## CBSE Class 9 Mathematics:

This is a little higher grade of class which consists of many advanced topics like coordinate geometry, herons formula, Trigonometry, Graphical representation of data, etc., in Mathematics. As per the terms of conditions of CCE (Continuos and Comprehensive Evaluation), the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 and Class 10 has been divided term wise. Each units in both terms will be assessed through Formative and summative assessment. Each term carries two formative assessment each carrying 10% of weightage. It has been declared that the summative assessment for term 1 carries 30% of weightage and summative assessment for the term 2 carries same 30% of weightage.

Let us check the chapters in CBSE Class 9 Mathematics below:

Term 1:

• Numbers:
• Geometry
• Coordinate Geometry
• Mensuration
• Algebra

Term 2:

• Algebra (Continued from Term 1)
• Geometry (Continued from Term 1)
• Mensuration (Continued from Term 1)
• Statistics
• Probability

Thus, let us see the chapters one by one:

• Numbers:

As this is the first chapter in all the classes, CBSE Class 9 also includes “Numbers” chapter as the first and foremost chapter. This covers the topics widely as natural numbers, real numbers, rational numbers, terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals, nth root of a real number, etc.

A set of all rational and irrational numbers are called as real numbers. A number which cannot be represented in the form of p/q, where p and q are integers and q not equal to 0. The decimal expansion of a number is its representation in base 10 of decimal system.

Examples:

1. The value of 21/3 * 24/3 = ___

1. √8 is equal to _______

1. Find 6 rational numbers between 6/5 and 7/5.

• Geometry:

Just like other classes general topics on Geometry like lines and angles, triangles, circles, quadrilaterals, etc. Another special topic is covered under this chapter which is known as “Euclidean Geometry”. Euclidean Geometry is a mathematical system where geometrical results are proved based on the previously proved results and assumptions called axioms. There are different axioms and theorems based on the Euclidean Geometry.

In first term, Geometry includes Euclid’s Geometry, Lines & Angles and Triangles whereas in the second term the chapters of Geometry are Quadrilaterals, Area, Circles and construction.

Examples:

1. The edges of a plane surface:

1. Given four points in which no three of them are collinear, then there exists.

1. Which is the correct statement in the following?
• The line segment has one and only end point
• Three points are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line
• Two lines are coincident if they have one point in common
• The ray AB is same as the ray BA

Answer: Two lines are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line

1. Two angles of triangles are 65 degree and 45 degree respectively. Find the third angles.

1. Using the Heron’s formula find the area of the triangle whose sides are 3cm, 4cm and 10 cm.

Answer: 24 sq cm

• Coordinate Geometry:

This is a chapter which deals how to plot a point in a plane when its coordinates are given. The Cartesian plane is a plane with a rectangular coordinate system that associates each point in the plane with a pair of numbers.

The two numbers are called as x-coordinate which measures the distance of the point from y-axis and y coordinate which measures the distance of the point from the x-axis. This chapter is covered only during the term 1 of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

1. The point (0,-5) lies on

1. The distance of the point from the (3,0) from the x-axis

1. Which of the following points belongs to x-axis?
• (2,0)
• (3,3)
• (0,1)
• (-2,0)

Answer: (2,0) and (-2,0) belongs to x-axis

• Mensuration:

This includes topics such as Area of triangle using Heron’s formula, Area of quadrilateral and its application and so on. This chapter is covered during the term 1 and term 2 of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

1. Find the area of Equilateral triangle whose side is 12 cm

Answer: 36√3 sq cm

1. The perimeter of a Rhombus ABCD is 80 cm. Find the area of the Rhombus if its diagonal BD measures 12 cm.

Answer: 228.8 sq cm

1. Find the area of isosceles Triangle whose equal sides is 6cm, 6cm and 8 cm.

Answer: 17.8 sq cm

• Algebra:

The topics which are covered in the first term of Algebra are Polynomials whereas in the second term it covers Linear equations in two variables. The topics which are covered are definition of polynomials, its coefficients, its counter examples, degree of polynomial, constant, linear, quadrilateral and cubic polynomials. The topics which are covered in the second term are linear equations with one variable, linear equations with two variables, graph of linear equations, etc.

Examples:

1. The degree of a constant function is ______

1. If x+y+x=0, then x3+y3+z3 is

1. Evaluate 105 * 95

• Statistics:

This chapter includes introduction to the statistics, representation of collection of data in a tabular form, ungrouped and grouped charts, bar charts, frequency polygons, mean, median and mode of ungrouped data. This chapter is covered during the second term of CBSE Class Mathematics.

Examples:

1. What is the upper class limit of the class 37-43?

1. What is the class size of the intervals 10-20?

1. Find the sum of the deviations from the variety of values 3,4,6,8,14 from their mean.

• Probability:

The probability is a chance of occurrence of a given event which means that how likely that an event can take place. For better understanding, if we toss a coin, the probability of getting either head or tail is 50% chance. The topics which are covered under this chapter are definition of probability, examples of probability, real life examples of probability and so on. This chapter is covered under the second term of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

1. What is the probability of a number greater than 6 for a single row of a die?

1. A coin is tossed two times. What is the probability of getting two at most 2 heads?
• ¼
• ½
• ¾
• None of these

Answer: None of these

1. A card is drawn from a pack of cards. Find the probability that it is queen?

Thus, above topics sare the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 8 Science:

This is a syllabus of elementary standard 8th in CBSE. This covers various topics such as

1. Food
2. Materials
3. The world of living
4. Moving things, people and ideas
5. How things work?
6. Natural Phenomena

• Food:

This covers various topics under “Food” such as crop production, basic practices in crop production, preparation of soil for cultivation, selection of seeds and sowing techniques, importance of manures and fertilizers, process of irrigation, weeding, harvesting and its importance, methods of storage of water for irrigation, food from animals, microorganisms, etc.

Generally, Agriculture is the cultivation of crops to provide food for all life forms. For such cultivation, soil must be replenished with the nourished manures and fertilizers which can help the seeds to germinate and grow into saplings. Also, enough amounts of other nutrients and water must be supplied at the regular intervals.

Irrigation:

The proper water supply to the plants according to its type and the season is called as irrigation. There are two types of irrigation such as Traditional irrigation and modern irrigation. Traditional irrigation is the standard method which is done with the help of human labors and animals. This is one of the cheapest irrigation methods which are done with the help of chain pump, moat and rahat. Modern irrigation method is a modern method of supplying water to the crops at the regular interval. This requires solar power or bio gas to automatically sprinkle water to the crops without any wastage.

How to protect the crop?

Crops are prone to the attacks of pests and insects. Thus, it is necessary to take required steps to protect the crop at the right time. Insects are the six leg organisms which cause heavy loss to the crops whereas pests are the organisms which cause diseases in crop plants. These can be controlled by spraying insecticides and pesticides which can prevent crops from such pests and insects.

Weeding:

The process of removing waste plants is called as weeding. Weeds If present always compete with the healthy crops in obtaining water, sunlight and nutrients. Thus, it is necessary to remove the weeds or unnecessary crops. Weeding can either be done manually by using harrow before they produce flowers and seeds or it can be tilled along with the soil to kill them. Weeds can also be destroyed by using weedicides which are poisonous to the human beings.

Harvesting:

The process of cutting the mature crop to gather the grains is called as harvesting. This can either be done manually by using a sickle or using a harvestor.

Threshing:

It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff. A machine called thresher is used for this purpose.

Winnowing:

It is the process of natural wind to flow through the grains so that the lighter substances fly away allowing heavier substance falling to the ground.

Animal Husbandry:

Breeding and rearing living organisms like cow, goat for the food and other products from them. For example dairy products, poultry farming, pisiculture, sericulture, piggery, etc.,

Examples:

1. Give two examples for each type of crops:
• Kharif crop:
• Rabi crop:

• Maize and paddy
• Wheat and pea
1. Name the microorganism which can fix the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Answer: Rhizobium, azatobactor, Blue green algae, etc.

• Materials:

This covers various topics such as Synthetic fibers and plastics, metals and non metals, coal and petroleum, combustion and flame, etc.

Synthetic fibers and plastics:

There are different types of fibers available such natural and synthetic fibers. Cotton is a natural fiber which is obtained from the cotton plant whereas synthetic fibers are the man-made fibers which are prepared by the many raw materials such as petrochemicals. Synthetic fibers are made up of many small units which combine to form large unit called as a polymer. Plastics are the polymers which consist of very long molecules each composed of carbon atoms linked in chains.

Metals and non-metals:

Metals are hard, strong and durable which is made used in many machineries, trains, automobiles, aeroplanes, water boiler, etc., However not all metals are hard and strong. Sodium and potassium are soft metals which can be cut with a knife whereas mercury is a liquid. Metals are very good conductors of heat. Non metals exist in three states such as solids, liquids and gas. Non metals do not conduct electricity and heat except graphite.

Coal and petroleum:

Animals and plants are drifted down to the earth after their death and decomposed to form peat. Coal was formed due to the compression of peat at high temperature and pressure. Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. Petroleum is formed from the compressed organic matter which is a dark and oily liquid with an unpleasant odour. As petroleum is lighter than that of water, the deposits of petroleum occur above the water level.

Combustion and flame:

Combustion is a chemical process which gives off heat when reacting with oxygen. Such substances are called as combustible substances. Example of such substances are LPG, Kerosene, petrol, etc. There are three types of combustion such as rapid combustion, spontaneous combustion and explosion. The substances which vaporizes while burning produced flames. Kerosene oil and molten wax are the substances that give flame while burning. There are two types of flames such as luminous flames and non-luminous flames.

Examples:

1. Name the petroleum product which can surface the road.

1. List the conditions under which combustion can take place?

Answer: Inflammable substance, ignition temperature and Air

• The world of living:

These covers the topics such as conservation of plants and animals, cell structure and functions, reproduction in animals, etc.

Conservation of plants and animals:

Conservation of forest refers to the prevention and maintenance of animals and plants species and protecting them from various threats. Forest can be conserved by maintaining biosphere reserves, wild life sanctuaries, national and zoological parks and botanical gardens.

Cell structure and function:

Cell is a structural and functional unit of all living organisms. Every cell in the body is meant to have some basic function. For example, alveolar is an example of single cell. A group of cells which combine to perform similar function is said to be a tissue. A structure of the cell is made up of cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and the cell organelles.

Cell wall:

This is present in the structure of a plant cell which gives basic strength and rigidity to the plant body and stands erect during all environmental conditions.

Cell membrane:

This is a biological membrane which separates interior of the cells from the outside environment.

Cytoplasm:

It is a jelly like fluid which is present between the nucleus and cell membrane. Cytoplasm is a site of protein synthesis. Almost all metabolic reactions take place in cytoplasm.

Cell organelles:

These are the living structures which float in the cytoplasm of a cell.

Reproduction in animals:

This chapter widely covers the topics such as sexual and asexual reproduction in animals, Oviparous and viviparous animals.

Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals:

Reproduction is a process of developing own species. This can take place in all living organisms such as humans, animals and plants. There are two types of reproduction. They are sexual and asexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction:

This type of reproduction involves two organisms such as male and female. Reproductive organs of female produces egg (ovum) whereas the male reproductive organs produce sperm. A zygote is the future individual formed by the fusion of egg and sperm.

Asexual Reproduction:

This is a type of reproduction where single parent gives rise to the offspring. Animals reproduce asexually by different process such as binary fission, budding, regeneration, cloning and fragmentation.

Oviparous and viviparous animals:

Oviparous animals are the animals which can lay eggs. For example: Hen, Frog, Fish, etc., These types of animals undergo external fertilization.

Viviparous animals are the animals which give birth to the young ones. For example, Lion, cat and humans. These types of animals undergo internal fertilization.

Examples:

1. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitats is called as ________

Answer: Wild life sanctuary

1. Where does the internal fertilization occur in humans?

• Moving things, ideas and people:

This chapter covers various topics such as force, pressure, friction and sound. Let’s check one by one.

Force:

An interaction of one object with the other object results in force between two objects. Force has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit of force is Newton.

Pressure:

Thrust which is a force acted on an object (perpendicular to its surface) acting per unit surface area is called as pressure. The SI unit of pressure is Newton per square meter. (N/m2).

Friction:

Friction is a type of force which opposes the relative motion between two surfaces of objects in contact.

Sound:

Sound is a form of energy which causes sensation of hearing. Sound can be heard from all possible objects around us. They are produced from the vibrations caused in the object.

Examples:

1. Give an example of a situation in which applied force causes a change in the shape of an object.

1. Sound can travel through _______

Answer: Air, liquids and solids

• How things work?

This chapter covers topics such as conductivity of liquids and chemical effect of electric current.

Conductivity of liquids:

Materials through which electric current can pass is called as conductors. Those materials which pass electric current through them are called as good conductors of electricity whereas those materials which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called as bad conductor of electricity.

Pure water or distilled water is a poor conductor of electricity but if any impurities present in the water, it turns to good conductor of electricity.

Chemical effect of electric current:

When an electric current is passed through a conducting solution chemical reactions are formed. This is known as chemical effect of electric current. Examples of chemical effects of electric current are:

• Formation of bubbles of gas on the electrodes
• Change in the color of solutions
• Deposition of metals in electrodes

Examples:

1. When the free ends of the tester are dipped into the solution, the magnetic needle shows the deflection. Why is it so?

Answer: It is because the solution conducts electricity and the solution plays the rule of the cell.

1. Which of the following cannot be easily charged by friction?
• A plastic scale
• A woolen cloth
• An inflated balloon
• A Copper rod

Answer: A copper rod

• Natural Phenomena:

This covers the topic such as Lighting, protection from lightning, earthquakes, etc.,

Lightning:

Lightning is occurred when friction occurs between water and droplets found in the atmosphere. In other words, lightning is cause due to the heavy electric discharge from the clouds to the earth.

Earthquakes:

A sudden violent shaking of the ground which causes great disaster to the earth.

Examples:

1. Which of the following is not a green gas?
• Carbon dioxide
• Sulphur dioxide
• Nitrogen
• Methane

1. State the laws of reflection?

Answer: The angle of incident is equal to the angle of reflection. The ray of incidence, the ray of reflection and the normal point of incidence lie in the same plane.

Thus, the above are the topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 8 Science.

## CBSE Class 8 Mathematics:

Just like other CBSE classes, Class 8 has its unique way of structure of syllabus which helps student to understand the topics better. Since the syllabus are designed by the expert teachers, it is always easy for the students at the level of class 8 to understand their topics better.

Lets check out the syllabus of CBSE Class 8 Mathematics below:

• Numbers:

The chapter “Numbers” covers the syllabus just as that of the previous classes. It includes all basic and important features of “numbers” such as Exponent and powers, rational numbers, even and odd numbers, playing with numbers and factorization. Among this, the newest topics which are added for the CBSE Class 8 level are Square and square root, cube and cube root, playing with numbers, etc.,

Rational numbers:

Rational numbers are the numbers which can be expressed in the form of quotient or fraction of two integers. A number is generally said to be a rational number if the numbers in the fraction (for ex) p/q are integers and q is not equal to zero it is said to be a rational number. In other words, it is also expressed as a ratio between two numbers.

Exponents and powers:

Exponent can be defined as number of times a number multiplied by itself. Exponents can be expressed as XY where x is a number and y is the power or exponent.

For example, 24 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2

Squares and square roots:

This can be explained as the number raised to the power of 2. In other words, when we multiply a number by itself it is said to be a square of a number. Similarly, a square root of a number x can be explained as the value which when multiplied by itself gives the number x.

For example, 2 is the square root of 4.

Cubes and cube roots:

Just like the square root of a number, we can also find out the cube root of a number by just raising the number to the power 3. In other words, the cube root of a number x when multiplied by itself 3 times we get the number x. The topics which are covered under this chapter are Finding the cube of a number, finding cube root of a perfect cubes, cube roots of perfect integers, cube roots of product of integers, cube roots of rational numbers, etc.,

Example for a cube root of 27 = 3 * 3 *3

Playing with numbers:

This is a chapter which is a fun to solve. This includes topics like finding the patterns of a number, properties and divisibility of a number, a number is said to be divisible by another number when the remainder is zero and so on. Interesting topics which are covered under this chapter are playing Sudoku, magic squares, puzzles, interchanging digits of a number, cryptograms and so on.

Examples:

1. Find the multiplicative inverse of 25?

1. What will be the number of zeroes in the square of 5000?

1. Find the square of 39?

1. Find the cube root of 175616.

1. What is the rational number that does not have a reciprocal?

• Algebra:

A collection of symbols and numbers in an equation and solving them together is called as Algebra. Lot of introduction on Algebra is given in the previous classes and thus in the class 8, advanced concepts like division of algebraic expressions, solving linear equations, etc., are covered.

Identities in Algebra:

One of the newest topics which has been added in the class 8 is “Identities” of algebra. There are three identities namely

• Identity 1: Multiplication of monomials
• Identity 2: Multiplication of a monomial and binomial
• Identity 3: Multiplication of two binomials

The other topics which are covered under this chapter are knowing the difference between an equation and identity, multiplication of monomials and polynomials, multiplication of binomials and monomials, etc.,

Factorization:

Factorization is a process of splitting up an algebraic expression into one or more     factors. Topics which are covered under this are common factors and greatest common factor of monomials, factorization of binomial common factor, factorization of grouping the terms, etc.,

Division of algebraic expression:

This covers different topics like division of a monomial with same monomial number, division of polynomial with binomial number, division of polynomial with one variable and division of polynomial by using factorization.

Linear equations:

This topic covers introduction to the linear equation, solving linear equation with one variable, finding root of an equation, application and solution of a linear equation, cross multiplication method for solving equations, etc.,

Examples:

1. Solve -36y3 % 9y2 = __

1. In the expression which have the factors of the type (x+a)(x+b), remember the numerical term gives _______

1. Which of the following is the monomial?
• 2x+7
• 4x +y
• 3a
• 3x+5y+7

• Ratio and proportion:

Little advanced problems in ratio and proportion chapter are introduced in class 8. Problems on profit and loss, percentage, discount tax and overhead expenses are covered in this chapter. Other topics which are covered as calculating simple and compound interest, direct variation, inverse variation, time and work problems, etc.

Simple and compound interest:

Simple interest means interest calculated on certain amount of money borrowed in a specific period of time. The borrower of the money has to pay back the original principal amount plus the interest amount. It is usually for shorter periods. Compound interest is usually calculated for longer periods. Compound interest is an interest that is added to the principal amount after a specified time period and then the interest is calculated for that new principal amount.

Direct and inverse proportions:

In a ratio of x:y, if y increases when x increases it is said to be direct proportion whereas y decreases when x increases it is said to be inverse proportion.

Time and work:

This is rather an important topic which mainly divided into two variations such as direct and indirect variations. Two variables are said to be “directly variable” if increase in one quantity leads to the corresponding increase in the other quantity. Two variables are said to be “indirectly variable” if increase in one quantity leads to the corresponding decrease in the other quantity.

Examples:

1. Find the ratio of Rs.6 to 50 paise.

1. ________ means comparing two quantities.

1. Write the expression using the exponents: 25 * 25* 25

1. The cost of 5 metres of a satin cloth is Rs.210. Find the sot of 15 metres of same type of cloth.

1. If 15 workers can build a wall in 48 hours, how many workers are required to do the same work in 30 hours.

• Geometry:

As this has become important chapter in the previous classes of CBSE, class 8 covers more important topics under Geometry. This covers various topics like understanding the shapes, properties of different objects like polygon, parallelogram, quadrilateral, etc.,

Understanding polygons:

A polygon is a closed figure formed by the line segments. There are different types of polygons such as Convex polygon, concave polygon and regular polygon.

Quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices. Examples of polygons are squares, rhombus and trapezium.

Representing 3 dimensional objects in 2 D:

This covers various topics such as drawing 2 D objects in 3 Dimensional form, counting vertices, edges, faces and verifying Euler’s relations, etc.,

Examples:

1. A two dimensional shape is a ______ shape.

1. How many edges are there in a triangular pyramid?

1. State the name of the regular polygon of 4 sides.

1. The diagonals of a _____ are perpendicular bisectors of each other.

1. State true of false for the following:
• All squares are not parallelograms

• Mensuration:

This is calculation of volume, area and perimeter of an object. Total boundary sizes covered by an object is said to be perimeter whereas total surface covered by an object is called as Area. Similarly, total amount of space occupied by the 3-D figure is called as volume. This chapter covers many topics like calculating volume of many 3D objects such as cubes, cuboids, prism, pyramid and others.

Examples:

1. Find the side of a cube whose surface area is 2400 cm2.

1. What is the volume of a cuboid?

Answer: L *B * H

• Introduction to graphs:

Graphs concepts are introduced in this level of CBSE Class 8. Concepts such as axes, Cartesian plane, plotting points from different kinds of situation, reading off from the graphs, reading off linear graphs, reading distance vs time graphs, etc., are covered under this chapter.

Examples:

1. On which axis does the points (5,0) lie?

1. In which quadrant does the point P(-8,1) lie?

Thus, above topics are the syllabus of CBSE Class 8 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 7 Mathematics:

The syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics is an upper primary syllabus for developing the mathematical understanding and interest among the growing children.

The topics which are covered in the CBSE Class 7 are mostly similar to that of class 6. Few of the new topics that are added new in class 7 are Exponents and powers, Congruence of triangle, Triangle and its properties, etc.,

So, let’s check the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics below:

• Numbers:

Just similar to all the previous classes of CBSE, Numbers is the first and foremost chapter in the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics. Since this is a upper primary syllabus, Number chapter includes various topics such as

• Integers
• Fractions and rational numbers
• Exponents and powers

Integers:

Integers are the special group of numbers which consists of set of positive and negative

whole numbers and do not contain any fractional or decimal part. The syllabus which are covered

under the topic of “integer” are,

• Multiplication and Division with integers
• Addition and subtraction with integers
• Word problems on integers
• Properties of integers

Properties such as Closure property, Commutative, Associative, Distributive are very important properties in the syllabus.

Examples:

1. In an exam, positive mark is given for every right answer and negative marks are every wrong answer. If sekar scores 23, 4, -7,-4, 10 in five successive rounds, what is his total at the end?

1. When two positive integers are added, we get result in _______

Fractions and Rational numbers:

Fractions can be explained as “number of parts in a whole”. This is represented with a slash. The number above the slash is called as a numerator and the number which is below the slash is called as denominator. Any number which can be represented in a fractional form is called as Rational number. This is represented with “:”. The numerator and denominator are whole numbers in a fraction for a rational number. This includes topics such as multiplication of fraction, fraction as an operator, reciprocal of a fraction, division of a fraction, word problems on mixed fractions and decimal fractions, etc.,

Examples:

1. 2 * 1/7 = ___

1. 3/7*4/11 = ___

1. Is 1.5 a rational number?

Exponents and Powers:

Exponent is number of times a number multiplied by itself. This covers different laws of Exponents such as First law, second law up to fifth law. The topics which are covered under this are expressing the number in exponential form, laws of exponent, standard forms of exponent, solving the exponential expressions, expressing decimal number system in exponential form using power of 10, etc.,

Examples:

1. Simplify the following: (220 % 215) * 25 = _____

1. The usual form of 1.001 * 109 = ___

• Algebra:

As we already know, introduction to Algebra is given in the previous class 6 and thus this is a continuation of advanced concepts of Algebra. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics which deals with the symbol and rules for manipulating those symbols. The topics which are covered under this chapter are Generating algebraic expressions involving one or two variables, identifying constants, coefficients and powers, addition and subtraction of algebraic expression, simple linear equations in one variable, etc.,

Examples:

1. Subtract the following:

3a-b+4 – a –b

1. Terms which have same algebraic factors are called as ______

1. The sum or difference of two like terms is called as ______

• Geometry:

This covers vast topics in Geometry like Lines and Angles, Triangle and its properties, Congruence of Triangle, practical geometry and finding out the perimeter and area.

Lines and Angles:

A line is a single dimensional object which does not have end point. When two lines meet at a point they form an angle. The point at which the angles are formed is called as vertex. There are different types of angles such as acute angles, adjacent angles, interior angles, exterior angles and so on.

Triangle and its properties:

Triangle is one of the geometrical shapes which is a polygon with three sides, 3 vertices or 3 corners. There are different types of Triangles such as equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle and so on. Similarly, each triangle has its own properties such as Angle sum Property of a triangle, Triangle inequality Property and so on. The topics which are covered under this topic are Medians and Altitudes of the Triangles, Exterior angle of a triangle and its properties, Right angled triangle and Pythagoras theorem, sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle, etc.,

Congruence of a Triangle:

Two triangles are said to be congruent if their respective angles and sides are equal. This topic covers rules of the congruency of triangles, axioms and so on. The topics which are covered under this are congruence of line segments, angles and plane figures, criteria for congruence of Triangles such as SSS, SAS, ASA, AAS, RHS.

Examples:

1. When two angles are supplementary, each angle is said to be ____ of each other.

1. _____ has no end points.

1. According to the Pythagoras property, in a right angled triangle , a square on the ____ = sum of the squares on the legs.

1. Determine the angle for the following triangle with the sides 3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm respectively.

1. How many medians does a Triangle have?

1. An ____ is formed when line segment or lines meet?

1. If two angles have same measurement, then they are said to be ______ angle.

• Collection and Organization of data:

Collection of data which are represented graphically to understand the structure and organization of the data. This is because it is easier to understand and interpret when it is pictorially represented. Thus, a collection of data can be represented using different types of graphs such as :

• Bar graphs
• Tally graphs
• Pictographs
• Pie charts

Examples:

1. Any type of graphs or charts is given. Questions are based on the given pie chart or bar graph. Answers are solved according to the pictorial representation of data.

• Mensuration:

This covers the topics such as finding the perimeter and area of the given object. Perimeter means total boundary size of an object whereas Area is the total surface covered by an object. Different objects such as circle, rhombus, Trapezium are covered under this topic. Topics such as area of rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium, circle, finding the circumference and area of the circle, area between two rectangles and two concentric circles and so on.

Examples:

1. Write ¾ in the form of percentage?

1. One fourth of the perimeter of a square gives _____

Answer: Side of the square

1. What is the area of the parallelogram _____

Answer: Base * Height

• Comparing quantities:

This covers the new topics such as Profit and loss, calculating percentage and simple interest, etc., This is rather very important chapter for a growing child to understand and calculate this day to day mathematical problems.

Examples:

1. The cost price of 20 articles is same as the selling price of x articles. If the profit is 25%, then the value of x is:

1. If the selling price is doubled, the profit triples. Find the profit percentage?

• 3-Dimentional visualization:

This topic deals with the objects which have three dimensions such as length, height and depth. Examples of such object are sphere, prism, pyramid, cube and cuboid.

Examples:

1. Which is the three dimensional figure which has six rectangular faces at right angles to each other?

1. A three dimensional figure which is bounded by polygons are called as ______

Thus, these are the topics which are covered under the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 6 Mathematics:

CBSE Class 6 consists of variety of chapters in Mathematics including all the regular topics introduced in the previous classes. In CBSE Class 6, additional topics which are introduced are

• Algebra
• 2 Dimensional and 3 Dimensional Geometrical shapes
• Perimeter and area of an object
• Integers
• Mensuration
• Practical geometry and construction

The syllabus which are covered under the CBSE Class 6 Mathematics are follows:

• Numbers:

There are many sub topics covered under the chapter “Numbers”. Topics such as Knowing our numbers, playing with numbers, whole numbers, negative numbers and integers, fractions, etc.,

Knowing our numbers:

It covers the topics such as comparison of numbers using <.>,+ symbols, ascending and descending order of numbers, calculations of large numbers up to 8 digits, place value of a number, etc.,

Even or odd numbers:

Integers which are divisible by 2 are said to be even numbers whereas numbers which are not divisible by 2 are said to be odd numbers.

Prime or composite numbers:

A natural number which has only two distinct factors which is “1” and the number itself, is said to be a prime number. A number other than “1” and not a prime number is said to be a composite number.

Relatively prime or co-prime numbers:

A set of numbers which do not have any common factor other than “1”, are said to be co-prime numbers or relatively prime number.

Perfect Numbers:

Perfect numbers are the natural numbers, whose sum of positive divisors (except the number itself) is equal to the number itself.

Playing with numbers:

It is part of mathematics which is fun to solve. It involves concepts such as even, odd numbers, prime and composite numbers, divisibility rules, multiple and factors, prime factorization, HCF and LCM and simplification of brackets.

Negative numbers and integers:

Importance of negative numbers, arranging the negative numbers in ascending and descending order, introduction to integers, how to solve the problem with integers, how to solve the problems involving addition and subtraction of integers, etc.,

Whole numbers:

Whole numbers are a set of positive integers. They do not have any fractional or decimal part. Natural numbers along with zero are whole numbers. This topic covers the concepts such as natural numbers, whole numbers, properties of numbers such as commutative, associative, distributive, multiplicative identity, additive identity), solving problems involving whole numbers, knowing the difference between whole numbers and natural numbers, etc.,

Fractions:

Fractions and decimals are the most important chapters in “Numbers”. Fractions are the representation of a number with “/” whereas decimal is the representation of a number with “.”(Decimal point).

Examples:

1. 783422 _____ 783426
• =
• None

1. What is the predecessor of 3456?
• 3455
• 3478
• 3422
• 3498

1. If the product of two whole numbers is zero, then ________ of them will be zero.

1. _____ is the factor of 50
• 10
• 3
• 7
• 6

1. Fourth multiple of 8 is ___
• 16
• 24
• 32
• 40

• Introduction to Algebra:

Algebra is an important branch of Mathematics which is introduced right from the CBSE Class 6th level. Algebra can be defined as a part of mathematics which deals with the symbols and rules for manipulating those symbols. The main concept in Algebra is “Equations”. Every equation in algebra describes the relationship between two variables. Any equation has two parts in LHS and RHS with “=” in between. The topics which are covered under this are recognizing the Algebraic expression, expressing an algebraic equation, introduction to different terms of expression, solving algebraic expression, etc.,

Examples:

1. Find out the expression with numbers only?
• 2y+5
• (20%5) -3z
• 3x+3
• 3(23-5)+5*2

1. An equation has ____ sides with = sign between LHS and RHS.
• Two
• Three
• Four
• Six

• Ratio and Proportion:

Ratios are the concepts which are used to compare two values. They make us understand the difference between two numbers. If total number of boys in a class is 5 and total girls in that class is 4, then the ratio of boys in the class can be represented as 5/9. Proportion is a name which is given when two ratios are equal. This can be represented as a:b=c:d. The above topics covers the syllabus such as ratio and proportion of a number, unitary method and word problems based on Ratio and proportion.

Examples:

1. Meetu weight is 25 kg and her mother’s weight is 75 kg. What is the ratio of weight of meetu to weight of her mother?
• 1:3
• 1:2
• 1:4
• 3:1

1. If two ratios are equal then we say that they are ______

• Geometry:

This topic covers concepts such as Basic 2 dimensional geometrical ideas, understanding elementary shapes (2 dimensional and 3 dimensional), symmetry and construction of Geometrical objects.

Examples:

1. How many end points does a ray have?
• 0
• 2
• 3
• 1

1. The end points of same sides of a polygon are called the _______ vertices.
• Parallel
• Same
• Different

• Mensuration:

Already students would have learned about the basic concepts of finding the perimeter, area of a given object in the previous classes.

Perimeter is the total number of boundary size that an object can cover whereas area is the total number of surface that an object covers. The other concepts which are covered under this topic are concept of Area, area of a rectangle and triangle, calculating the perimeter of a rectangle and square.

Examples:

1. Find the perimeter of a regular octagon with each side measuring 3 cm.
• 24 cm
• 20 cm
• 10 cm
• 15 cm

1. Find the side of the square whose perimeter is 20 m.
• 4 m
• 3 m
• 6 m
• 5 m

• Practical Geometry and construction:

This is a branch of Geometry which deals with the construction of geometrical objects. There are specific instruments or tools and specific rules to construct the geometrical objects. The tools such as ruler, compass, protractor can be used to construct every geometrical object.

The topics which are covered under this are construction of line segment using ruler and compass, construction of circle, construction and measuring angles, construction of perpendicular bisector, how to bisect angles, etc.,

Examples:

1. Find out the correct type of the triangle which has sides 7 cm, 8 cm and 9 cm.
• Isosceles triangle
• Scalene Triangle
• Equilateral triangle
• None of these

1. The measure of right angle is ____
• 60 degree
• 90 degree
• 180 degree
• 30 degree

• Statistics and data handling:

Collection of information is said to be data. These data can be pictorially represented using graphs, charts, bar charts, etc. The reason behind representing the data through pictorial representation is it gives a clear understanding of the data and its organization. Graphs such as pictographs, tally graphs, bar charts and pie charts are used to represent the data.

The topics which are covered under the “Statistics and Data Handling” are definition of data, construction of pictograph, collection and organizing data using the charts such as bar charts, interpret data using the pictograms and graphs.

Examples:

1. A _____ represents data through pictures of objects.

1. The _______ each bar gives required information.

• 3 D shapes:

This covers the topics such as 3 dimensional shapes and sizes of an object, recognizing different 3d shapes, understanding the concepts of vertices, edges and faces , etc.,

Examples:

1. A _______ is a polygon with four sides.

1. Two faces meet at a line segment called as ______

Thus, the above topics are covered under the syllabus of CBSE Class 6 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 5 Science:

CBSE Class 5 science syllabus covers the following topics such as

• Living and non-living things
• Reproduction in plants
• Animals
• Human body
• Food
• Health and hygiene
• Safety and first aid
• Our environment
• Air
• Water and its conservation
• Our universe
• Rock and minerals
• Matter

These topics are in detail below:

• Living and non-living things:

This chapter covers the basic difference between the living and non-living things, examples of living and non-living things, characteristics, features, etc. A living thing is an organism which is lively, active and made up of cells. They exhibit different characteristics of life such as growth, development, movement, reproduction, response to stimuli, and needs energy to perform day to day activities. Plants, animals and human beings are the best examples of the living things. Non living things are just totally opposite. They do not grow, respire, move, reproduce and do anything as that of a living organism. Some examples of non living things are electronic goods, paper, stones, etc.

Examples:

1. Most of the plants grow from ______ (Egg/seeds)

1. Non living things that are made by man are called as ____ (man-made/natural)

• Reproduction in plants:

Reproduction in plants meant to be generation of new individuals or offspring. Reproduction in plants is either sexual or asexual. Sexual reproduction is done through the fusion of gametes whereas asexual reproduction is done through without the fusion of gametes.

In detail, sexual reproduction in flowering plants is done by the production of male and female gametes, and the transfer of male gametes to the female ovules through a process called as pollination. After this process of pollination, fertilization occurs which results in the production of fruits.

In other hand, asexual reproduction does not involve any union of cells, or nuclei of the cell. Typically it can be said that asexual reproduction only requires and only allows for only one parent. Asexual reproduction is otherwise called as vegetative propagation.

Examples:

1. The fusion of male and female gamete is called as ____

1. Asexual reproduction in spirogyra is an example of __

1. Moses, ferns, moulds, etc reproduce by __ formation

• Animals:

Every animal has unique characteristics and feature. Every animal has distinct looks, different eyes, nose, ears, and bodily structures. For example, the skin pattern, color and body strength is different that of zebra. Also, there are different types of animals such as herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.

Herbivores:

The animals which eat only plants are called as herbivores. Best example of herbivores are Cow, goat, deer, etc.

Carnivores:

The animal which feeds on another animal is called as carnivores. Best example for carnivores are Lion, tiger, wolf, etc.

Omnivores:

An animal or person that eats variety of food of both plants and animals is called as omnivores. Best examples for omnivores are pigs, rats, chickens, crows, etc.

Examples:

1. Name the feet or claws of the birds used for:
• Eagle
• Ducks
• Herons
• Hens
• Crows

• Talons
• Swimming
• Scratching
• Perching
1. How birds fly?

Birds fly with the help of their wings

• Human body:

Human body consists of different organs which help our whole body system to function well. Also, humans do different things such as seeing, touching, hearing, eating, studying, sleeping and so on.

The major organ systems of our body are

• Circulatory system:

It consists of heart, blood vessels, and veins which is responsible of carrying blood throughout the entire body.

• Excretory system:

The major organs for the process of excretion are kidneys. These help in removing unnecessary waste from our body.

• Nervous system:

It consists of brain, spinal cord, nerves which control all the functions of the body. The most important thing is it controls the brain which is said to be the central processing system of the human body.

• Skeletal system:

It gives shape, support and structure to the human body. It gives strength to the body and protects the soft organs inside.

• Muscular system:

As the name suggests, it consists of muscles and controls all parts of the human body.

Examples:

1. Name the diseases that are spread through touching______

Answer: Flu, cough and measles

1. Give the functions of skeletal system in our boy:

• It helps the movement of the body with the help of joints
• It supports the body by giving shape and structure
• It provides protection to the internal organs

• Food:

The basic nature of different types of food, how long they stay consumable, when does a food gets spoiled?, how did the people find their foods earlier, Who prepares our own food in our houses?, different types of taste that our mouth can feel, what are the foods for plants are the key concepts which are covered under this chapter.

When food gets spoiled:

A food gets spoiled when it its atmosphere changes or when the food is prepared long time ago. For example, milk gets spoiled during summer season due to the excess heat in the outside temperature.

Who produces food we eat?

This chapter makes children to know about the people who really work hard for our daily foods. They study about the farmers, their daily routines in the agricultural farms, how they preserve the crop from natural calamities and so on.

What food did people eat earlier?

Our ancestors or grandparents would have not eaten the same type of food which we eat now. Thus, different types of food habits are followed during olden days in different places.

Taste buds:

Our taste buds can feel different types of taste such as sweet, sour, bitter, pungent and salt. This chapter tells the importance of taste buds and different kinds of taste that human beings can enjoy.

What are the foods for plants?

Just like foods for animals and humans, plants also need food for surviving. The key requirements for a plant are water, air and sunlight. These are said to be the food materials for the plants.

Examples:

1. Name any three foods that are rich in vitamins:

Answer: Broccoli, papaya, citrus fruits

1. Rice and jute grow well in ____ types of soil

• Health and hygiene:

According to World Health Organization health can be defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being of the human body. In other words, a person is said to be physically healthy, if he/she has no physical deformities and all body functions are working properly. This topic covers various subtopics such as different diseases that are caused if a human body is not healthy. This covers diseases caused when people are anaemic, diseases caused by mosquitoes and other insects.

Examples:

1. We should drink at least ________ liters of water every day.

Answer: 3 -4 liters

1. Vitamins and minerals are required in a very _____Quantity.

• Safety and first aid:

First aid is the immediate care given to a person who is injured before the physician arrives. Any first aid box contains basic things such as:

Cotton

Bandage

Antiseptic cream

Paper tape

Scissors

Types of first aid:

1. Cuts and minor wounds:

For these types of wounds, clean the wounded area, apply antiseptic with sterile cotton, and if the wound does not stop bleeding tie it up with a tight bandage called as tourniquet.

1. Burns:

If the burns are superficial, then the burnt area must be applied with cold water. If the burn type is like blisters then wash with water and cover with a clean cloth.

1. Broken bones:

Do not move the broken part of the body. If the bone of the hand is broken tie it up with a sling using a cotton or bandage.

1. Sprain:

Do not move the sprained part of the body. To keep it from moving an elastic bandage can be tied around the affected area.

First day, sprain must be treated by soaking your affected area in cold water. From second onwards, soak it in warm water two or three times a day. Ointment must be properly rubbed and applied in the affected area.

Examples:

1. Write any three safety precautions to be followed by all to avoid accidents on roads.

1. Do not take alcohol before driving
2. Always use back view mirrors whenever overtaking another vehicle
3. Practice to give signals before turning or reversing.
1. Write any three first aid tips for first aid:

1. For all types of burns, apply cold water for atleast 20 minutes
2. Do not use ice, butter or creams in the affected are.
3. If the burn is severe, immediately seek medical attention

• Our Environment:

Everything that is surrounding us and affects us is called as an environment. It is always our duty to keep our environment clean away from pollutions. Also, every human being must understand that forest is the important source for all living beings. Forests keep the air clean, and have dense trees which help to give fresh air rich in oxygen. Thus, humans must understand deforestation is a dangerous thing and must not be followed.

Examples:

1. Give any three characteristics of solid substances:

1. It does not take the shape of its container
2. It also has a definite volume
3. It has a definite shape
4. Name the states of matter for Milk:

• Air, Water and its conservation:

What the sources of water, water conservation methods, from where the farmers get their water for crops, animals and plants life in water, basic concepts of oil and water which do not mix with each other. Also, this chapter covers layers of the atmosphere, importance of the atmosphere and properties of air, etc.

Layers of atmosphere:

There are two layers of atmosphere namely

Troposphere:

Lower layer of atmosphere up to 15 kms, clouds are formed in this layer.

Stratosphere:

Layer of atmosphere from 15 to 50 kms, planes fly in this layer.

What are the sources of water in earlier days?

How waters are stored during the olden days? How the waters are got during the olden days.

Water flow:

Definition of irrigation and types of irrigation followed for different types of crops. How farmers preserve water for irrigation, different methods of lifting water, etc.,

Plants and animals in water:

This chapter covers the different types of plants and animals that can live in water. Animals like seal, dolphin, crocodiles, turtles can live in water whereas sea grass, duckweed, algae are the examples of the plants that can live within the water.

Nature of water and other liquids:

This chapter covers the difference between nature of the water and other liquids. It also explains why oil does not get mixed with water and other basic concepts of liquids.

Examples:

1. Name any three water borne diseases?

Answer: Tuberculosis, dysentery and jaundice

1. What are the precautions to save water from the pollution?

• Boil the water before usage
• Do not dip your hands or fingers in drinking water
• Do not use the ground water located near drainage or sewage.
• Tap water should be filtered and boiled well before use
• Always store the drinking water in a closed vessel.

• Our Universe:

This chapter covers about our solar system and nine planets in our solar system. It gives an idea about the universe and how big it is. Also, it covers the topics such as galaxies, planets, stars, satellites and many other things. Our Earth is one of the planets in our solar system and Milky way is the name of our galaxy.

Examples:

1. The man who first landed on the moon?

1. The study of the heavenly bodies:

• Rocks and minerals:

This chapter covers the types of rocks, conservation of fossil fuels, introduction to minerals, etc.,

Types of rocks:

There are different types of rocks such as Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks.

Conservation of fossil fuels:

Fossil fuels burn in the presence of oxygen releasing energy and carbon dioxide. More usage of fossil fuels decreases the amount of oxygen and increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Thus, this results in global warming and air pollution.

Examples:

1. Name any three common ores:

Answer: Bauxite, Pyrite, Hematite

1. Name any five metamorphic rocks:

Answer: marble, quartzite, coal, slate, mica

• Simple machines:

Different types of simple machines such as wheel and axle, wedge, pulley, screw and inclined plane are covered under this chapter. Other topics which are covered are inclined plane, wheel and axle, care of machines, pulley, lever, types of simple machine, etc.,

Examples:

1. What is a machine that has a grooved wheel that has a cable?

1. Machine with a bar that pivots on a fixed line?

• Matter :

A matter is made up of tiny particles called as atoms. Two or more atoms combine to form molecules. There are three states of matter such as solid state, liquid state and gaseous state.

This chapter also covers types of changes and classification of matter, elements and compounds, etc.,

Examples:

1. How is matter classified in terms of physical state?

Answer: Solid, liquid and gas

1. What you mean by the term volume?

Answer: The space occupied by a substance is called as volume

Thus, these are the topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 5 science stream.

## CBSE Class 5 Mathematics:

Mathematics gets little tougher this time when compared to the previous classes such as CBSE class 3 and class 4. CBSE Class 5 includes many concepts such as Percentage, lines and angles, shapes and their properties, multiples and factors along with the regular topics of previous classes.

The syllabus covered for CBSE Class 5 mathematics are below:

• Numbers and Arithmetic operations on it:

Few advanced concepts in “Numbers” topic are covered such as introduction to abacus, handling prime and composite number , knowing the differences between face value and place value of a number, rounding of numbers and number patterns. Word problems on addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are covered under this topic.

Examples:

1. The smallest odd prime number ________

1. All even numbers are divisible by ___

1. Round off 5117 to the nearest ten:
• 5120
• 5130
• 5115
• 5100

1. Build a five digit number from the following:
• 3+35+0+1000+70000

1. Answer the following using BODMAS rule:
• 75*(4-2)

• Multiplication and Division:

Advanced word problems in multiplication and division are covered under this syllabus.

Examples:

1. Alia saves Rs.546 per month. How much does she save in a full year?

1. There are 675 pages in a book. How many pages are there in 15 books?

1. How many weeks are there in 205 days?

Answer: 29 weeks 2 days

• LCM and HCF:

This comes under the topic of “Multiples and factor”. LCM stands for Lowest Common Mutiple and HCF stands for Highest Common factor.

Examples:

1. What is the HCF for the numbers 20 and 30?

1. What is the common multiple for 5 and 7?

1. Sunil planted 35 apple and 30 peach trees. If he wants to plant same number and type of plants in a row, what is the maximum number of trees that he can plant in a row?

• Fractions and decimals:

The concept of fractions consists of two main parts such as numerators and denominators. Numerator is the number which is above the fraction line whereas denominator is the number which is below the fraction line. The concept of decimals can be defined as the numbers which contains the decimal point. The number to the left of decimal point is an ordinary whole number and the number to the right of the decimal point is called as “tenths” digits. For example, 1.5 is same as 1 plus 1/5.

Examples:

1. Find out the answer for the following:
• 85*0.25

1. 10/40 is equal to ____

1. 3 3/4 % 1 2/3 = ?

Answer: 9/4 which is equal to 2 1/4

• Ratio and percentage:

Ratio shows relative sizes of two or more values. It is represented with the symbol “:”. If there are totally 4 boys and 5 girls in a classroom, then it can be represented though ratio system as: 4:5 which means there are 4 boys out of 9 students (4/9) and 5 girls out of 9 students (5/9). Percentage can be expressed as a value on the basis of rate or proportion per hundred. For example, 36/100 is equal to 0.36 or 36%.

Examples:

1. Calculate the following ratios:
• 2:3 = 36 : _
• 4:6 = 8 : _
• 8:3 = 24 : _

8 : 12

24 : 9

1. 72% of 11 is _ of 40% of 97?
• =

• Lines and angles:

A line is a straight path that goes on and in opposite directions. There are different types of lines such as parallel lines and perpendicular lines. Parallel lines are the lines that never intersect or cross each other. Perpendicular lines are the lines which cross each other or intersect at right angles. An Angle is a two lines that meet at an endpoint called a vertex. There are different types of angles such as acute angles, obtuse angles, supplementary angles,etc. Acute angle is an angle which measures less than 90 degrees through the protractor. Obtuse angle is an angle which measures greater than 90 degrees through the protractor. Two angles whose measurement adds up to 180 degrees are supplementary angles.

Examples:

1. Questions are based on pictorial representation of angles asking students to identify the type of angles.

• Perimeter and area:

As these concepts are covered in the previous class 4, a little more advanced syllabus are added under this topic. Perimeter is the total boundary size of the object whereas area is the total surface covered by the object.

Examples:

1. There are 5 cm cubes which are glued together to form a cuboid. Find the volume of the cuboid.

Answer: 192 cubic cm

1. How much water does a rectangular tank hold with a square base of 2.5 yards and a height of 4 yards hold?

Answer: 10 cube yards

• Shapes and their properties:

This is a part of geometry which covers different types of triangles such as Scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, right and obtuse triangle.

Examples:

1. Questions based on classifying triangles and properties related to that.

• Patterns and Symmetry:

An object which has evenly balanced properties called as symmetrical. A shape is symmetrical when its two halves are mirror images along the line of symmetry. Different types of lessons such as mirror games, turning mirror images by ½ turn, examples and problems, identifying different patterns, etc.

Examples:

1. Pictorial representation of various figures are given to find out the lines of symmetry of each object.

Along with the above topics, regular topics like Time and date, measurement of length, mass and capacity, smart charts are also covered in the syllabus of CBSE Class 5 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 4 Science:

CBSE Class 4 Science covers the following topics such as

1. Plant life and animals
2. Human body
3. Food and nutrition
4. Clothes, safety and first aid
5. Our environment and our universe
6. Our family
7. Our society
8. Force, work and energy

These are the various topics that are covered in the CBSE Class 4 Science stream. Let us check these topics in detail below. Note that these topics are not given in the form of sequential chapters.

1. Plant life and animals:

Any plant consists of roots, stems, leaves and may produce fruits or vegetables. Any green leaves of the plants prepare their own food with the help of the process called as photosynthesis. Roots absorb water and other important minerals from the soil. Stem helps in carrying this minerals and water absorbed by the roots to the various parts of the plant. Not only that, they also help in carrying food from the leaves to the other parts of the plants. It stores excess food and gives support to the plant.

The sub topics which are covered under this are adaptation, making food by plants, uses of plants, dispersal of seeds and parts of the plants. Similarly, every animal has unique characteristic and feature. Every animal is different and may have different organs such as long or short tail, with or without horns, lengthy ears, color and pattern, etc all differ from one animal to another.

For example, rabbits or bunnies have long ears whereas we cannot see ears in the birds such as parrots or crows, etc. Animals like tigers, zebra, and giraffe have specific pattern and color in the skin tones and every animal varies greatly in shape and size. Thus, the sub topics which are covered under this are birds, useful animals for the environment, adaptations and reproduction in animals, etc.,

Examples:

1. ______ Plants grow along the ground.

1. Small and bushy plants are called as _____

1. ______ animals are kept in man-made home

1. Which is the fast running bird?

1. Which are teeth less animals?

1. Human body:

Human body is a combination of different organs which are responsible to do their own functions independently. Because of these organs, humans are able to do their daily activities without any problem.

The important organ systems in our human body are:

• Digestive system:

Human digestive system is a series of organs which are responsible for converting the foods consumed into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body and eliminates unused waste materials. Only if digestive system of a human body functions properly, the foods consumed will be converted into essential nutrients and wastes are properly released.

• Circulatory system:

Circulatory system is a network with number of organs and vessels that are responsible for carrying blood through cells, segregation of hormones, passing oxygen and other important gases to and from the cells, etc. Without circulatory system the body will fail to fight against the diseases and human body becomes more vulnerable to any kind of diseases.

• Respiratory system:

This is an important system in the human body which is responsible for inhaling oxygen and exhaling out carbon dioxide. The primary and most important organ of an respiratory system are lungs which are responsible for this exchange of gases as we breathe.

• Excretory system:

Excretory system is a system of organs which eliminates wastes out from our body. This is also an important function in the human body without which a human being cannot be healthy.

Examples:

1. Sense organs are controlled by _______System in the human body.

1. I absorb the nutrients from the food and pass it to your bloodstream. What am i?

1. Food and nutrition:

Food is the basic necessity for all living beings. Healthy food which is rich in minerals, vitamins, calcium, and carbohydrate is necessary for any human being or animals to build up energy and fight against diseases.

Examples:

1. A common mineral used in our foods are ______

1. Cereals are ____ of the plants:

1. Clothes , safety and first aid:

Clothing is also a basic necessity for any human being for the survival of life. There are different types of clothes like wool, cotton, silk, fur, etc which are either made from natural plants or from animals. Clothes like wool and fur protect our body from heat whereas clothes like cotton keeps us cool during summer. Safety and first aid chapter deals with the important first aid tips to be followed during any emergency cases. These first aid tips are really helpful to save someone’s life in danger.

For example, if someone is unconscious and not able to breathe, the first aid tips are as follows:

• Check breathing by tilting their head backwards and look and feel their breaths.
• Push firmly downwards in the middle of the chest and then release
• Push at the regular rates until any other help arise
• If this not helps, call for ambulance immediately.

Examples:

1. A crack or break in the bone is called as _______

1. A dog bite may cause ________ disease

1. Our Environment and Our Universe:

Plants and animals are very important for human survival. Thus, a human being should understand that cutting the trees and killing the animals may harm his own life. It also important to keep our environment clean without any types of pollutions such as air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution.

How to reduce air pollution?

1. Stop destroying trees in your neighborhood
2. Reduce the usage of aerosols in your home
3. Use only unleaded petrol

How to reduce noise pollution?

1. Construction of soundproof rooms for the noisy machines must be encouraged.
2. Use of horns, jarring sounds and motorbikes with damaged pipes must be banned
3. Noise producing industries must be built far away from the living areas.

How to reduce water pollution?

1. Industrial waste should not be allowed to be mixed in the rivers, lakes or ponds.
2. Use minimum amount of detergent while washing your clothes or vessels.
3. Avoid using toilet as a dust bin. Dispose solid wastes separately in a dust bin.

Our Universe:

Just like “Our Environment” it is necessary to know about our universe too. Our Universe comprises of solar system and planets. Solar system is made up of sun and all small objects revolve around it. Totally there are 9 planets such as Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Thus this topic covers the solar system and detailed description of nine planets.

Examples:

1. Planet that is neared to the sun ____

1. Name any two diseases that are caused by food spoilage

Answer: Diarrhea and stomach ache

1. Our family:

As the name suggest, the chapter explains the importance of each of the family members and the relationship with you. A typical family tree is drawn to pictorially represent the relationships between the family members.

Examples:

1. What is called as an extended family?

Answer: Any family which includes close relatives, grandparents, and cousins often living within close proximity or in same house is called as extended family.

1. Why a small family is called as nuclear family?

Answer: Nucleus means a centre around which others collect. Thus, a small family with two individuals (Father and mother) with their offspring is said to be a nuclear family.

1. Our Society:

Just like knowing about “our Family” It is important to understand about “Our Society”. Students must be aware of the current news and happenings in our surroundings, their effects and changes in the society and so on.

Examples:

1. What are local self governments?

Answer: It includes panchayat in village, municipality in towns and small cities and Municipal Corporation in big cities.

1. India is _________ country.

1. Force, work and energy:

This chapter covers the topics such as Force, types of forces, work, types of energy, etc. Work can be defined as activity involving mental or physical effort which is done in order to achieve the result. Energy can be defined as a strength or vitality required for sustained physical activity. There are different types of energies such as Kinetic energy, potential energy and mechanical energy. Force is a physical push or pulls acting on an object. There are different types of forces such as Gravitational force, electrical force, magnetic force, frictional force, etc.,

Examples:

1. Define force:

Answer: Push and pull on an object is called as force

1. What are fuels?

Answer: Wood, coal, petroleum, vegetable oils and animal fat are called as fuels.

1. _____ is the ability to do work

Above are the topics covered in the CBSE Class 4 Science stream.

## CBSE Class 4 Mathematics:

Math is highly important for the growing children and they must be properly trained to solve all the possible problems in their syllabus. Apart from the regular patterns such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Class 4 covers various topics such as geometrical figures, fraction, decimal, etc. It is a known fact that the student who has strong knowledge in math is capable to solve any kind of problems even in other subjects. CBSE Class 4 syllabuses is prepared by experienced teachers who have designed the subjects according to the student’s learning ability.

Now let us check the detailed syllabus of CBSE Class 4 Mathematics below:

• Numbers:

This is a next level of numerical system which covers the topics such as Rounding of numbers, Indian and International systems, predecessor and successor number, comparing numbers, even odd numbers and so on.

Examples:

1. The Roman numeral for 49 is __________
• XLIX
• L
• XLVI

1. Write the numbers in standard expanded form:
• 45634

1. Arrange the following in descending order:
• -9, 0,-4, 5,3,1

• Arithmetic operations on numbers:

Word problems based on Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are covered in this section. These problems will help the students to solve day-to-day real life problems while dividing cakes among friends, shopping, saving and many more.

Examples:

1. The smallest 5-digit odd number ______
• 1002
• 1233
• 1001

1. Subtract the following numbers:
• 888888-177777 =?

1. A factory produces 2050 dolls per day. How many dolls are produced in 45 days?

1. 25 % _ = 1

• Fractions, Decimals:

Introduction to Fractions are given in the CBSE Class 3. Thus now, fractions concept cover dividing shapes in half’s, quarters, mixed and advanced word problems in fractions.

In CBSE Class 4, Decimal section is introduced which covers the topics like reading the decimals and place value, conversion and operations of decimals, etc., This gives a basic understanding for the students of Class 4 that the decimal point goes between units and tenths.

The best example for understanding the concept of fraction and decimal is below:

Fraction: 45/100

Decimal: 0.45

Examples:

1. Arrange the following fractions in ascending order:
• 5/12, 3/12,1/12,4/12

Answer: 1/12, 3/12, 4/12, 5/12

1. If 25 out of 45 students are girls in a school, then the decimal for the part of girls in the school are:

• Time and Date:

Time and date is a very important concept in everyday life. Students must have a strong understanding of time and date formats, AM and PM difference, reading the clock, handling the time, etc. The concept which are covered in “Time and Date” are reading the clock and knowing the correct time, time taken for a task, 24 hour format, etc.,

Examples:

1. 6 hours after 8.45 P.M is ______

1. Asha leaves home at 7.30 A.M and returns home at 4.15 P.M. How long she has stayed out?

Answer: 8 Hours 45 minutes

1. Half past 7 A.M and quarter past 10 P.M?

Answer: 7.30 A.M and 10.15 P.M

• Money:

Just like time and date concept, the concept of money is also very important for day-to-day activities. Understanding the profit and loss in a sale, knowing the current balance are most important concepts in everyday life.

Examples:

1. How many rupees are there in 4560 paise?

Answer: 45 Rupees 60 paise

1. The price of color pencil box was Rs.58 on February which was priced up to Rs.98 within next two months. What is the difference in the price increase?

• Geometry:

Geometry is an important and interesting subject of mathematics. In our day-to-day life we come across various objects in different shapes. Also, such objects shapes differ according to the position we look at it. Thus, these positions are named as front view, top view, side view and bottom view. Every object is different in different positions.

Examples:

1. ________ has two end points?

1. The radius of a circle is 5 cm. Find out its diameter?

1. Sunil walks around a triangular garden with sides 16m, 23m and 45m. Find out the distance he covers if he walks around it for 4 times.

• Circle:

This is part of Geometrical concept, which covers the topics such as drawing circle, radius of the circle, making circle designs using the compass, centre of circle and so on. The main specialty of a circle when compared to other geometrical figures is it does not have any edges or corners. The distance between the centre of the circle and its circumference is said to be radius.

Examples:

1. Pictorial representations of circles are given to find out the diameter, radius of it.

• Perimeter and Area:

These are used to measure the size of an object. Perimeter is the total boundary size of an object whereas Area is the total surface covered by the object. Perimeter is measured in terms of meter.

The topics which are covered under this section are calculating the exact boundary of given objects, uneven objects and curved shape, Circle boundary and word problems based on perimeter and area of an object.

Examples:

1. Examples are based on pictorial representation of a triangle, rectangle or square. Students are asked to find out the perimeter and area of the object by giving the sizes of the sides.

• Measurement of Length, Mass and Capacity:

This is a very common concept and it covers calculating distance between two objects, converting meter to kilo meter, milli meter, etc., Along with the standard unit meter, in CBSE Class 4, other measuring units such as Miles, yard, feet and inches are also taught. Similarly, measuring mass in terms of kgs and grams are also covered in CBSE Class 4 syllabus. In addition to this, introduction to the problems of jugs and mugs, litters and milli litters are covered under the topic of Measurement of capacity.

Examples:

1. Divide the following:
• 25km 96m divided by 2

1. Convert 7678 kg into quintal:

Answer: 76 quintal 78 kgs

1. Convert the 25 l 75 ml in ml

• Designs and patterns-Building with bricks:

This is a concept which is a part of Geometry as it mostly covers the concept of Cuboid. Bricks are in the shape of cuboid and math is going to be a fun with these building bricks. Topics covered in this section are Drawing a brick and different wall patterns, shapes and sizes of the bricks, process of building bricks, etc.,

Examples:

1. A brick has ______ edges
• 13 edges
• 8 edges
• 12 edges

1. A dice has _________ faces
• 8
• 6
• 4

Thus, above are the syllabus covered for CBSE Class 4 Mathematics.

## CBSE Class 3 Science:

The topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 3 Science stream are as follows:

• Living and non living things
• Plants and animals
• Our body
• Home
• Safety and first aid
• Our Environment and our universe
• Force, work and energy
• Light and sound
• Matter
• Transport and communication
• My family:

These topics in detail are as below:

• Living and non living things:

Living things are the organisms which are made of cells and those which are alive. In other words, alive means breathing, sleeping, growing, moving and reproducing. All types of living things need food and energy for the survival to do their day-to-day activities. Best examples of living things are animals, plants, humans, bacteria, etc.,

Non living things are just opposite to that of living things. Non living things are the things which are not alive and hence does not breathe, reproduce, move and grow. Best examples of non living things are Paper, pen, stone, etc.,

Examples:

1. Name any two living things and non living things:

Living things: Plant, dog

Non-living things: soap, pencil

1. What is difference between a living thing and non living thing:

Living thing has life and can move, grow and reproduce.

Non living thing does not have life and does not move, grow and reproduce.

• Plants and animals:

This chapter covers the various types of plants and animals on the earth. Plants are the green shrubs or herbs which have different parts such as stems, roots, branches, etc. The functions of the roots are to carry water and nutrients from the soil to all parts of the plants. There are different types of plants such as flowering, non-flowering, short, long ,etc.,

Similarly, animals are huge in variety and every animal has unique and different characteristics. Every animal has its own color, pattern, body weight and structure. For example, the patterns in the body of the tiger are different when compared to the pattern of zebra. Similarly, the strength of an elephant is quite higher when compared to the strength of a deer.

Animals can be differentiated into various categories like insects, reptiles, birds and mammals. Animals like cow, hen, and goat are tamed for the household purposes and are called as domestic animals. Similarly, animals like tiger, lion, rhino, and deer can be seen only in dark forest and cannot be tamed in the houses for domestic purposes.

Carnivores:

Animals which feed on other animals are called as carnivores. Example: Tiger, lion, wolf, etc.,

Omnivores:

Animals which feed on other animals as well as leafy vegetables are called as omnivores. Example: Crow, rat, peacock, etc.,

Herbivores:

These types of animals are soft by nature. They feed only on fruits, green and leafy vegetables, etc., Examples: cow, deer, goat, etc.,

Examples:

1. Name any two water animals?

Answer: Fish and octopus

1. I fix the plant to the soil. Who am i?

• Our body:

Human body consists of different organs which are responsible for different kinds of tasks individually. This chapter covers the main systems of our human body and their functions.

Excretory system:

This is an important system which releases unwanted wastes from our body. Pair of kidneys helps in the process of eliminating unwanted waste from our body.

Nervous system:

This is a main control system for a human body. It consists of brain, spinal cord, sensory organs and nerves which connect throughout the entire body. This is responsible for all the sensory organs of the body.

Circulatory system:

This is a vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for flow of blood, nutrients, hormones and oxygen. Without the circulatory system the body will fail to fight against the diseases and hence the body becomes more vulnerable to any kind of diseases.

Respiratory system:

As the name suggests, respiratory system is responsible for inhaling fresh oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. This process is done with the help of pair of lungs.

Examples:

1. Which are the organs used for the respiration process?

Answer: Nose, lungs, trachea and bronchi

1. The process of removing waste from our body is called as

• Home:

House is a place for shelter and safety. This is quite different from the word “Home”. House is made up of different materials whereas home is a place where you live with your family and friends. The topics which are covered under this chapter are your house and people living in it, animals found in the houses, how to keep your home tidy and beautiful, etc.,

Examples:

1. What kind of animals can be tamed as pet animals in our home?

Answer: Dog, cat, fish, etc.,

• Safety and first aid:

First aid is the immediate attention to the patients before any medical attention. The main aim of a first aid treatment is to prevent further injury, preserve life and promote recovery. First aid box consist of things such as cotton, bandage, scissors, antiseptic powder, ointment, pain killer, etc.,

First aid treatment for a bone fracture:

A bone fracture can occur during an athletic completion, accident or during some cases. During such bone fractures immediate medical attention is needed to prevent further injury. But however, before that, few first aid treatments which can be taken are

1. Please do not move the part which is injured. Be careful during this time since moving the injured part may cause severe damage to the bones.
2. Apply an ice pack wrapped in cloth
3. Splint that area if possible
4. Call for medical attention as soon as possible

Examples:

1. Write any two steps to be taken when a person is in unconscious state?

Answer: Check their breathing by tilting their head backward and feel the breath, Loosen his tight clothing.

1. What should be done when a ship catches fire and we are in it.

Answer: Immediately wear life jacket and try to catch a life boat.

• Our environment and our universe:

This chapter covers the topics such as air and weather and water.

Air:

This is an invisible gaseous substance which is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. This kind of air is pure when it is not polluted. Air pollution occurs due to many factors such as increase in the usage of vehicles, releasing more wastages and dust from the industries, burning plastics and other raw materials, etc.,

Water:

This is a transparent substance which is very much necessary for living organisms. Most part of our body is covered with water. Drinking 3 to 4 liters of water daily is an essential day to day activity. Thus, water must be pure and prevented from pollution.

Our Universe:

This is a study of galaxies, number of planets, solar system, stars, meteoroids, satellites, etc., This chapter covers nine planets and their names, function of our solar system, moo, sun and satellites.

Examples:

1. Name any three activities which can be done without water?

Answer: Writing, singing and running

1. What is meant by atmosphere?

Answer: The layer of air surrounding the earth.

• Rocks and soil:

Rocks are made up of one or more minerals. There are three main classifications of the rocks such as sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks and igneous rocks. Soil is formed from the fine rock particles mixed with air, water and particles from dead plant and animals.

Examples:

1. In addition to the rock particles, soil contains?
• Air and water
• Water and plants
• Minerals, organic matter, air and water
• Water, air and plants

Answer: Minerals, organic matter, air and water

1. Which top soil is best suited for growing plants?
• Sandy soil
• Loamy soil
• Clayey soil
• None of these

• Force, work and energy:

Work is a result when a force acts upon an object to cause displacement. In other words, it refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the direction of force. Energy is a capacity to do any work. In other words, in order to do any kind of work you need energy.

Force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object’s interaction with another object. Whenever, there is an interaction between two objects, there exists a force. When the interaction ceases, two objects no longer experience force.

Examples:

1. Does a work done on a load depend upon the time taken to raise the load?

Answer: No, work does not depend on the time

1. Is work a scalar or vector quantity?

Answer: Work is a scalar quantity

1. Can kinetic energy of an object be in negative?

Answer: No it can’t be negative

• Light and sound:

A sound is a vibration that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person’s or animal’s ear. Light is a natural agent that stimulates the eye sight and make things brighter than normal.

Examples:

1. Sound can travel through?
• Gases only
• Solids only
• Liquids only
• Solids, liquids and gases

Answer: Sound travels through solids, liquids and gases as it requires a medium to travel through.       These three states provides medium for the sound to travel. Sound cannot travel in vacuum.

1. Which of the following voices is likely to have minimum frequency?
• Baby boy
• Baby girl
• A man
• A woman

Answer: A man voice has minimum frequency since the sound is directly proportional to its pitch. Thus, the voice of an adult man has lower pitch when compared to the other voices.

1. An image that cannot be obtained on the screen is called as ___

• Matter:

Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space. According to physics, matter consists of various types of particles such as mass and size.

Examples:

1. Which of the following are matter? Chair, air, cold drink, smell of perfume.

Answer: Anything that occupies space and has mass is called as matter. Matter can exist in three states such as solid, liquid and gas. Chair is a solid state of matter. Air and smell of perfume are gaseous state of matter. Cold drink is a liquid state of matter.

1. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of matter does this observation show?

Answer: This shows that the matter is made up of particles.

• Transport and communication:

There are different means of transport in our country. In our day-to-day life, we go by bus, car, scooter, bicycle, auto rickshaw or by any other means of transport. Communication is a way of expressing our thoughts and ideas to the people we meet. We talk to our parents, friends, neighbors and share our ideas. Just remember, if we do not have anyone to communicate or share our thoughts? Ideas and feelings cannot be exchanged in such cases. Thus, communication is very important in our everyday life.

Examples:

1. Give any two transports of the people in villages?

Answer: Tonga, Bullock cart

1. Which means of transport will you use to travel from Chennai to Delhi?

Answer: Train or Flight

1. Letters and telegrams are common means of ______

1. E-mail is sent through a ______

1. Who invented television?

Answer: John Logie Baird

• My Family:

Our first school is our family. Our parents, brothers, sisters, elders are our family. We learn many things from our family such as good manner, discipline, good habits, etc., Our parents teach us basic things in our everyday life and how to respect the elders. Thus, learning about our family is very important and everyone should know their own family’s likes and dislikes.

Examples:

1. What is a family?

Answer: A group consisting of parents and children living together in the same household is called a family.

1. What is an extended family?

Answer: An extended family consists of close relatives, grandparents, cousins living together in the close proximity or in the same house.

Above are the syllabus covered for the CBSE Class 3 science stream.