 30
Two experiments one from each section 8+8 Marks
Practical record [experiments and activities] 6 Marks
Investigatory Project 3 Marks
Viva on experiments, activities and project 5 Marks
Total 30 marks
Experiments
SECTION–A
1.   To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
2.   To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
3.   To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
4.   To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
5.   To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
6.   To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
7.   To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure ofmerit.
8.   To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
9.   To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.
Activities
(For the purpose of demonstration only)
1.   To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2.   To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3.   To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
4.   To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5.   To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
SECTION–B
Experiments
1.     To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focallength.
2.     To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
3.     To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and1/v.
4.     To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5.     To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
6.     To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7.     To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.
8.     To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
9.     To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break downvoltage.
10.   To study the characteristic of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
Activities
(For the purpose of demonstration only)
1.   To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
2.   Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor, (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors,
(iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.
3.   To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
4.   To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5.   To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.
6.   To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
7.   To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from thelens/mirror).
8.   To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
Suggested Investigatory Projects
1.   To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.
2.   To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in
(a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).
(b) the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to ‘illuminate’ the LDR.
3.   To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equi convex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle.
4.   To design an appropriate logic gate combination for a given truth table.
5.   To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the
secondary coil and primary coil of a self designed transformer.
6.   To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.
7.   To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb’s law.
8.   To set up a common base transistor circuit and to study its input and output characteristic and to calculate its current gain.
9.   To study the factor on which the self inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.
10. To construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage and mark the cut-off, saturation and active regions.
11. To study the earth’s magnetic field using a tangent galvanometer.
Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII
Evaluation Scheme
Time Allowed: Two hours                                                                                                    Max. Marks: 30
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 5 marks
Written test (based on given/prescribed practicals) 10 marks
Practical Record 5 marks
Viva 10 marks
Total 30 marks
General Guidelines
The practical examination will be of two hour duration.
A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other students.
The written test will be of 30 minutes duration.
The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination rules.
All questions included in the question papers should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each subject. These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions etc.
Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for assessment.
The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/ materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.
Class XII
A.  Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments)
Meter scale, general shape of the voltmeter/ammeter, battery/power supply, connecting wires, standard resistances, connecting wires, voltmeter/ammeter, meter bridge, screw gauge, jockey Galvanometer, Resistance Box, standard Resistance, connecting wires, Potentiometer, jockey, Galvanometer, Lechlanche cell, Daniell cell [simple distinction between the two vis-à-vis their outer (glass and copper) containers], rheostat connecting wires, Galvanometer, resistance box, Plug-in and tapping keys, connecting wires battery/power supply, Diode, Transistor, IC, Resistor (Wire-wound or carbon ones with two wires connected to two ends), capacitors (one or two types), Inductors, Simple electric/electronic bell, battery/power supply, Plug-in and tapping keys, Convex lens, concave lens, convex  mirror,  concave  mirror,  Core/hollow  wooden  cylinder,  insulated  wire,  ferromagnetic  rod,
Transformer core, insulated wire.
B.  List of Practicals
1.   To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph between voltage and current.
2.   To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel combination) of resistances by Ohm’s law.
3.   To find the resistance of a given wire using a meter bridge and hence determine the specific resistance (resistivity) of its material.
4.   To compare the e.m.f of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.
5.   To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method.
6.   To identify a
(i)     diode, transistor and IC
(ii)    resistor, capacitor and inductor, from a mixed collection of such items.
7.   To understand the principle of (i) a NOT gate (ii) an OR gate (iii)an AND gate and to make their equivalent circuits using a bell and cells/battery and keys /switches.
8.   To observe the difference between
(i)  a convex lens and a concave lens
(ii) a convex mirror and a concave mirror and to estimate the likely difference between the power of two given convex /concave lenses.
9.   To design an inductor coil and to know the effectof
(i)  change in the number of turns
(ii) introduction of ferromagnetic material as its core material on the inductance of thecoil.
10. To design a (i) step up (ii) step down transformer on a given core and know the relation between its input and output voltages.
Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.
Prescribed Books:
1.   Physics, Class XI, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.
2.   Physics, Class XII, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.
3.   Laboratory Manual of Physics for class XII Published by NCERT.
4.   The list of other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also).
PHYSICS (Code No. 042)
QUESTION PAPER DESIGN CLASS – XII (2018-19)
Time 3 Hours                                                                                                                       Max. Marks: 70
S.
No.
Typology of Questions Very Short Answer (VSA)
(1 mark)
Short Answer-I (SA-I)
(2 marks)
Short Answer –II (SA-II) (3
marks)
Long Answer (LA)
(5 marks)
Total Marks %
Weightage
1. Remembering – (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know
specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories, Identify, define, or recite, information)
2 1 1 7 10%
2 Understanding – (Comprehension -to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase information) 2 4 1 21 30%
3 Application – (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations, Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem) 2 4 1 21 30%
4 High Order Thinking Skills – (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information, Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources) 2 1 1 10 14%
5 Evaluation – (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values) 1 2 2 11 16%
TOTAL 5×1=5 7×2=14 12×3=36 3×5=15 70(27) 100%
QUESTION WISE BREAK UP
Type of Question Mark per Question Total No. of Questions Total Marks
VSA 1 5 05
SA-I 2 7 14
SA-II 3 12 36
LA 5 3 15
Total 27 70
1.    Internal Choice: There is no overall choice in the paper. However, there is an internal choice in one question of 2
marks weightage, one question of 3 marks weightage and all the three questions of 5 marks weightage.
2.    The above template is only a sample. Suitable internal variations may be made for generating similar templates
keeping the overall weightage to different form of questions and typology of questions same.

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