CBSE Class 8 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 8 Science:

                 This is a syllabus of elementary standard 8th in CBSE. This covers various topics such as

  1. Food
  2. Materials
  3. The world of living
  4. Moving things, people and ideas
  5. How things work?
  6. Natural Phenomena


  • Food:

               This covers various topics under “Food” such as crop production, basic practices in crop production, preparation of soil for cultivation, selection of seeds and sowing techniques, importance of manures and fertilizers, process of irrigation, weeding, harvesting and its importance, methods of storage of water for irrigation, food from animals, microorganisms, etc.

Generally, Agriculture is the cultivation of crops to provide food for all life forms. For such cultivation, soil must be replenished with the nourished manures and fertilizers which can help the seeds to germinate and grow into saplings. Also, enough amounts of other nutrients and water must be supplied at the regular intervals.


               The proper water supply to the plants according to its type and the season is called as irrigation. There are two types of irrigation such as Traditional irrigation and modern irrigation. Traditional irrigation is the standard method which is done with the help of human labors and animals. This is one of the cheapest irrigation methods which are done with the help of chain pump, moat and rahat. Modern irrigation method is a modern method of supplying water to the crops at the regular interval. This requires solar power or bio gas to automatically sprinkle water to the crops without any wastage.

How to protect the crop?

                Crops are prone to the attacks of pests and insects. Thus, it is necessary to take required steps to protect the crop at the right time. Insects are the six leg organisms which cause heavy loss to the crops whereas pests are the organisms which cause diseases in crop plants. These can be controlled by spraying insecticides and pesticides which can prevent crops from such pests and insects.


   The process of removing waste plants is called as weeding. Weeds If present always compete with the healthy crops in obtaining water, sunlight and nutrients. Thus, it is necessary to remove the weeds or unnecessary crops. Weeding can either be done manually by using harrow before they produce flowers and seeds or it can be tilled along with the soil to kill them. Weeds can also be destroyed by using weedicides which are poisonous to the human beings.


           The process of cutting the mature crop to gather the grains is called as harvesting. This can either be done manually by using a sickle or using a harvestor.


           It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff. A machine called thresher is used for this purpose.


         It is the process of natural wind to flow through the grains so that the lighter substances fly away allowing heavier substance falling to the ground.

Animal Husbandry:

                           Breeding and rearing living organisms like cow, goat for the food and other products from them. For example dairy products, poultry farming, pisiculture, sericulture, piggery, etc.,


  1. Give two examples for each type of crops:
  • Kharif crop:
  • Rabi crop:


  • Maize and paddy
  • Wheat and pea
  1. Name the microorganism which can fix the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Answer: Rhizobium, azatobactor, Blue green algae, etc.


  • Materials:

       This covers various topics such as Synthetic fibers and plastics, metals and non metals, coal and petroleum, combustion and flame, etc.

Synthetic fibers and plastics:

           There are different types of fibers available such natural and synthetic fibers. Cotton is a natural fiber which is obtained from the cotton plant whereas synthetic fibers are the man-made fibers which are prepared by the many raw materials such as petrochemicals. Synthetic fibers are made up of many small units which combine to form large unit called as a polymer. Plastics are the polymers which consist of very long molecules each composed of carbon atoms linked in chains.

Metals and non-metals:

       Metals are hard, strong and durable which is made used in many machineries, trains, automobiles, aeroplanes, water boiler, etc., However not all metals are hard and strong. Sodium and potassium are soft metals which can be cut with a knife whereas mercury is a liquid. Metals are very good conductors of heat. Non metals exist in three states such as solids, liquids and gas. Non metals do not conduct electricity and heat except graphite.

Coal and petroleum:

                   Animals and plants are drifted down to the earth after their death and decomposed to form peat. Coal was formed due to the compression of peat at high temperature and pressure. Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. Petroleum is formed from the compressed organic matter which is a dark and oily liquid with an unpleasant odour. As petroleum is lighter than that of water, the deposits of petroleum occur above the water level.

Combustion and flame:

   Combustion is a chemical process which gives off heat when reacting with oxygen. Such substances are called as combustible substances. Example of such substances are LPG, Kerosene, petrol, etc. There are three types of combustion such as rapid combustion, spontaneous combustion and explosion. The substances which vaporizes while burning produced flames. Kerosene oil and molten wax are the substances that give flame while burning. There are two types of flames such as luminous flames and non-luminous flames.


  1. Name the petroleum product which can surface the road.

Answer: Bitumen

  1. List the conditions under which combustion can take place?

Answer: Inflammable substance, ignition temperature and Air

  • The world of living:

           These covers the topics such as conservation of plants and animals, cell structure and functions, reproduction in animals, etc.

Conservation of plants and animals:

          Conservation of forest refers to the prevention and maintenance of animals and plants species and protecting them from various threats. Forest can be conserved by maintaining biosphere reserves, wild life sanctuaries, national and zoological parks and botanical gardens.

Cell structure and function:

                     Cell is a structural and functional unit of all living organisms. Every cell in the body is meant to have some basic function. For example, alveolar is an example of single cell. A group of cells which combine to perform similar function is said to be a tissue. A structure of the cell is made up of cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and the cell organelles.

Cell wall:

               This is present in the structure of a plant cell which gives basic strength and rigidity to the plant body and stands erect during all environmental conditions.

Cell membrane:

           This is a biological membrane which separates interior of the cells from the outside environment.


         It is a jelly like fluid which is present between the nucleus and cell membrane. Cytoplasm is a site of protein synthesis. Almost all metabolic reactions take place in cytoplasm.

Cell organelles:

       These are the living structures which float in the cytoplasm of a cell.

Reproduction in animals:

           This chapter widely covers the topics such as sexual and asexual reproduction in animals, Oviparous and viviparous animals.

Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals:

       Reproduction is a process of developing own species. This can take place in all living organisms such as humans, animals and plants. There are two types of reproduction. They are sexual and asexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction:

               This type of reproduction involves two organisms such as male and female. Reproductive organs of female produces egg (ovum) whereas the male reproductive organs produce sperm. A zygote is the future individual formed by the fusion of egg and sperm.

Asexual Reproduction:

                 This is a type of reproduction where single parent gives rise to the offspring. Animals reproduce asexually by different process such as binary fission, budding, regeneration, cloning and fragmentation.

Oviparous and viviparous animals:

               Oviparous animals are the animals which can lay eggs. For example: Hen, Frog, Fish, etc., These types of animals undergo external fertilization.

Viviparous animals are the animals which give birth to the young ones. For example, Lion, cat and humans. These types of animals undergo internal fertilization.


  1. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitats is called as ________

Answer: Wild life sanctuary

  1. Where does the internal fertilization occur in humans?

Answer: Female body


  • Moving things, ideas and people:

    This chapter covers various topics such as force, pressure, friction and sound. Let’s check one by one.


           An interaction of one object with the other object results in force between two objects. Force has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit of force is Newton.


          Thrust which is a force acted on an object (perpendicular to its surface) acting per unit surface area is called as pressure. The SI unit of pressure is Newton per square meter. (N/m2).


   Friction is a type of force which opposes the relative motion between two surfaces of objects in contact.


       Sound is a form of energy which causes sensation of hearing. Sound can be heard from all possible objects around us. They are produced from the vibrations caused in the object.


  1. Give an example of a situation in which applied force causes a change in the shape of an object.

Answer: Inflated balloon

  1. Sound can travel through _______

Answer: Air, liquids and solids


  • How things work?

           This chapter covers topics such as conductivity of liquids and chemical effect of electric current.

Conductivity of liquids:

         Materials through which electric current can pass is called as conductors. Those materials which pass electric current through them are called as good conductors of electricity whereas those materials which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called as bad conductor of electricity.

          Pure water or distilled water is a poor conductor of electricity but if any impurities present in the water, it turns to good conductor of electricity.

Chemical effect of electric current:

           When an electric current is passed through a conducting solution chemical reactions are formed. This is known as chemical effect of electric current. Examples of chemical effects of electric current are:

  • Formation of bubbles of gas on the electrodes
  • Change in the color of solutions
  • Deposition of metals in electrodes


  1. When the free ends of the tester are dipped into the solution, the magnetic needle shows the deflection. Why is it so?

Answer: It is because the solution conducts electricity and the solution plays the rule of the cell.

  1. Which of the following cannot be easily charged by friction?
  • A plastic scale
  • A woolen cloth
  • An inflated balloon
  • A Copper rod

 Answer: A copper rod


  • Natural Phenomena:

This covers the topic such as Lighting, protection from lightning, earthquakes, etc.,


         Lightning is occurred when friction occurs between water and droplets found in the atmosphere. In other words, lightning is cause due to the heavy electric discharge from the clouds to the earth.



             A sudden violent shaking of the ground which causes great disaster to the earth.


  1. Which of the following is not a green gas?
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Nitrogen
  • Methane

Answer: Sulphur dioxide

  1. State the laws of reflection?

Answer: The angle of incident is equal to the angle of reflection. The ray of incidence, the ray of reflection and the normal point of incidence lie in the same plane.

Thus, the above are the topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 8 Science.


CBSE Class 7 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 7 Science:

     The syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Science can be divided into many topics such as

  • Food
  • Materials
  • The world of living
  • Moving things, people and ideas
  • Natural Phenomena

These topics in detail are below:


  • Food:

       This chapter concentrates on how plants and animals get their food, how do animals utilize their food, types of nutrition, nutrition in amoeba and human beings, etc.,

Nutrients in plants:

         Each and every organism like plants, microbes, animals and humans require nutrients like vitamin, proteins, fat, and carbohydrates in some form. These nutrients help the plants to grow and repair their own damaged parts. Unlike humans and animals, plants obtain their nutrition by various modes such as autotrophic mode or heterotrophic mode. Autotrophic mode is a mode which can synthesize their foods by the process of photosynthesis. Heterotrophic mode is a mode which cannot synthesize their own foods and depend upon other organism for their nutrition.

Nutrition in animals:

             This is widely divided as digestion in animals, digestion in ruminants and digestion in amoeba.

Digestion in animals:

           Animals cannot synthesize their own food and thus depend upon other organisms like plants or other smaller animals for food. Based on the food consumed, the animals can be classified as herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Thus animals exhibit heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Digestion in ruminants:

       Ruminants are nothing but herbivores or grass eating animals. Plants cells contains rich source of cellulose which is an important component in the diet of these herbivores animals. Humans cannot digest this cellulose. The special things about ruminants are, they swallow the food without chewing and then bring it back from the stomach and chew it leisurely.

Digestion in amoeba:

             Amoeba is a microscopic unicellular organism. They are found under the bottom of the fresh waters, ponds, pools, gutters, and in muddy waters. Amoeba is an omnivores organism which feeds on microbes, plants and other smaller organism. Amoeba does not possess any mouth but has a sense of ability to find out which are food particles and which are not. An amoeba engulfs its prey along with a droplet of water in the food vacuole inside the cytoplasm.


  1. Why do the organisms need food?

Answer: Organisms need food build their body, get energy, repair and maintain the functions of the body.

  1. State true or false:
  • Digestion of the starch starts in stomach? (T/F)

             Answer: False


  • Materials:

                   This chapter covers the topics such as where does our clothing come from, what types of animals are reared to make woolen cloths, What clothes keep us warm, what is heat, temperature, different kinds of materials, classification of substances into acidic, basic and neutral indicators, etc.

Animal fiber-wool and silk:

               Silk is a cloth material which keeps us warm during the winter season. Silk is a product which is extracted from the animal or insect called silkworm. Just like silk, wool is also a cloth material which is extracted from the sheeps and goats. It was the first fibre to run into yarn, and it provides more warmth than any other animal fibres.

Temperature and heat:

         Temperature is a measure of degree of hotness of the body. The SI unit of temperature is Kelvin (K). The instrument that is used to measure the temperature is Thermometer. When an object is at a different temperature than its surroundings, slowly heat transfer takes place turning the object’s temperature same as that of the surroundings. There are three modes of heat transfer such as convection, conduction and radiation.

Acids, bases and Indicators:

       Substances can be classified as acids, bases and neutrals. The chemical nature of any substance which is sour is called as acidic substance. For example: curd

Bases are the substances which taste bitter. They are slippery to touch. For example, soap and lime water. Neutral substance is a substance which does not show acidic or base properties and said to be neutral in nature. Indicators are the substances which are used to test whether the substance is acidic or basic in nature.


  1. Ammonium is found in many household products such as window cleaners, etc. It has a nature of turning red litmus to blue. What is the nature of substance called?

             Answer: Basic

  1. Is the distilled water acidic/basic or neutral?

Answer: Neutral


  • The world of living:

               This chapter covers the topics such as climate, soil types, adaption of animals to different climate, respiration in plants and animals, herbs, trees and transport of water in trees, excretory system in animals, reproduction system in plants and animals, etc.

Weather and climate:

           The day-to-day conditions of a surrounding atmosphere with the respect to the elements like temperature, heat, moisture, rainfall and wind speed is called as a weather of that place.

          The average weather pattern taken over a long period is called as a climate of that place. There are different types of climates according different places. They are

  • Dry climate
  • Moist tropical climate
  • Humid middle latitude climate
  • Continental climate
  • Cold climate

Winds, Thunderstorms, Cyclones:

         The natural movement of air, generally in a more furious way blowing in a particular direction is called as wind. Thunderstorm is a storm with a thunder and lightning accompanied with heavy rain. They occur due to the convection of air in the hot and humid tropical areas. Cyclone is a natural calamity which is caused due to difference in the air pressure in the atmosphere. It may develop over the sea and may cause severe damages to the land area with a violently rotating wind.

Soil types and its properties:

         Soil is an upper layer of the earth’s crust which is usually composed of a mixture of organic remains, clay and rock particles. There are few important properties of soil such as Absorption of water, moisture in the soil, percolation rate of water in the soil.

Respiration in organisms:

         Respiration is a process of inhaling oxygen and exhaling waste products such as carbon dioxide. It takes place in two types as external respiration and internal respiration. External respiration is also called as breathing which involves inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation is the process of taking in air rich in oxygen whereas exhalation is breathing out air rich in carbon dioxide.

Reproduction in plants:

         Reproduction is a process of developing their offspring or producing their young ones. Reproduction in plants takes place asexually and sexually. Sexual mode of reproduction takes place between two organisms of opposite sex. Reproductive organs in the plants produce gametes-Ovules (Eggs) and pollen grains. Asexual mode of reproduction is a type of reproduction in which single parent is involved to produce the new off spring. In other words, it can be said as growth of new plant from the existing plant other than the seed.


  1. Name the elements that determine the weather of a place?

Answer: Temperature, rainfall and humidity

  1. The water holding capacity is highest in _____type of soil?

Answer: Clayey soil


  • Moving things, people and ideas:

       This covers the topics such as time and measurement of time using periodic events and motion of objects.

Time and speed:

       Speed and time can be calculated by a formula such as Speed = Distance / time whereas Time= Distance/ Speed. The SI unit of speed is metre (m) and SI unit of Time is Second. The instruments that are used to measure time is mechanical clocks and simple pendulum.


               A graph is a pictorial representation of given sets of datas. Graph makes clear understanding of the datas given instead of any other form. There are different types of graphs such as bar charts, pie charts, line graphs, etc.,


  1. Every object moves with a constant speed? Correct or incorrect?

Answer: Incorrect

  1. A simple pendulum takes 32 s to complete 20 oscillations. What is the time period of the pendulum?

Answer: Time period: 1.6 seconds


  • How things work?

     This covers the various topics such as Electric current and its effects, working of an electric bell, a current carrying coil behaves like a magnet, etc.

Electric components:

           There are different electrical components available such as cell, switch, wire, bulb, battery, etc., Different symbols are used to represent different components in an electrical circuit. For example, wire allows to current flow from one part of the circuit to another, similarly switch has an operation called ON or OFF. When switch is off current is not transferred into the electrical circuit. Thus, each electrical component has its own functions to perform.


Heating effects of the electric current:

             Naturally when an electric current flows through the wire, the wire gets heated up. This is called as heating effects of the electric current. There are factors such as length and thickness of the wire, material of the wire which may affect heating up of the wire.


Magnetic effect of the electric current:

                   When an electric current flows through the wire, the wire behave like a magnet. This is called as magnetic effect of the current. Always a magnetic field is created around the current carrying wire in a given circuit.



  1. Name any two effects of electric current?

Answer: Magnetic effect

               Heating effect

  1. Do you think that an electromagnet can be used for separating plastic bags from a garbage heap?

Answer: No, electromagnets attract only the magnetic material like iron. So it cannot be used for separating plastic from garbage.


  • Natural resources:

           This covers the topics such as scarcity of water, water a precious resource, ways to safeguard water resources, etc.,


Water- a precious resource:

                         It is said that nearly 71% of earth is surrounded by water resources such as oceans, sea, lakes, ponds, moisture, humidity, etc., among which most of them are not suitable for the human consumption. Water which is suitable for the human consumption is called as fresh water.


By nature, water can exist in three forms such as Solids, liquids and gaseous states.


Humans must follow better conservation techniques of water like rain water harvesting system, drip irrigation, bawris, etc.,


Importance of forest:

         Forest is a precious resource given by the nature which is area for all types of species forming an ecosystem. Forest areas are the main resources which help in preservation of water on earth. Plants and trees in forest absorb water from the soil through their roots. Thus, it is more necessary to understand the importance of forest and its resources.



  1. State true or false?
  • The fresh water stored in the ground is much more than that present in the rivers and lakes of the world.

              Answer: True

  1. Herbs from the ______ layer in the forest.

Answer: Ground layer

Thus, these are topics which are covered in the CBSE Class 7 Science.



CBSE Class 7 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 7 Mathematics:

               The syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics is an upper primary syllabus for developing the mathematical understanding and interest among the growing children.

The topics which are covered in the CBSE Class 7 are mostly similar to that of class 6. Few of the new topics that are added new in class 7 are Exponents and powers, Congruence of triangle, Triangle and its properties, etc.,

So, let’s check the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics below:


  • Numbers:

        Just similar to all the previous classes of CBSE, Numbers is the first and foremost chapter in the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics. Since this is a upper primary syllabus, Number chapter includes various topics such as

  • Integers
  • Fractions and rational numbers
  • Exponents and powers


                           Integers are the special group of numbers which consists of set of positive and negative    

       whole numbers and do not contain any fractional or decimal part. The syllabus which are covered

       under the topic of “integer” are,

  • Multiplication and Division with integers
  • Addition and subtraction with integers
  • Word problems on integers
  • Properties of integers

       Properties such as Closure property, Commutative, Associative, Distributive are very important properties in the syllabus.


  1. In an exam, positive mark is given for every right answer and negative marks are every wrong answer. If sekar scores 23, 4, -7,-4, 10 in five successive rounds, what is his total at the end?

Answer: 26

  1. When two positive integers are added, we get result in _______

Answer: Positive

Fractions and Rational numbers:

                Fractions can be explained as “number of parts in a whole”. This is represented with a slash. The number above the slash is called as a numerator and the number which is below the slash is called as denominator. Any number which can be represented in a fractional form is called as Rational number. This is represented with “:”. The numerator and denominator are whole numbers in a fraction for a rational number. This includes topics such as multiplication of fraction, fraction as an operator, reciprocal of a fraction, division of a fraction, word problems on mixed fractions and decimal fractions, etc.,


  1. 2 * 1/7 = ___

Answer: 2/7

  1. 3/7*4/11 = ___

Answer: 12/77

  1. Is 1.5 a rational number?

Answer: Yes

Exponents and Powers:

                   Exponent is number of times a number multiplied by itself. This covers different laws of Exponents such as First law, second law up to fifth law. The topics which are covered under this are expressing the number in exponential form, laws of exponent, standard forms of exponent, solving the exponential expressions, expressing decimal number system in exponential form using power of 10, etc.,


  1. Simplify the following: (220 % 215) * 25 = _____

Answer: 256

  1. The usual form of 1.001 * 109 = ___

Answer: 1001000000


  • Algebra:

         As we already know, introduction to Algebra is given in the previous class 6 and thus this is a continuation of advanced concepts of Algebra. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics which deals with the symbol and rules for manipulating those symbols. The topics which are covered under this chapter are Generating algebraic expressions involving one or two variables, identifying constants, coefficients and powers, addition and subtraction of algebraic expression, simple linear equations in one variable, etc.,


  1. Subtract the following:

         3a-b+4 – a –b

Answer: 2a +4

  1. Terms which have same algebraic factors are called as ______

Answer: Like terms

  1. The sum or difference of two like terms is called as ______

Answer: Like term


  • Geometry:

   This covers vast topics in Geometry like Lines and Angles, Triangle and its properties, Congruence of Triangle, practical geometry and finding out the perimeter and area.

Lines and Angles:

       A line is a single dimensional object which does not have end point. When two lines meet at a point they form an angle. The point at which the angles are formed is called as vertex. There are different types of angles such as acute angles, adjacent angles, interior angles, exterior angles and so on.

Triangle and its properties:

               Triangle is one of the geometrical shapes which is a polygon with three sides, 3 vertices or 3 corners. There are different types of Triangles such as equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle and so on. Similarly, each triangle has its own properties such as Angle sum Property of a triangle, Triangle inequality Property and so on. The topics which are covered under this topic are Medians and Altitudes of the Triangles, Exterior angle of a triangle and its properties, Right angled triangle and Pythagoras theorem, sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle, etc.,

Congruence of a Triangle:

               Two triangles are said to be congruent if their respective angles and sides are equal. This topic covers rules of the congruency of triangles, axioms and so on. The topics which are covered under this are congruence of line segments, angles and plane figures, criteria for congruence of Triangles such as SSS, SAS, ASA, AAS, RHS.


  1. When two angles are supplementary, each angle is said to be ____ of each other.

Answer: Supplement

  1. _____ has no end points.

Answer: Line

  1. According to the Pythagoras property, in a right angled triangle , a square on the ____ = sum of the squares on the legs.

Answer: Hypotenuse

  1. Determine the angle for the following triangle with the sides 3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm respectively.

Answer: Right angled.

  1. How many medians does a Triangle have?

Answer: Three

  1. An ____ is formed when line segment or lines meet?

Answer: Angle

  1. If two angles have same measurement, then they are said to be ______ angle.

Answer: Congruent


  • Collection and Organization of data:

                Collection of data which are represented graphically to understand the structure and organization of the data. This is because it is easier to understand and interpret when it is pictorially represented. Thus, a collection of data can be represented using different types of graphs such as :

  • Bar graphs
  • Tally graphs
  • Pictographs
  • Pie charts


  1. Any type of graphs or charts is given. Questions are based on the given pie chart or bar graph. Answers are solved according to the pictorial representation of data.


  • Mensuration:

                 This covers the topics such as finding the perimeter and area of the given object. Perimeter means total boundary size of an object whereas Area is the total surface covered by an object. Different objects such as circle, rhombus, Trapezium are covered under this topic. Topics such as area of rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium, circle, finding the circumference and area of the circle, area between two rectangles and two concentric circles and so on.


  1. Write ¾ in the form of percentage?

Answer: 75%

  1. One fourth of the perimeter of a square gives _____

Answer: Side of the square

  1. What is the area of the parallelogram _____

Answer: Base * Height


  • Comparing quantities:

             This covers the new topics such as Profit and loss, calculating percentage and simple interest, etc., This is rather very important chapter for a growing child to understand and calculate this day to day mathematical problems.


  1. The cost price of 20 articles is same as the selling price of x articles. If the profit is 25%, then the value of x is:

Answer: 16

  1. If the selling price is doubled, the profit triples. Find the profit percentage?

Answer: 100%


  • 3-Dimentional visualization:

               This topic deals with the objects which have three dimensions such as length, height and depth. Examples of such object are sphere, prism, pyramid, cube and cuboid.


  1. Which is the three dimensional figure which has six rectangular faces at right angles to each other?

Answer: Cuboid

  1. A three dimensional figure which is bounded by polygons are called as ______

Answer: Polyhedrons

Thus, these are the topics which are covered under the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics.