Tinisah consists of wood of Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr. syn. O. dalbergioides Benth. (Fam. Fabacem), a small to medium sized deciduous tree, found in the outer Himalayas and sub Himalayan tracts from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1500 m and extending through the whole of the northern and central India into greater part of Deccan Peninsula.
Sanskrit : Tinih, Syandanah, Rathadru
Assamese : —
Bengali : Tinish
English : Sandan
Gujrati : Tanacha
Hindi : Sandan, Saanana, Tinisaa
Kannada : Karimutale, Kalabangaa
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Totukara, Malavenna
Marathi : Timas, Syandan
Oriya : Vanjan
Punjabi : —
Tamil : Narivengai, Naiponai
Telugu : Tellamotuku, Dargu
Urdu : —
Wood pieces are roughly cubic and about 2 to 3 cm in size; outer part yellow or cream, internal part light to dark brown in colour; cut surfaces are fibrous, wood pieces devoid of any odour.
Sap wood – Diffuse porous, vessels in cross sections solitary, in short radial multiples or in clusters, forming oblique chains, about 30 to 220 n in diam. with reticulate thickenings and simple pits, without gummy deposits; frequency of vessels per sq. mm is 14 to 18; axial parenchyma is paratracheal, aliform, confluent – broad and filled with simple starch grains 4 to 21 n in dia. with prominent striations and slit like centric hilum; fibres present in patches; marginal fibres possess abundant prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, 4 to 10 n in size; fibres are occasionally septate; rays uni- to multiseriate, heterogenous, usually homocellular, some cells may contain minute starch grains of about 8 n diam.; cells contain no tannin.
Heart wood – T.S. shows vessels of same size as those of sap wood but are usually filled with brownish gummy material and possess bordered pits; frequency of vessels per sq. mm is 6 to 8; axial parenchyma is paratracheal, aliform and is usually filled with brownish substance but lack starch grains; marginal fibres contain abundant prismatic crystals of same size as observed in the sapwood, ray, axial parenchyma and fibres contain tannins.
Powder – Brown, fibrous, free flowing, characterized by the presence of several lumps of brown gummy material, xylem parenchyma, medullary ray cells, simple starch grains, xylem vessels with several small slit like pits and fibres containing crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of methanol extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate using diethyl ether : hexane (78:22) shows six spots at Rf 0.47, 0.50, 0.62, 0.65, 0.72 and 0.86 on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 15 minutes at 110oC.
CONSTITUENTS – Flavonoids mainly homoferreirin and ougeinin.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Kasaya
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Katu
Karma : Kusthaghna, Medohara, Pittahara, Rasayana, Visaghna, Vranaropana, Kaphasosana, Sonitasthapana
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Ayaskrti
THERAPEUTIC USES – Sotha, Svitra, Daha, Krmi, Kustha, Medoroga, Prameha, Pravahika, Raktatisara, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Vrana, Atisara, Panduroga
DOSE – 50 – 100 ml Kvatha.