Finland Geography


Finland Location:

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Finland Geographic coordinates:

64 00 N, 26 00 E

Finland Map references:


Finland Area:

total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

country comparison to the world: 66

Finland Area – comparative:

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Area comparison map:

Finland Land boundaries:

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1309 km

Finland Coastline:

1,250 km

Finland Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland – 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia

Finland Climate:

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Finland Terrain:

mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Finland Elevation:

mean elevation: 164 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

Finland Natural resources:

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Finland Land use:

agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.1% (2011 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2011 est.)

other: 19.6% (2011 est.)

Finland Irrigated land:

690 sq km (2012)

Finland Population distribution:

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated

Finland Natural hazards:

severe winters in the north

Finland Environment – current issues:

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Finland Environment – international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Finland Geography – note:

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Data for Educational Purpose Only.


The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

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