Iran Geography


Iran Location:

Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Iran Geographic coordinates:

32 00 N, 53 00 E

Iran Map references:

Middle East

Iran Area:

total: 1,648,195 sq km

land: 1,531,595 sq km

water: 116,600 sq km

country comparison to the world: 19

Iran Area – comparative:

almost 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska

Area comparison map:

Iran Land boundaries:

total: 5,894 km

border countries (7): Afghanistan 921 km, Armenia 44 km, Azerbaijan 689 km, Iraq 1599 km, Pakistan 959 km, Turkey 534 km, Turkmenistan 1148 km

Iran Coastline:

2,440 km – note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Iran Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: natural prolongation

Iran Climate:

mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Iran Terrain:

rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Iran Elevation:

mean elevation: 1,305 m

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,625 m

Iran Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Iran Land use:

agricultural land: 30.1% (2011 est.)

arable land: 10.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 18.1% (2011 est.)

forest: 6.8% (2011 est.)

other: 63.1% (2011 est.)

Iran Irrigated land:

95,530 sq km (2012)

Iran Population distribution:

population is concentrated in the north, northwest, and west, reflecting the position of the Zagros and Elburz Mountains; the vast dry areas in the center and eastern parts of the country, around the deserts of the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut, have a much lower population density

Iran Natural hazards:

periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

Iran Environment – current issues:

air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

Iran Environment – international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Iran Geography – note:

strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

Data for Educational Purpose Only.


The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

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