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Unit-1 : Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit-2: Solid State
Classification of solid based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties-relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit-4: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship. Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals-Aufabau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit-5: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements –atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Unit-6: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR(Valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbitas; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit-7: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matte. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings, Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass of action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect.
Unit-10: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit-12: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Unit-13: Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca
Unit-14: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements: Group 13 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidations states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compound: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Unit-15: Group 14 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element, Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
Unit-16: Organic Chemistry
Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General Introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bind (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation, halogenations. Friedel-Craft’s alkuylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells: lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit-19: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit-20: Surface Chemistry
Adsoprtion – physisorption and chemisorptions; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit-21: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit-22: p-Block Elements
Group 15 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic froms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides(PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids
Unit-23: Group 16 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur-allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Unit-24: Group 17 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Unit-25: Group 18 elements
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit-26: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. General trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthnoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit-27: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit-28: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Halokanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Halorenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit-29: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols, Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses,
Unit-30: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit-31: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance
Proteins – Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Classification- natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
Unit-34: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air,, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acids rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Unit-35: Chemistry in Everyday life
1. Chemical in Medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemical in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.