Iran Transportation System

IRAN

Iran National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 15 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 228 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,003,958 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 107,184,869 mt-km (2015)

Iran Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

EP (2016)

Iran Airports:

319 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 22

Iran Airports – with paved runways:

total: 140 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 42 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 29 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 26 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 36 (2017)

under 914 m: 7 (2017)

Iran Airports – with unpaved runways:

total: 179 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 135 (2013)

under 914 m: 32 (2013)

Iran Heliports:

26 (2013)

Iran Pipelines:

7 km condensate, 973 km condensate/gas, 20794 km gas, 570 km liquid petroleum gas, 8625 km oil, 7937 km refined products (2013)

Iran Railways:

total: 8,484 km (2014)

standard gauge: 8,389.5 km 1.435-m gauge (189.5 km electrified) (2014)

broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 25

Iran Roadways:

Iran Waterways:

850 km (on Karun River; some navigation on Lake Urmia) (2012)

country comparison to the world: 69

Iran Merchant marine:

total: 720

by type: bulk carrier 31, container ship 25, general cargo 336, oil tanker 17, other 311 (2018)

country comparison to the world: 31

Iran Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Bandar-e Asaluyeh, Bandar Abbas, Bandar Emam

container port(s) (TEUs): Bandar Abbas (2,607,000) (2017)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Military and Security System

IRAN

Iran Military expenditures:

5% of GDP (2017)

4.4% of GDP (2016)

4.4% of GDP (2015)

3.3% of GDP (2014)

4.3% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 8

Iran Military branches:

Islamic Republic of Iran Regular Forces (Artesh): Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (IRIAF), Khatemolanbia Air Defense Headquarters; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enqelab-e Eslami, IRGC): Ground Forces, Navy, Aerospace Force, Qods Force (special operations); Law Enforcement Forces (2019)

Iran Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; 17 years of age for Law Enforcement Forces; 15 years of age for Basij Forces (Popular Mobilization Army); conscript military service obligation is 18-24 months; women exempt from military service (2019)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Transnational Issues

IRAN

Iran Disputes – international:

Iran protests Afghanistan’s limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Iraq’s lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey

Iran Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 2.5-3.0 (1 million registered, 1.5-2.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2017); 28,268 (Iraq) (2018)

Iran Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Iran is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; organized groups sex traffic Iranian women and children in Iran and to the UAE and Europe; the transport of girls from and through Iran en route to the Gulf for sexual exploitation or forced marriages is on the rise; Iranian children are also forced to work as beggars, street vendors, and in domestic workshops; Afghan boys forced to work in construction or agriculture are vulnerable to sexual abuse by their employers; Pakistani and Afghan migrants being smuggled to Europe often are subjected to forced labor, including debt bondage

tier rating: Tier 3 – Iran does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government does not share information on its anti-trafficking efforts, but publically available information from NGOs, the media, and international organizations indicates that Iran is not taking adequate measures to address its trafficking problems, particularly protecting victims; Iranian law does not prohibit all forms of human trafficking; female victims find it extremely difficult to get justice because Iranian courts accord women’s testimony half the weight of men’s, and female victims of sexual abuse, including trafficking, are likely to be prosecuted for adultery; the government did not identify or provide protection services to any victims and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; the government made some effort to cooperate with neighboring governments and an international organization to combat human trafficking and other crimes (2015)

Iran Illicit drugs:

despite substantial interdiction efforts and considerable control measures along the border with Afghanistan, Iran remains one of the primary transshipment routes for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; suffers one of the highest opiate addiction rates in the world, and has an increasing problem with synthetic drugs; regularly enforces the death penalty for drug offences; lacks anti-money laundering laws; has reached out to neighboring countries to share counter-drug intelligence


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Iran Capital Flag:

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom

Iran Currency:

Iranian rial


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

IRAN

Iran One Page Summary:

N/A


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

 

Go to All Country Index


 

Iran Background and Introduction

IRAN

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts (AOE) – a popularly elected 88-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and concerns over possible military dimensions of its nuclear program. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, supported by the Supreme Leader, unelected institutions of authority like the Council of Guardians, and the security services reversed and blocked reform measures while increasing security repression.

Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran’s elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADINEZHAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud, but the protests were quickly suppressed. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012, but Iran’s internal security situation remained stable. President AHMADINEZHAD’s independent streak angered regime establishment figures, including the Supreme Leader, leading to conservative opposition to his agenda for the last year of his presidency, and an alienation of his political supporters. In June 2013 Iranians elected a centrist cleric Dr. Hasan Fereidun ROHANI to the presidency. He is a longtime senior member in the regime, but has made promises of reforming society and Iran’s foreign policy. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities, and in July 2015 Iran and the five permanent members, plus Germany (P5+1) signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) under which Iran agreed to restrictions on its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief. Iran held elections in 2016 for the AOE and Majles, resulting in a conservative-controlled AOE and a Majles that many Iranians perceive as more supportive of the ROHANI administration than the previous, conservative-dominated body. RUHANI was reelected president in May 2017. Economic concerns once again led to nationwide protests in December 2017 and January 2018 but they were contained by Iran’s security services. In May 2018, the US withdrew from the JCPOA and reinstituted economic sanctions on Iran in November.


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Geography

IRAN

Iran Location:

Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Iran Geographic coordinates:

32 00 N, 53 00 E

Iran Map references:

Middle East

Iran Area:

total: 1,648,195 sq km

land: 1,531,595 sq km

water: 116,600 sq km

country comparison to the world: 19

Iran Area – comparative:

almost 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska

Area comparison map:

Iran Land boundaries:

total: 5,894 km

border countries (7): Afghanistan 921 km, Armenia 44 km, Azerbaijan 689 km, Iraq 1599 km, Pakistan 959 km, Turkey 534 km, Turkmenistan 1148 km

Iran Coastline:

2,440 km – note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Iran Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: natural prolongation

Iran Climate:

mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Iran Terrain:

rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Iran Elevation:

mean elevation: 1,305 m

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,625 m

Iran Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Iran Land use:

agricultural land: 30.1% (2011 est.)

arable land: 10.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 18.1% (2011 est.)

forest: 6.8% (2011 est.)

other: 63.1% (2011 est.)

Iran Irrigated land:

95,530 sq km (2012)

Iran Population distribution:

population is concentrated in the north, northwest, and west, reflecting the position of the Zagros and Elburz Mountains; the vast dry areas in the center and eastern parts of the country, around the deserts of the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut, have a much lower population density

Iran Natural hazards:

periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

Iran Environment – current issues:

air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

Iran Environment – international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Iran Geography – note:

strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran People and Society

IRAN

Iran Population:

83,024,745 (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Iran Nationality:

noun: Iranian(s)

adjective: Iranian

Iran Ethnic groups:

Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Lur, Baloch, Arab, Turkmen and Turkic tribes

Iran Languages:

Persian (official), Azeri Turkic and Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Luri, Balochi, Arabic

Iran Religions:

Muslim (official) 99.4% (Shia 90-95%, Sunni 5-10%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian) 0.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2011 est.)

Iran Age structure:

0-14 years: 24.23% (male 10,291,493 /female 9,823,838)

15-24 years: 14.05% (male 5,973,320 /female 5,689,501)

25-54 years: 48.86% (male 20,698,748 /female 19,863,223)

55-64 years: 7.39% (male 3,022,134 /female 3,113,443)

65 years and over: 5.48% (male 2,111,390 /female 2,437,655) (2018 est.)

population pyramid:

Iran Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 40.2 (2015 est.)

youth dependency ratio: 33.1 (2015 est.)

elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)

potential support ratio: 14.2 (2015 est.)

Iran Median age:

total: 30.8 years

male: 30.5 years

female: 31 years (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Iran Population growth rate:

1.19% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Iran Birth rate:

17.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Iran Death rate:

5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Iran Net migration rate:

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Iran Population distribution:

population is concentrated in the north, northwest, and west, reflecting the position of the Zagros and Elburz Mountains; the vast dry areas in the center and eastern parts of the country, around the deserts of the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut, have a much lower population density

Iran Urbanization:

urban population: 74.9% of total population (2018)

rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Iran Major urban areas – population:

8.896 million TEHRAN (capital), 3.097 million Mashhad, 2.041 million Esfahan, 1.605 million Shiraz, 1.585 million Karaj, 1.582 million Tabriz (2018)

Iran Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Iran Maternal mortality rate:

25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Iran Infant mortality rate:

total: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 16.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Iran Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.2 years

male: 72.8 years

female: 75.6 years (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Iran Total fertility rate:

1.96 children born/woman (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Iran Contraceptive prevalence rate:

77.4% (2010/11)

Iran Health expenditures:

6.9% of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 84

Iran Physicians density:

1.14 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Iran Hospital bed density:

0.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Iran Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 97.7% of population

rural: 92.1% of population

total: 96.2% of population

unimproved:

urban: 2.3% of population

rural: 7.9% of population

total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)

Iran Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 92.8% of population (2015 est.)

rural: 82.3% of population (2015 est.)

total: 90% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:

urban: 7.2% of population (2015 est.)

rural: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)

total: 10% of population (2015 est.)

Iran HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Iran HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

60,000 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Iran HIV/AIDS – deaths:

3,500 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Iran Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate (2016)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)

vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2016)

Iran Obesity – adult prevalence rate:

25.8% (2016)

country comparison to the world: 47

Iran Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

4.1% (2011)

country comparison to the world: 88

Iran Education expenditures:

3.8% of GDP (2017)

country comparison to the world: 119

Iran Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)

total population: 85.5%

male: 90.4%

female: 80.8% (2016 est.)

Iran School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2015)

Iran Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 28.4%

male: 24.2%

female: 43.7% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Government

IRAN

Iran Country Name:

conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran

conventional short form: Iran

local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran

local short form: Iran

former: Persia

etymology: name derives from the Avestan term “aryanam” meaning “Land of the noble [ones]”

Iran Government type:

theocratic republic

Iran Capital:

name: Tehran

geographic coordinates: 35 42 N, 51 25 E

time difference: UTC+3.5 (8.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Wednesday in March; ends fourth Friday in September

Iran Administrative divisions:

31 provinces (ostanha, singular – ostan); Alborz, Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Sharqi (East Azerbaijan), Bushehr, Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorasan-e Jonubi (South Khorasan), Khorasan-e Razavi (Razavi Khorasan), Khorasan-e Shomali (North Khorasan), Khuzestan, Kohgiluyeh va Bowyer Ahmad, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Iran Independence:

1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed); notable earlier dates: ca. 550 B.C. (Achaemenid (Persian) Empire established); A.D. 1501 (Iran reunified under the Safavid Dynasty); 1794 (beginning of Qajar Dynasty); 12 December 1925 (modern Iran established under the PAHLAVI Dynasty)

Iran National holiday:

Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Iran Constitution:

history: previous 1906; latest adopted 24 October 1979, effective 3 December 1979

amendments: proposed by the supreme leader – after consultation with the Exigency Council – and submitted as an edict to the “Council for Revision of the Constitution,” a body consisting of various executive, legislative, judicial, and academic leaders and members; passage requires absolute majority vote in a referendum and approval of the supreme leader; articles including Iran’s political system, its religious basis, and its form of government cannot be amended; amended 1989 (2016)

Iran Legal system:

religious legal system based on secular and Islamic law

Iran International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Iran Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Iran

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Iran Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Iran Executive branch:

chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

head of government: President Hasan Fereidun ROHANI (since 3 August 2013); First Vice President Eshagh JAHANGIRI (since 5 August 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the supreme leader has some control over appointments to several ministries

elections/appointments: supreme leader appointed for life by Assembly of Experts; president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term and an additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 19 May 2017 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: Hasan Fereidun ROHANI reelected president; percent of vote – Hasan Fereidun ROHANI (Moderation and Development Party) 58.8%, Ebrahim RAI’SI (Combat Clergy Association) 39.4% , Mostafa MIR-SALIM Islamic Coalition Party) 1.2%, Mostafa HASHEMITABA(Executives of Construction Party) 0.5%

note: 3 oversight bodies are also considered part of the executive branch of government

Iran Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami or Majles (290 seats; 285 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by 2-round vote, and 1 seat each for Zoroastrians, Jews, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, Armenians in the north of the country and Armenians in the south; members serve 4-year terms); note – all candidates to the Majles must be approved by the Council of Guardians, a 12-member group of which 6 are appointed by the supreme leader and 6 are jurists nominated by the judiciary and elected by the Majles

elections: first round held on 26 February 2016 and second round for 68 remaining seats held on 29 April 2016; (next full Majles election to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by coalition – List of Hope 37.2%, Principlists Grand Coalition 25.9%, People’s Voice Coalition 4.5%, joint Hope/People’s Voice 4.1%, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 0.3%, religious minorities 1.7%, independent 26.4%; seats by coalition – List of Hope 108, Principlists Grand Coalition 75, People’s Voice Coalition 13, joint Hope/People’s Voice 12, joint People’s Voice/Principlist 1, religious minorities 5, independent 76; composition – men 273, women 17, percent of women 5.9%

Iran Judicial branch:

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the president and NA judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the head of the High Judicial Council (HJC), a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief justice, the prosecutor general, and 3 clergy, in consultation with judges of the Supreme Court; president appointed for a single, renewable 5-year term; other judges appointed by the HJC; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Penal Courts I and II; Islamic Revolutionary Courts; Courts of Peace; Special Clerical Court (functions outside the judicial system and handles cases involving clerics); military courts

Iran Political parties and leaders:

Combatant Clergy Association

Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front

Executives of Construction Party

Followers of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent [Ali LARIJANI]

Front of Islamic Revolutionary Stability [Morteza AGHA-TEHRANI, general secretary]

Islamic Coalition Party

Islamic Iran Participation Front [associated with former President Mohammed KHATAMI]

Militant Clerics Society

Moderation and Development Party

National Trust Party

National Unity Party

Pervasive Coalition of Reformists [Ali SUFI, chairman] (includes Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, National Trust Party, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, Moderation and Development Party)

Principlists Grand Coalition [Ali Reza ZAKANI] (includes Combatant Clergy Association and Islamic Coalition Party, Society of Devotees and Pathseekers of the Islamic Revolution, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability)

Progress, Welfare, and Justice Front

Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran or PJP [Hosein GHORBANZADEH, general secretary]

Resistance Front of Islamic Iran [Yadollah HABIBI, general secretary]

Steadfastness Front

Union of Islamic Iran People’s Party

Wayfarers of the Islamic Revolution

Iran International organization participation:

CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SAARC (observer), SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Iran Diplomatic representation in the US:

none; note – Iran has an Interests Section in the Pakistani Embassy; address: Iranian Interests Section, Pakistani Embassy, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone: [1] (202) 965-4990; FAX [1] (202) 965-1073

Iran Diplomatic representation from the US:

none; note – the US Interests Section is located in the Embassy of Switzerland, No. 39 Shahid Mousavi (Golestan 5th), Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran; telephone [98] 21 2254 2178/2256 5273; FAX [98] 21 2258 0432

Iran Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, a symbol of martyrdom) in red is centered in the white band; ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band; green is the color of Islam and also represents growth, white symbolizes honesty and peace, red stands for bravery and martyrdom

Iran National symbol(s):

lion; national colors: green, white, red

Iran National anthem:

name: “Soroud-e Melli-ye Jomhouri-ye Eslami-ye Iran” (National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran)

lyrics/music: multiple authors/Hassan RIAHI

note 1: adopted 1990; Iran has had six national anthems; the first, entitled Salam-e Shah (Royal Salute) was in use from 1873-1909; next came Salamati-ye Dowlat-e Elliye-ye Iran (Salute of the Sublime State of Persia, 1909-1933); it was followed by Sorud-e melli (The Imperial Anthem of Iran; 1933-1979), which chronicled the exploits of the Pahlavi Dynasty; Ey Iran (Oh Iran) functioned unofficially as the national anthem for a brief period between the ouster of the Shah in 1979 and the early days of the Islamic Republic in 1980; Payandeh Bada Iran (Long Live Iran) was used between 1980 and 1990 during the time of Ayatollah KHOMEINI

note 2: a recording of the current Iranian national anthem is unavailable since the US Navy Band does not record anthems for countries from which the US does not anticipate official visits; the US does not have diplomatic relations with Iran


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iran Economy

IRAN

Iran Economy – overview:

Iran’s economy is marked by statist policies, inefficiencies, and reliance on oil and gas exports, but Iran also possesses significant agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. The Iranian government directly owns and operates hundreds of state-owned enterprises and indirectly controls many companies affiliated with the country’s security forces. Distortions – including corruption, price controls, subsidies, and a banking system holding billions of dollars of non-performing loans – weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth.

Private sector activity includes small-scale workshops, farming, some manufacturing, and services, in addition to medium-scale construction, cement production, mining, and metalworking. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread.

The lifting of most nuclear-related sanctions under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in January 2016 sparked a restoration of Iran’s oil production and revenue that drove rapid GDP growth, but economic growth declined in 2017 as oil production plateaued. The economy continues to suffer from low levels of investment and declines in productivity since before the JCPOA, and from high levels of unemployment, especially among women and college-educated Iranian youth.

In May 2017, the re-election of President Hasan RUHANI generated widespread public expectations that the economic benefits of the JCPOA would expand and reach all levels of society. RUHANI will need to implement structural reforms that strengthen the banking sector and improve Iran’s business climate to attract foreign investment and encourage the growth of the private sector. Sanctions that are not related to Iran’s nuclear program remain in effect, and these—plus fears over the possible re-imposition of nuclear-related sanctions—will continue to deter foreign investors from engaging with Iran.

Iran GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.64 trillion (2017 est.)

$1.581 trillion (2016 est.)

$1.405 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 18

Iran GDP (official exchange rate):

$430.7 billion (2017 est.)

Iran GDP – real growth rate:

3.7% (2017 est.)

12.5% (2016 est.)

-1.6% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Iran GDP – per capita (PPP):

$20,100 (2017 est.)

$19,600 (2016 est.)

$17,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 89

Iran Gross national saving:

37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

37.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

35.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

Iran GDP – composition, by end use:

household consumption: 49.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 14.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 26% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -24.9% (2017 est.)

Iran GDP – composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 9.6% (2016 est.)

industry: 35.3% (2016 est.)

services: 55% (2017 est.)

Agriculture – products: This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. Agriculture – products field listing

wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, sugarcane, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar

Iran Industries:

petroleum, petrochemicals, gas, fertilizer, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and nonferrous metal fabrication, armaments

Iran Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force field listing

30.5 million (2017 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor

country comparison to the world: 21

Iran Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 16.3%

industry: 35.1%

services: 48.6% (2013 est.)

Iran Unemployment rate:

11.8% (2017 est.)

12.4% (2016 est.)

note: data are Iranian Government numbers

country comparison to the world: 157

Iran Population below poverty line:

18.7% (2007 est.)

Iran Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2005)

Iran Distribution of family income – Gini index:

44.5 (2006)

country comparison to the world: 43

Iran Budget:

revenues: 74.4 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 84.45 billion (2017 est.)

Iran Taxes and other revenues:

17.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Iran Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-2.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Iran Public debt:

39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: includes publicly guaranteed debt

country comparison to the world: 132

Iran Fiscal year:

21 March – 20 March

Iran Inflation rate (consumer prices):

9.6% (2017 est.)

9.1% (2016 est.)

note: official Iranian estimate

country comparison to the world: 202

Iran Central bank discount rate:

NA

Iran Commercial bank prime lending rate:

18% (31 December 2017 est.)

18% (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Iran Stock of narrow money:

$48.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$47.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Iran Stock of broad money:

$48.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$47.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Iran Stock of domestic credit:

$348.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$315.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Iran Market value of publicly traded shares:

$89.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$116.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$345.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Iran Current account balance:

$9.491 billion (2017 est.)

$16.28 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

Iran Exports:

$101.4 billion (2017 est.)

$83.98 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Iran Exports – partners:

China 27.5%, India 15.1%, South Korea 11.4%, Turkey 11.1%, Italy 5.7%, Japan 5.3% (2017)

Iran Exports – commodities:

petroleum 60%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets, cement, ore

Iran Imports:

$76.39 billion (2017 est.)

$63.14 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Iran Imports – commodities:

industrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services

Iran Imports – partners:

UAE 29.8%, China 12.7%, Turkey 4.4%, South Korea 4%, Germany 4% (2017)

Iran Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$120.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$133.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Debt – external:

$7.995 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$8.196 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Iran Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

$50.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$46.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Iran Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

$5.226 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$4.656 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Iran Exchange rates:

Iranian rials (IRR) per US dollar –

32,769.7 (2017 est.)

30,914.9 (2016 est.)

30,914.9 (2015 est.)

29,011.5 (2014 est.)

25,912 (2013 est.)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iran:

Iran at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iran Background and Introduction

Iran Geography

Iran People and Society

Iran Government

Iran Economy

Iran Energy Resources

Iran Communications System

Iran Transportation System

Iran Military and Security System

Iran Transnational Issues

Iran Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index