Newton’s laws of motion: First law of motion – force and inertia with examples -momentum – second law of motion, derivation of F=ma, mention of spring force F=kx, mention of basic forces in nature – impulse and impulsive forces with examples – second law as applied to variable mass situation – third law of motion – Identifying action and reaction forces with examples – derivation of law of conservation of momentum with examples in daily life – principle of rocket propulsion – inertial and non-inertial frames – apparent weight in a lift and rocket/satellite – problems.
Fluid Dynamics: Explanation of streamline and turbulent motion – mention of equation of continuity – mention of expressions for PE, KE and pressure energy of an element of a liquid flowing through a pipe – statement and explanation of Bemoulli’s theorem and its application to uplift of an aircraft sprayer.
Surface tension: Concept of adhesive and cohesive forces – definition of Surface energy and surface tension and angle of contact – explanation of capillary rise and mention of its expression – mention of application of surface tension to (i) formation of drops and bubbles (ii) capillary action in wick of a lamp (iii) action of detergents.
Work – power – energy: Work done by a force – F.S – unit of work – graphical representation of work done by a constant and variable force – power – units of power – energy – derivation of expression for gravitation potential energy and kinetic energy of a moving body – statement of work – energy theorem – mention of expression for potential energy of a spring – statement and explanation of law of conservation of energy – illustration in he case of a body sliding down on an inclined plane – discussion of special case = 90o for a freely falling body – explanation of conservative and nonqwhen conservative forces with examples – explanation of elastic and inelastic collisions with examples – coefficient of restitution – problems.
Gravitation: Statement and explanation of law of gravitation – definition of G – derivation of relation between g and G – mention of expression for variation of g with altitude, depth and latitude – statement and explanation of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion – definition of orbital velocity and escape velocity and mention of their expressions – satellites – basic concepts of geo-stationary satellites, launching of satellites – IRS and communication satellites – brief explanation of Inertial mass and gravitational mass – weightlessness – remote sensing and essentials of space communication – problems.
Concurrent Co-plannar forces: Definition of resultant and equilibrant – statement of law of parallelogram of forces – derivation of expression for magnitude and direction of two concurrent coplanar forces – law of triangle of forces and its converse – Lami’s theorem – problems.
Gas laws: Statement and explanation of Boyle’s law and Charle’s law – definition of Pressure and Volume Coefficient of a gas – absolute zero – Kelvin scale of temperature – mention of perfect gas equation – explanation of isothermal and adiabatic changes – mention of Van-der-Waal’s equation of state for real gases.
Mode of heat transfer: Conduction of heat – steady state – temperature gradient – definition of coefficient of thermal conductivity – basic concepts of convection of heat – radiation – properties of thermal radiation – radiant energy – definition of emissivity and absorptivity – perfect black body – statement and explanation of Kirchhoff’s law. Newton’s law of cooling – Stefan’s law – Wien’s displacement and Planck’s law – qualitative explanation of solar constant and surface temperature of sun – principle and working of total radiation pyrometer – problems.
Waves: Waves around us – brief note on light waves, sound waves, radio waves, micro waves, seismic waves – wave as a carrier of energy – classification of waves. (i) based on medium – mechanical and electromagnetic waves (ii) based on vibration of particles in the medium – Longitudinal & transverse waves – one, two & three dimensional waves with example – definition of wave amplitude, wave frequency, wave period, wavelength and wave velocity – concept to establish the relation between pathlof phase of a wave – derivation v=f difference and phase difference – definition of a progressive wave – and its characteristics – derivation of equation of a progressive wave – different forms of a progressive wave equation – definition of wave intensity – mention of expression of wave intensity and its unit – statement and explanation of principles of superposition of waves with examples – problems.
Sound: Properties of sound – speed of sound in a gas – explanation of Newton’s formula for speed of sound – correction by Laplace – Newton – Laplace formula – discussion of factors affecting speed i.e. pressure, temperature, humidity and wind – definition of sound intensity – explanation of loudness and its unit – definition of intensity level and its unit – mention of relation between intensity and loudness – distinction between noise and musical note – characteristics of a musical note – phenomenon of beats and its theory – application of beats (i) to find the frequency of a note (ii) to tune the musical instruments -Doppler effect – derivation of expression for apparent frequency in general case and discussion to special cases – qualitative comparison of Doppler effect in sound and light – problems.
Refraction at a plane surface: Refraction through a parallel sided glass slab – derivation of expressions for lateral shift and normal shift (object in a denser medium) – total internal reflection and its applications -optical fibers and its application in communication – problems.
Refraction through a prism: Derivation of expression for the refractive index in terms of A and D -dispersion through a prism – experimental – arrangement for pure spectrum – deviation produced by a thin prism – dispersive power – mention of condition for dispersion without deviation – problems.
Refraction at a spherical surface: Derivation of the relation – connecting n,u,v and r for refraction at a spherical surface (concave towards a point object in a denser medium) derivation of lens maker’s formula -power of a lens – magnification – derivation of expression for the equivalent focal length of combination of two thin lenses in contact – mention of expression for equivalent focal length of two thin lenses separated by a distance – problems.
Introduction to Theories of Light: A brief explanation of Newton’s corpuscular theory, Huygen’s wave theory and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory – mention of expression for o, qualitative explanation of Hertz’s experiment – briefeomÖspeed of light C=1/ explanation of Planck’s quantum theory of radiation -dual nature of light.
Interference: Explanation of the phenomenon theory of interference – derivation of conditions for constructive and destructive interference.
Young’s double slit experiment, derivation of expression for fringe width – qualitative explanation of interference at thin films and Newton’s rings – problems.
Diffraction: Explanation of the phenomenon – distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction -qualitative explanation of diffraction at single slit and analysis of diffraction pattern (Fraunhoffer type) -qualitative explanation of plane diffraction grating at normal incidence – limit of resolution – resolving power – Rayleigh’s criterion – definition and mention of expression for resolving powers of microscope and telescope – problems.
Polarisation: Explanation of the phenomenon – representation of polarized and unpolarised light -explanation of plane of polarization and plane of vibration – methods of producing plane polarized light : by reflection – Brewster’s law, refraction, double refraction, selective absorption – construction and application of polaroids – optical activity – specific rotatory power – construction and working of Laurent’s half shade polarimeter – mention of circularly and elliptically polarized light – problems.
Speed of light: Michelson’s rotating mirror experiment to determine of light – importance of speed of light.
Electric charges: Concept of charge – Coulomb’s law, absolute and relative permittivity – SI unit of charge.
Electrostatic Field: Concept of electric field – definition of field strength – derivation of expression for the field due to an isolated change, concept of dipole – mention of expression for the field due to a dipole -definition of dipole moment – mention of expression for torque on a dipole – explanation of polarization of a dielectric medium – dielectric strength – concept of lines of force and their characteristics – explanation of electric flux – statement and explanation of Gauss theorem and its applications to derive expressions for electric intensity (a) near the surface of a charged conductor (b) near a spherical conductor – concept of electric potential – derivation of the relation between electric field and potential – derivation of expression for potential due to an isolated charge – explanation of potential energy of a system of charges – problems.
Capacitors: Explanation of capacity of a conductor and factors on which it depends – definition of capacitance and its unit – derivation of expression for capacity of a spherical conductor – principle of a capacitor – derivation of expression for capacitance of parallel plate capacitor – mention of expression for capacitance of spherical and cylindrical capacitors – derivation of expression for energy stored in a capacitor – derivation of expression for equivalent capacitance of capacitors in series and parallel – mention of uses of capacitors – problems.
Electric current: Microscope view of current through conductors (random motion of electrons) – explanation of drift d -nvelocity and mobility – derivation of expression for current I = neA deduction of Ofim’s law – origin of resistance – definition of resistivity – temperature coefficient of resistance – concept of super conductivity – explanation of critical temperature, critical field and high temperature superconductors – mention of uses of superconductors – thermistors and mention of their uses – colour code for resistors -derivation of expression for effective resistance of resistances in series and parallel -derivation of expression for branch currents – definition of emf and internal resistance of a cell – Ohm’s law applied to a circuit -problems.
Kirchoff’s laws: Statement and explanation of Kirchoff’s laws for electrical network – explanation of Wheastone’s network – derivation of the condition for its balance by applying Kirchoff’s laws – principle of metre bridge – problems.
Magnetic effect of electric current: Magnetic field produced by electric current – statement and explanation of Biot – Savart’s (Laplace’s) law – derivation of expression for magnetic field at any point on the axis of a circular coil carrying current and hence expression for magnetic field at the centre – current in a circular coil as a magnetic dipole – explanation of magnetic moment of the current loop – mention of expression for the magnetic field due to (i) a straight current carrying conductor (ii) at a point on the axis of a solenoid – basic concepts of terrestrial magnetism – statement and explanation of Tangent law -construction and theory of tangent galvanometer – problems.
Mechanical effect of electric current: Mention of expression for force on a charge moving in magnetic field – mention of expression for force on a conductor carrying current kept in a magnetic field – statement of Fleming’s left hand rule – explanation of magnetic field strength in terms of flux density – derivation of expression for the force between two parallel conductors carrying currents and hence definition of ampere -mention of expression for torque on a current loop kept in an uniform magnetic field – construction and theory of moving coil galvanometer – conversion of a pointer galvanometer into an ammeter and voltmeter -problems.
Electromagnetic Induction: Statement explanation of Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law – derivation of expression for emf induced in a rod moving in a uniform magnetic field -explanation of self induction and mutual induction – mention of expression for energy stored in a coil -explanation of eddy currents – alternating currents – derivation of expression for sinusoidal emf – definition of phase and frequency of ac – mention of the expression for instantaneous, peak, rms, and average values -derivation of expression for current in case of ac applied to a circuit containing (i) pure resistor (ii) inductor (iii) capacitor – derivation of expression for impedance and current in LCR series circuit by phasor diagrm method – explanation of resonance – derivation of expression for resonant frequency – brief account of sharpness of resonance and Q-factor – mention of expression for power in ac circuits – power factor and wattless current – qualitative description of choke -basic ideas of magnetic hysteresis – construction and working of transformers – mention of sources of power loss in transformers – ac meters – principle and working of moving iron meter – qualitative explanation of transmission of electrical power – advantages of ac and dc – problems.
Introduction to atomic physics: Mention of the types of electron emission – description and theory of Dunnington’s method of finding e/m of an electron – explanation of types of spectra: emission and absorption spectra – brief account of Fraunhoffer lines – qualitative explanation of electromagnetic spectrum with emphasis on frequency.
Photo electric effect: Explanation of photo electric effect – experiment to study photo electric effect -experimental observations – Einstein’s photo electric equation and its explanation – principle and uses of photo cells: (i) photo emissive (ii) photo voltaic (iii) photo conductive cells – problems.
Dual nature of matter: Concept of matter waves – arriving at the expression for de Brogile Wave length -principle and working of G.P. Thomson’s experiment – principle of Electron Microscope – Scanning Electron Microscope Transmission Electron Microscope and Atomic -Force Microscope.
Bohr’s Atom model: Bohr’s atomic model for Hydrogen like atoms – Bohr’s postulates – arriving at the expressions for radius, velocity, energy and wave number – explanation of spectral series of Hydrogen -energy level diagram – explanation of ionization and excitation energy – limitations of Bohr’s theory -qualitative explanation of Sommerfeld & Vector atom models – problems.
Scattering of light: Explanation of coherent and incoherent scattering – blue of the sky and sea – red at sunrise and sunset – basic concepts and applications of Raman effect.
Lasers: Interaction between energy levels and electromagnetic radiation – laser action – population inversion – optical pumping – properties of lasers – construction and working of Ruby laser – mention of applications of lasers – brief account of photonics.
Nuclear Physics: Characteristics of nucleus – qualitative explanation of liquid drop model – qualitative explanation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and its applications in medical diagnostics as MRI -nuclear forces and their characteristics – explanation of Einsteins mass – energy relation – definition of amu and eV – arriving at 1amu = 931 Mev – examples to show the conversion of mass into energy and vice-versa – mass defect – binding energy – specific binding energy – BE curve – packing fraction.
Nuclear fission with equations – nuclear chain reaction – critical mass – controlled and un-controlled chain reactions – types of nuclear reactors and mention of their principles – disposal of nuclear waste. Nuclear fusion – stellar energy (carbon & proton cycles) – problems.
Radioactivity: Laws of radioactivity (i) -mSoddy’s group displacement laws (ii) decay law – derivation of N=NOe- explanation of decay constant – derivation of expression for half life – mention of expression for mean life – relation between half and mean life – units of activity: Bequerrel and Curie – Artificial transmutation: Artificial radioactivity – radio isotopes and mention of their uses – brief account of biological effects of radiations and safety measures – problems.
Elementary particles: Basic concepts of -decay – neutrino hypothesisbleptons and hadrons – qualitative explanation of and Quarks.
Solid state electronics: Qualitative explanation of Bond theory of solids – classification of conductors, insulators and semiconductors – intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors – p-type and n-type semiconductors -construction and action of pn-junction – forward and reverse biasing – half wave and full wave rectification -function and application of light emitting diodes – photo diode – laser diode – transistors – npn and pnp transistors – action of transistor -npn transistor as an amplifier in CE mode.
Digital Electronics: Logic gates -AND, OR, NOR & NAND symbols and truth table – applications of logic gates (Boolean equations) – half adder and full adder.
Soft condensed matter physics: Liquid crystals – classification, thermotropic ( nematic, cholesteric and smectic) and lyotropic liquid crystals – mention of applications of liquid crystals – basic concepts of emulsions, gels & foams.
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