1. Diversity in Living World
Diversity of living organisms Classification of the living organisms (five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classificaton within each kingdom.) Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature Salient features of animal (non chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level) and plant (major groups; Angiospems up to subclass) classification. Botanical gardens, herbara, Zoological parks and museums
ll Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Tissues in animals and plants. Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Morphology, anatormy and functions of differnt systems of an nnelid (earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).
lll CELL : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Cell: cell wall, cell membrance and cell organelles’ (plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, Centrioles) and nuclear organization. Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids and nucleic acids. Enzymes: types, properties and function.
IV Plant Physiology
Movement of water, food, nutrients and gasses, Plants and Water Mineral nutrition. Respiration, Photosynthesis, Plant growth and development.
V Human Physiology
Digestion and absorption. Dreathing and respiration. Body fluids and circulation. Excretory products and limination. Locomotion and movement. Control and coordination.
l SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants. Development of seeds and fruits. Human reproduction: eproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle. Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and prarturation. Reproductive health – birth control, contraception and sexually ransmitted diseases.
ll Genetics and evolution
Mendelian inheritancce. Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction – Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles). Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY Linkage and crossing over. Inherithnce pattern of harmophilia and blood groups in human beings. DNA: eplication, transcription, translation. Gene expression and regulation. Genome and Human Genome Project. DNA fingerprinting. Evolution: Theories and evidences.
III. BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE
Animal husbandry. Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines. Pathogens, Parasites. Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and evergy eneration. Cancer and AIDS. Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse.
IV. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Recombinant DNA technology. Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry Genetically modified (GM) organisms; biosafety issues. Insulin and Bt cotton
V. ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
Ecosystems: components, types and energy flow. Species, population and community. Ecological adaptations. Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues.
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