Iraq Government


Iraq Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Iraq

conventional short form: Iraq

local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq

local short form: Al Iraq/Eraq

former: Mesopotamia, Mandatory Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq

etymology: the name probably derives from “Uruk” (Biblical “Erech”), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River

Iraq Government type:

federal parliamentary republic

Iraq Capital:

name: Baghdad

geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 24 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Iraq Administrative divisions:

18 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular – parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala’; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit

Iraq Independence:

3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note – on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government

Iraq National holiday:

Independence Day, 3 October (1932); Republic Day, 14 July (1958)

Iraq Constitution:

history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and the Council of Minsters collectively, or by one-fifth of the Council of Representatives members; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Council of Representatives, approval by referendum, and ratification by the president; passage of amendments to articles on citizen rights and liberties requires a two-thirds majority vote of Council of Representatives members after two successive electoral terms, approval in a referendum, and ratification by the president (2016)

Legal system: This entry provides the description of a country’s legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United State law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law). An addition . . . more Legal system field listing

mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law

Iraq International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Iraq Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Iraq Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Iraq Executive branch:

chief of state: President Barham SALIH (since 2 October 2018); vice presidents (vacant)

head of government: Prime Minister Adil ABD AL-MAHDI (since 24 October 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives (COR) to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); COR election last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister nominated by the largest COR bloc or by consensus and submission of COR minister nominees for majority COR approval; disapproval requires designation of a new prime minister candidate

election results:

COR vote in first round – Barham SALIH (PUK) 165, Fuad HUSAYN (KDP) 90; Barham SALIH elected president in second round – Barham SALIH 219, Fuad HUSAYN 22; note – the COR vote on 1 October 2018 failed due to a lack of quorum, and a new session was held on 2 October

Iraq Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (329 seats; 320 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 9 seats at the national level reserved for minorities – 5 for Christians, 1 each for Sabaean-Mandaeans, Yazidis, Shabaks, Fayli Kurds; 25% of seats allocated to women; members serve 4-year terms); note – Iraq’s constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council, but it has not been instituted

elections: last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition – NA; seats by party/coalition – Al Sa’irun Alliance 54, Al Fatah Alliance 48, Al Nasir Alliance 42, KDP 25, State of Law Coalition 25, Wataniyah 21, National Wisdom Trend 19, PUK 18, Iraqi Decision Alliance 14, Anbar Our Identity 6, Goran Movement 5, New Generation 4, other 48; composition – men 245, women 84, percent of women 25.5%

Iraq Judicial branch:

highest courts: Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note – court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges selected by the president of the republic from nominees selected by the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), a 25-member committee of judicial officials that manages the judiciary and prosecutors; FSC members appointed for life; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the SJC and confirmed by the Council of Representatives to serve until retirement nominally at age 63

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); civil courts, including first instance, personal status, labor, and customs; criminal courts including felony, misdemeanor, investigative, major crimes, juvenile, and traffic; religious courts

Iraq Political parties and leaders:

Al Fatah Alliance [Hadi al-AMIRI]

Al Nasr Alliance [Haydar al-ABADI]

Al Sadiqun Bloc [Adnan al-DULAYMI]

Al Sa’irun Alliance [Muqtda al-SADR]

Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]

Da`wa Party [Nuri al-MALIKI]

Fadilah Party [Muhammad al-YAQUBI]

Goran Movement [Omar SAYYID ALI]

Iraqi Communist Party [Hamid Majid MUSA]

Iraq Decision Alliance [Khamis al-KHANJAR, Usama al-NUJAYFI]

Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI [Humam HAMMUDI]

Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masoud BARZANI]

National Wisdom Trend [Ammar al-HAKIM]

New Generation Movement [SHASWAR Abd al-Wahid Qadir]

Our Identity [Muhammad al-HALBUSI]

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [KOSRAT Rasul Ali, acting]

State of Law Coalition [Nuri al MALIKI

Wataniyah coalition [Ayad ALLAWI]

numerous smaller religious, local, tribal, and minority parties

Iraq International organization participation:


Iraq Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Farid YASIN (since 18 January 2017)

chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 742-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129

consulate(s) general: Detroit, Los Angeles

Iraq Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew TUELLER (since 9 June 2019)

embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad; note – consulate in Al Basrah closed as of 28 September 2018

mailing address: APO AE 09316

telephone: 0760-030-3000


Iraq Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning “God is great”) in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise replacement for the Ba’thist SADDAM-era flag

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band

Iraq National symbol(s):

golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black

Iraq National anthem:

name: “Mawtini” (My Homeland)

lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL

note: adopted 2004; following the ouster of SADDAM Husayn, Iraq adopted “Mawtini,” a popular folk song throughout the Arab world; also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people

Data for Educational Purpose Only.


The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index

Latest Govt Job & Exam Updates:

View Full List ...