Finland Economy

FINLAND

Finland Economy – overview:

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years.

Finland’s main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

Finland GDP (purchasing power parity):

$244.9 billion (2017 est.)

$238.2 billion (2016 est.)

$232.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 62

Finland GDP (official exchange rate):

$252.8 billion (2017 est.)

Finland GDP – real growth rate:

2.8% (2017 est.)

2.5% (2016 est.)

0.1% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Finland GDP – per capita (PPP):

$44,500 (2017 est.)

$43,400 (2016 est.)

$42,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 38

Finland Gross national saving:

23.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

20% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Finland GDP – composition, by end use:

household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)

Finland GDP – composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

Finland Agriculture – products:

barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Finland Industries:

metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Finland Industrial production growth rate:

6.2% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force field listing

2.473 million (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115

Finland Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 4%

industry: 20.7%

services: 75.3% (2017 est.)

Finland Unemployment rate:

8.5% (2017 est.)

8.8% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Finland Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 6.7%

highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)

Finland Distribution of family income – Gini index:

27.2 (2016)

22.2 (1995)

country comparison to the world: 144

Finland Budget:

revenues: 134.2 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 135.6 billion (2017 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

Finland Taxes and other revenues:

53.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Finland Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Finland Public debt:

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 72

Finland Fiscal year:

calendar year

Finland Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.8% (2017 est.)

0.4% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Finland Central bank discount rate:

1.25% (31 December 2017)

0% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank’s rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

country comparison to the world: 131

Finland Commercial bank prime lending rate:

1.61% (31 December 2017 est.)

1.79% (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Finland Stock of narrow money:

$152.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$124 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

country comparison to the world: 28

Finland Stock of broad money:

$152.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$124 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Finland Stock of domestic credit:

$323.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$351.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Finland Market value of publicly traded shares:

$231 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$207.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$208.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

Finland Current account balance:

$1.806 billion (2017 est.)

-$819 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Finland Exports:

$67.73 billion (2017 est.)

$51.9 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Finland Exports – partners:

Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)

Finland Exports – commodities:

electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Finland Imports:

$65.26 billion (2017 est.)

$58.18 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Finland Imports – commodities:

foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Finland Imports – partners:

Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)

Finland Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$10.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$11.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Finland Debt – external:

$150.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$147.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Finland Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

$135.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$84.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Finland Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

$185.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$116.7 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Finland Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar –

0.885 (2017 est.)

0.903 (2016 est.)

0.9214 (2015 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Finland Energy Resources

FINLAND

Finland Electricity access:

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Finland Electricity – production:

66.54 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Finland Electricity – consumption:

82.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Finland Electricity – exports:

3.159 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Finland Electricity – imports:

22.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 8

Finland Electricity – installed generating capacity:

16.27 million kW (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Finland Electricity – from fossil fuels:

41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Finland Electricity – from nuclear fuels:

17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

Finland Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:

20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Finland Electricity – from other renewable sources:

23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Finland Crude oil – production:

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Finland Crude oil – exports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Finland Crude oil – imports:

236,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Finland Crude oil – proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Finland Refined petroleum products – production:

310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Finland Refined petroleum products – consumption:

217,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Finland Refined petroleum products – exports:

166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Finland Refined petroleum products – imports:

122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Finland Natural gas – production:

0 cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

Finland Natural gas – consumption:

2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Finland Natural gas – exports:

4 million cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Finland Natural gas – imports:

2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Finland Natural gas – proved reserves:

NA cu m (1 January 2016 est.)

Finland Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

46.01 million Mt (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Finland Communications System

FINLAND

Finland Finland Telephones – fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 378,200 (2017 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Finland Telephones – mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 7,307,800 (2017 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Finland Telephone system:

general assessment: modern system with excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; forefront in testing 5G networks; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies

domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line 7 per 100 subscription; 132 per 100 mobile-cellular; network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs

international: country code – 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations – access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note – Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Finland Broadcast media:

a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Finland Internet country code:

.finote – Aland Islands assigned .ax

Finland Internet users:

total: 4,822,132 (July 2016 est.)

percent of population: 87.7% (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Finland Broadband – fixed subscriptions:

total: 1,709,400 (2017 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Finland Transportation System

FINLAND

Finland National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 9,972,333 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713.484 million mt-km (2015)

Finland Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

OH (2016)

Finland Airports:

148 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 39

Finland Airports – with paved runways:

total: 74 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 21 (2017)

under 914 m: 14 (2017)

Finland Airports – with unpaved runways:

total: 74 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 71 (2013)

Finland Pipelines:

1288 km gas transmission pipes, 1976 km distribution pipes (2016)

Finland Railways:

total: 5,926 km (2016)

broad gauge: 5,926 km 1.524-m gauge (3,270 km electrified) (2016)

country comparison to the world: 32

Finland Roadways:

total: 454,000 km (2012)

highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) (2012)

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

urban: 26,000 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 15

Finland Waterways:

8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)

country comparison to the world: 17

Finland Merchant marine:

total: 259

by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 1, general cargo 88, oil tanker 4, other 159 (2018)

country comparison to the world: 59

Finland Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Finland Military and Security System

FINLAND

Finland Military expenditures:

1.29% of GDP (2019)

1.23% of GDP (2018)

1.26% of GDP (2017)

1.31% of GDP (2016)

1.29% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 91

Finland Military branches:

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat, includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2016)

Finland Military service age and obligation:

all Finnish men are called-up for military service the year they turn 18; at 18, women may volunteer for military service; service obligation 6-12 months; individuals enter the reserve upon completing their initial obligation; military obligation to age 60 (2016)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Finland Transnational Issues

FINLAND

Finland Disputes – international:

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Finland Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 8,523 (Iraq) (2018)

stateless persons: 2,759 (2018)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

 

Go to All Country Index


 

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Finland Capital Flag:

Euro

Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

 

Go to All Country Index


 

Finland Government

FINLAND

Finland Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland

local short form: Suomi/Finland

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Finland Government type:

parliamentary republic

Finland Capital:

name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish “helsing,” an archaic name for “neck” (“hals”), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; “fors” refers to “rapids,” so “helsing fors” meaning becomes “the narrows’ rapids”

Finland Administrative divisions:

19 regions (maakunnat, singular – maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular – landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

Finland Independence:

6 December 1917 (from Russia)

Finland National holiday:

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Finland Constitution:

history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared “urgent” by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)

Finland Legal system:

civil law system based on the Swedish model

Finland International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Finland Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Finland Executive branch:

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 29 May 2015); note – he resigned on 8 March 2019 after Parliament voted down his health program; President NIINISTO asked him to stay as a caretaker prime minister until after the 14 April 2019 new elections

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

Finland Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition – Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party/coalition – Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, Aland Coalition 1; composition men 107, women 93, percent of women 46.5%

Finland Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note – Finland has a dual judicial system – courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Finland Political parties and leaders:

Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)

Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]

Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]

Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]

Green League or Vihr [Pekka HAAVISTO]

Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]]

National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]

Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]

Swedish People’s Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

Finland International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Finland Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Finland Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert “Bob” Frank PENCE (since 24 May 2018) (2018)

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: APO AE 09723

telephone: [358] (9) 6162-50

FAX: [358] (9) 6162-5135

Finland Flag description:

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

Finland National symbol(s):

lion; national colors: blue, white

Finland National anthem:

name: “Maamme” (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia’s anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

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Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

FINLAND

Finland GOVERNMENT

Finland Chief of State

President Sauli NIINISTO

Finland Head of Government

Prime Minister Juha SIPILA

Finland Government Type

parliamentary republic

Finland Capital

Helsinki

Finland Legislature

unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats)

Finland Judiciary

Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers)

Finland Ambassador to US

Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI

Finland US Ambassador

Ambassador Robert “Bob” Frank PENCE

Finland GEOGRAPHY

Finland Area

Total: 338,145 sq km

Land: 303,815 sq km

Water: 34,330 sq km

Finland Climate

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, BalticSea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Finland Natural Resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Finland ECONOMY

Finland Economic Overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above Germany and Belgium; exports account for over one-third of GDP, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries.

Finland GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

$244.9 billion (2017 est.)

Finland GDP per capita (Purchasing Power Parity)

$44,500 (2017 est.)

Finland Exports

$67.73 billion (2017 est.)

partners: Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)

Finland Imports

$65.26 billion (2017 est.)

partners: Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%,

Netherlands 8.7% (2017)

Finland PEOPLE & SOCIETY

Finland Population

5.5 million (July 2018 est.)

Finland Population Growth

0.33% (2018 est.)

Finland Ethnicity

Finn, Swede, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

Finland Language

Finnish (official) 87.9%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.5% (2017 est.)

Finland Religion

Lutheran 70.9%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 26.3% (2017 est.)

Finland Urbanization

urban population: 85.4% of total population (2018)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

 

Go to All Country Index


 

Finland Background and Introduction

FINLAND

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union – albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland’s modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system – currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Finland:

Finland at a Glance and One Page Summary

Finland Background and Introduction

Finland Geography

Finland People and Society

Finland Government

Finland Economy

Finland Energy Resources

Finland Communications System

Finland Transportation System

Finland Military and Security System

Finland Transnational Issues

Finland Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index