Karamarda consists of dried root of Carissa carandas Linn. (Fam. Apocynacem); a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree with strong simple or forked thorns in pairs, found throughout the country.
Sansk : Karamla, Karamardaka
Assam : —
Beng : Karamacha
Eng : —
Guj : Karamada
Hindi : Karaonda, Karaondi
Kan : Karayige
Kash : —
Mal : Modakam
Mar : Karabanda
Ori : —
Punj : —
Tam : Kalakkai
Tel : Vaka, Karavande
Urdu : —
Root considerably long, often irregularly bent, woody, cylindrical; rusty or yellowish-brown; 1-1.5 cm thick; surface smooth; fracture, hard; odour and taste, not distinct.
Mature root shows a stratified cork, lignified and tangentially elongated cells, consisting of alternating bands of smaller and larger cells; a few inner layers filled with red contents; secondary cortex very narrow, composed of 1 or 2 layers of thinwalled cells; secondary phloem composed of usual elements having a number of cavities, present in a row just below the secondary cortex; a number of stone cells present in large compact patches in different rows, in outer and inner phloem regions interrupting phloem rays; phloem rays uni-to biseriate; prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occur in a number of cells throughout phloem region; cambium not distinct; secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels, fibres, tracheids and xylem parenchyma, all elements being lignified, xylem rays uni to biseriate, consisting of radially elongated cells; simple, round to oval, starch grains measuring 5.5-11 μ in dia., present throughout.
Powder – Yellowish-brown; shows patches of stratified cork, xylem fibres, stone cells, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple, round to oval, starch grains, measuring 5.5 – 11 μ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 2 Per cent, Appendix 2.2.2
Total ash Not more than 5 Per cent, Appendix 2.2.3
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 Per cent, Appendix 2.2.4
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 4 Per cent, Appendix 2.2.6
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 7 Per cent, Appendix 2.2.7
T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows under U.V. (366 nm) a conspicuous fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.07 (sky blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0.07, 0.26, 0.46 and 0.80 (all yellowish brown). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C five spots appear at Rf. 0.07, 0.26, 0.46, 0.80 and 0.92 (all violet).
CONSTITUENTS – Glycosides -Cardiac Glycosides.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Mutrala, Vamaka
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Marma Gutika
THERAPEUTIC USES – Mutra Roga, Visphota, Vidradhi, Vrana.
DOSE – 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
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