Ireland Government

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IRELAND

Ireland Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Ireland

local long form: none

local short form: Eire

etymology: the modern Irish name “Eire” evolved from the Gaelic “Eriu,” the name of the matron goddess of Ireland (goddess of the land); the names “Ireland” in English and “Eire” in Irish are direct translations of each other

Ireland Government type:

parliamentary republic

Ireland Capital:

name: Dublin

geographic coordinates: 53 19 N, 6 14 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Ireland Administrative divisions:

28 counties and 3 cities*; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Cork*, Donegal, Dublin*, Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, Galway, Galway*, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, South Dublin, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Ireland Independence:

6 December 1921 (from the UK by the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended British rule); 6 December 1922 (Irish Free State established); 18 April 1949 (Republic of Ireland Act enabled)

Ireland National holiday:

Saint Patrick’s Day, 17 March; note – marks the traditional death date of Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, during the latter half of the fifth century A.D. (most commonly cited years are c. 461 and c. 493); although Saint Patrick’s feast day was celebrated in Ireland as early as the ninth century, it only became an official public holiday in Ireland in 1903

Ireland Constitution:

history: previous 1922; latest drafted 14 June 1937, adopted by plebiscite 1 July 1937, effective 29 December 1937

amendments: proposed as bills by Parliament; passage requires majority vote by both the Senate and House of Representatives, majority vote in a referendum, and presidential signature; amended many times, last in 2019 (2019)

Ireland Legal system:

common law system based on the English model but substantially modified by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts by Supreme Court

Ireland International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Ireland Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no, unless a parent of a child born in Ireland has been legally resident in Ireland for at least three of the four years prior to the birth of the child

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 4 of the previous 8 years

Ireland Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Ireland Executive branch:

chief of state: President Michael D. HIGGINS (since 11 November 2011)

head of government: Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Leo VARADKAR (since 14 June 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by the Dali Eireann (lower house of Parliament)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 October 2018 (next to be held no later than November 2025); taoiseach (prime minister) nominated by the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann), appointed by the president

election results: Michael D. HIGGINS reelected president; percent of vote – Michael D. HIGGINS (independent) 55.8%, Peter CASEY (independent) 23.3%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 6.4%, Liadh NI RIADA (Sinn Fein) 6.4%, Joan FREEMAN (independent) 6%, Gavin DUFFY (independent) 2.2%

Ireland Legislative branch:

description: bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of:

Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 43 members indirectly elected from 5 vocational panels of nominees by an electoral college consisting of members from the House of Representatives, outgoing Senate members, and city and county council members, 11 appointed by the prime minister, and 6 elected by 2 university constituencies – 3 each from the University of Dublin (Trinity College) and the National University of Ireland)

House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (158 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; all Parliament members serve 5-year terms)

elections:

Senate – last held in April and May 2016 (next to be held no later than 2021)

House of Representatives – last held on 26 February 2016 (next to be held no later than 2021)

election results: 

Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – Fine Gael 19, Fianna Fail 14, Sinn Fein 7, Labor Party 5, Green Party 1, independent 14; composition – men 42, women 18, percent of women 30%

House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – Fine Gael 25.5%, Fianna Fail 24.4%, Sinn Fein 13.8%, Labor Party 6.6%, AAA-PBD 4.0%, Social Democrats 3.0%, Green Party 2.7%, Renua Ireland 2.2% independent 17.8%; seats by party – Fine Gael 50, Fianna Fail 44, Sinn Fein 23, Labor Party 7, AAA-PBP 6, Social Democrats 3, Green Party 2, independent 23; composition – men 123, women 35, percent of women 22.2%; note – total Parliament percent of women 24.3%

Ireland Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court of Ireland (consists of the chief justice, 9 judges, 2 ex-officio members – the presidents of the High Court and Court of Appeal – and organized in 3-, 5-, or 7-judge panels, depending on the importance or complexity of an issue of law)

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the prime minister and Cabinet and appointed by the president; chief justice serves in the position for 7 years; judges can serve until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court, Court of Appeal; circuit and district courts; criminal courts

Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country’s last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. Political parties and leaders field listing

Solidarity-People Before Profit or AAAS-PBP [collective leadership]

Fianna Fail [Micheal MARTIN]

Fine Gael [Leo VARADKAR]

Green Party [Eamon RYAN]

Labor (Labour) Party [Brendan HOWLIN]

Renua Ireland (vacant)

Sinn Fein [Mary Lou MCDONALD]

Social Democrats [Catherine MURPHY, Roisin SHORTALL]

Socialist Party [collective leadership]

The Workers’ Party [Michael DONNELLY]

Ireland International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Ireland Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel Gerard MULHALL (since 8 September 2017)

chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939

FAX: [1] (202) 232-5993

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin (TX), Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco

Ireland Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) Charge d’Affaires L. Reece SMYTH (since 20 January 2017)

embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [353] (1) 630-6200 (2018)

FAX: [353] (1) 688-9946 (2018)

Ireland Flag description:

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; officially the flag colors have no meaning, but a common interpretation is that the green represents the Irish nationalist (Gaelic) tradition of Ireland; orange represents the Orange tradition (minority supporters of William of Orange); white symbolizes peace (or a lasting truce) between the green and the orange

note: similar to the flag of Cote d’Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed – orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

Ireland National symbol(s):

harp, shamrock (trefoil); national colors: blue, green

Ireland National anthem:

name: “Amhran na bhFiann” (The Soldier’s Song)

lyrics/music: Peadar KEARNEY [English], Liam O RINN [Irish]/Patrick HEENEY and Peadar KEARNEY

note: adopted 1926; instead of “Amhran na bhFiann,” the song “Ireland’s Call” is often used at athletic events where citizens of Ireland and Northern Ireland compete as a unified team


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Ireland:

Ireland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Ireland Background and Introduction

Ireland Geography

Ireland People and Society

Ireland Government

Ireland Economy

Ireland Energy Resources

Ireland Communications System

Ireland Transportation System

Ireland Military and Security System

Ireland Transnational Issues

Ireland Capital Flag and Currency

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