Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE)

GRADUATE APTITUDE TEST IN ENGINEERING

Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering or GATE is an entrance exam for Post Graduate and PhD conducted by Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Technology in association with Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India and National Coordination Board. The GATE score is for the admission of Post Graduate programmes in Indian Institute and providing financial assistance provided by Ministry of Human Resources Development and other Government Agencies. GATE score is also used for the recruitment of entry level jobs in Public Sector Companies. Some of the foreign Universities also identify GATE score to know the eligibility of the candidate. GATE score is also used for Junior Research Fellowship.

EligibilityGraduate Aptitude Test in Engineering

  • Candidate who have passed Engineering in any branch are eligible for the test
  • Master degree candidate who have passed in Science/Mathematics /Statistics/Computer Applications who are in final year or pre final year are also eligible
  • Candidate who are in Third year or higher level for Integrated Master degree are also eligible
  • Applicant must be in minimum age limit

Exam Pattern

The Exam paper consists of objective type questions with questions from General Aptitude, Verbal Reasoning and Subject based questions. The paper consists of 65 questions in Engineering Stream with 10 questions in General Aptitude carrying 15 marks. Based on the codes, the exam question pattern may change. There will be negative marking for each wrong answer. Each question will carry one or two marks. Paper codes are AE,AG,BT,CE,CH,CS,EC,EE,IN,ME,MN,MT,PI,TF AND XE.

  • Engineering Mathematics contains 15% marks
  • General Aptitude contains 15% marks
  • Rest of questions is included for subject wise
  • Paper codes AR, CY, EY.GG, MA, PH and XL
  • General Aptitude contains 15% marks
  • Rest of the marks are allotted to subject wise questions
  • The exam is normally held in the month of February every year
  • The duration of the examination is three hours with 100 marks for the paper
  • The GATE score is valid for three year from the year of passing

How to Apply

  • Log onto the official website
  • Read the instructions before filling the application
  • Fill all the mandatory details
  • Upload the photo, signature and thumb impression of the candidate
  • Pay the fees using Credit/Debit cards or Net Banking
  • General Candidates 1200/-
  • SC/ST candidates – 750/-
  • Recheck the application before submitting the application
  • Submit the application form.

Marks to be obtained

  • For general category – 25 to 50 ranges is qualifying marks
  • Other Backward Category – 90% of General Category marks
  • SC/ST  –  2/3 of general category marks

More links:

GATE Previous Year Papers

GATE 2012 Answers Civil Engineering PDF Download

Download Answer Key Here:

GATE 2012 Answers Civil Engineering PDF Download

GATE Important Dates

GATE 2015 Important Dates :

GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS) Website Opens: Enrolment,
Application Filling, Application Submission
1st September 2014(00:00 Hrs)
Last Date for Submission of Online Application through Website 14th October 2014(23:59Hrs)
Last Date for Request for Change in the Choice of Examination City via GOAPS login 21st November 2014
Availability of Admit Card on the Online Application Interface for printing 17th December 2014
GATE 2015 Online Examination
Forenoon: 9.00 AM to 12.00 Noon
Afternoon: 2.00 PM to 5.00 PM
31st January, 1st, 7th, 8th and 14th February, 2015
Announcement of Results on the Online  Application Website 12th March 2015(17:00 Hrs)



 

Life Sciences (XL)

Section H: Chemistry (Compulsory)

Atomic structure and periodicity: Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom; electronic configuration of atoms; periodic table and periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity, electronegativity, atomic size.

Structure and bonding: Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle).

s.p. and d Block Elements: Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, general characteristics of 3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic properties.

Chemical Equilibria: Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical analysis, equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions, Electrochemistry: Conductance, Kohlrausch law, Half Cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

Reaction Kinetics: Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.

Thermodynamics: First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff’s equation, heat of reaction, Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free energy, and work function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, free energy change and equilibrium constant, Trouton’s rule, Third law of thermodynamics.

Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism: Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and Kharash effect, Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic electrophilic substitution, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

Structure-Reactivity Correlations: Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers, concept of aromatic city.

Section I: Biochemistry

Organization of life.Importance of water.Cell structure and organelles. Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids.

Biochemical separation techniques and characterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, UV-visible, fluorescence and Mass spectrometry.

Protein structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes.

Metabolism and bioenergetics.Generation and utilization of ATP. Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides.

Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle. Biological membranes. Transport across membranes. Signal transduction; hormones and neurotransmitters.

DNA replication, transcription and translation.Biochemical regulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNA- microarray.

Immune system.Active and passive immunity. Complement system. Antibody structure, function and diversity. Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages. T and B cell activation. Major histocompatibilty complex. T cell receptor.

Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.

 Section J: Botany

Plant Systematics: Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic – outline), plant groups, molecular systematics.

Plant Anatomy: Plant cell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall and membranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Morphogenesis & Development: Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.

Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

Physiology and Biochemistry: Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

Genetics: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.

Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification: Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker- assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Economic Botany: A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.

Plant Pathology: Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.

Ecology and Environment: Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.

 Section K: Microbiology

Historical Perspective: Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

Methods in Microbiology: Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity: Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function: Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Microbial Growth: Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

Control of Micro-organisms: Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Microbial Metabolism: Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction: Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and  antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.

Chemotherapy/Antibiotics: General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

Microbial Genetics: Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.

Microbial Ecology: Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.

 Section L: Zoology

Animal world:Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships.

Evolution: Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.

Genetics: Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, mutations, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage and mapping of genes.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

Cell Biology: Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal transduction).

Animal Anatomy and Physiology: Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

Parasitology and Immunology: Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune system.

Development Biology: Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis of development, stem cells.

Ecology: The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

Animal Behaviour: Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of animal behaviour.

 Section M: Food Technology

Food Chemistry and Nutrition: Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

Food Microbiology: Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

Food Products Technology: Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.

Food Engineering: Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non- Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.

Engineering Sciences (XE)

Section A: Engineering Mathematics (Compulsory)

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, inverse, rank, system of linear equations, symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Hermitian, skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices.eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalisation of matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital rule, Maxima and minima,Taylor’s series,  Fundamental and mean value-theorems of integral calculus. Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Beta and Gamma functions, Functions of two variables, limit, continuity, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem for homogeneous functions, total derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange method of multipliers, double and triple integrals and their applications, sequence and series, tests for convergence, power series, Fourier Series, Half range sine and cosine series.

Complex variable: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Application in solving potential problems, Line integral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof), Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.

Vector Calculus: Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems (without proofs) applications.

Ordinary Differential Equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients, Variation of parameters method, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy- Euler’s equations, power series solutions, Legendre polynomials and Bessel’s functions of the first kind and their properties.

Partial Differential Equations: Separation of variables method,Laplace equation, solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and simple theorems, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions, Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions, correlation and linear regression.

Numerical Methods: Solution of a system of linear equations by L-U decomposition, Gauss- Jordan and Gauss-Seidel Methods, Newton’s interpolation formulae, Solution of a polynomial and a transcendental equation by Newton-Raphson method, numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature, numerical solutions of first order differential equation by Euler’s method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.

 Section B: Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Properties: Relation between stress and strain rate for Newtonian fluids.

Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies. Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluid motion, concept of local and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows, control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.

Differential equations of mass and momentum (Euler equation), Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.

Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and potential function.

Potential flow: elementary flow fields and principle of superposition, potential flow past a circular cylinder.

Dimensional analysis: Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, importance of non-dimensional numbers.

Fully-developed pipe flow, laminar and turbulent flows, friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation.

Qualitative ideas of boundary layer and separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces.

Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.

 Section C: Materials Science

Structure: Atomic structure and bonding in materials. Crystal structure of materials, crystal systems, unit cells and space lattices, determination of structures of simple crystals by x-ray diffraction, miller indices of planes and directions, packing geometry in metallic, ionic and covalent solids. Concept of amorphous, single and polycrystalline structures and their effect on properties of materials.Crystal growth techniques.Imperfections in crystalline solids and their role in influencing various properties.

Diffusion: Fick’s laws and application of diffusion in sintering, doping of semiconductors and surface hardening of metals.

Metals and Alloys: Solid solutions, solubility limit, phase rule, binary phase diagrams, intermediate phases, intermetallic compounds, iron-iron carbide phase diagram, heat treatment of steels, cold, hot working of metals, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstrcture, properties and applications of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

Ceramics: Structure, properties, processing and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics.

Polymers: Classification, polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products, processing and applications.

Composites: Properties and applications of various composites.

Advanced Materials and Tools: Smart materials, exhibiting ferroelectric, piezoelectric, optoelectric, semiconducting behavior, lasers and optical fibers, photoconductivity and superconductivity, nanomaterials – synthesis, properties and applications, biomaterials, superalloys, shape memory alloys.Materials characterization techniques such as, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry.

Mechanical Properties: stress-strain diagrams of metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, toughness, elongation, plastic deformation, viscoelasticity, hardness, impact strength, creep, fatigue, ductile and brittle fracture.

Thermal Properties: Heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion of materials.

Electronic Properties: Concept of energy band diagram for materials – conductors, semiconductors and insulators, electrical conductivity – effect of temperature on conductility, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, dielectric properties.

Optical Properties: Reflection, refraction, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids.

Magnetic Properties: Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, antiferro magnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, magnetic hysterisis.

Environmental Degradation: Corrosion and oxidation of materials, prevention.

 Section D: Solid Mechanics

Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; simple relative motion of particles; force as function of position, time and speed; force acting on a body in motion; laws of motion; law of conservation of energy; law of conservation of momentum.

Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains; Mohr’s circle; generalized Hooke’s Law; thermal strain; theories of failure.

Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin cylinders; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Euler buckling.

Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.

 Section E: Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts: Continuum, macroscopic approach, thermodynamic system (closed and open or control volume); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram, path and process; different modes of work; Zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature; heat.

First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, first law applied to systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausiusinequality and concept of entropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability and irreversibility.

Properties of Pure Substances: Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases, P-V-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state, compressibility chart.

Thermodynamic Relations: T-ds relations, Maxwell equations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.

Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot vapor power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle, Air standard Otto cycle, Air standard Diesel cycle, Air-standard Brayton cycle, Vapor- compression refrigeration cycle.

Ideal Gas Mixtures: Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, calculations of properties, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them.

 Section F: Polymer Science and Engineering

 Chemistry of high polymers: Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for copolymerization-bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.

Polymer Characterization: Solubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.

Synthesis and properties: Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PU polymers. Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds.

Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR, Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE.

Polymer blends and composites: Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic- plastic, rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites.

Polymer Technology: Polymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.

Polymer rheology: Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions. Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Visco-elasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR.

Polymer processing: Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer.

Polymer testing: Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness. Conductivity-thermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance.

Section G: Food Technology

Food Chemistry and Nutrition: Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

Food Microbiology: Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

Food Products Technology: Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.

Food Engineering: Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non- Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.

Textile Engineering and Fibre Science (TF)

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Textile Engineering and Fiber Science 

Textile Fibers: Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers; Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool and silk. Introduction to important bastfibres; properties and uses of natural and man-made fibers; physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis.

Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Process of viscose and acetate preparation. Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes, characteristic features of PET, polyamide and polypropylene spinning; wet and dry spinning of viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow-to-top conversion and different texturing methods.

Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. absorption, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology ofman-made fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and property correlation.

Yarn manufacture and yarn structure & properties: Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipments; the technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber; Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler; ring & traveler designs; mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages; working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn, compact spinning, principle of non-conventional methods of yarn production such as rotor spinning, air jet spinning, wrap spinning, twist less spinning and friction spinning.

Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; twist strength relationship in spun yarns; fibre configuration and orientation in yarn; cause of fibre migration and its estimation, irregularity index, properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns.

Fabric manufacture and Fabric Structure: Principles of cheese and cone winding processes and machines; random and precision winding; package faults and their remedies; yarn clearers and tensioners; different systems of yarn splicing; features of modern cone winding machines; different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and sectional warping machines; different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, modern sizing machines; principles of pirn winding processes and machines; primary and secondary motions of loom, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; dobby and jacquard shedding; mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle; warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment; functional principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines, principles of multiphase and circular looms.

Principles of weft and warp knitting; basic weft and warp knitted structures. Classification, production and areas of application of nonwoven fabrics.Basic woven fabric constructions  and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions.Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry; elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics.

Textile Testing: Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors. Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp, strength and reflectance; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content; HVI and AFIS for fibre testing. Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns; testing equipment for measurement test methods of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance. FAST and Kawabata instruments and systems for objective fabric evaluation.Statistical data analysis of experimental results. Correlation analysis, significance tests and analysis of variance; frequency distributions and control charts.

Preparatory Processes: Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk. Mercerization of cotton. Preparatory processes for nylon, polyester and acrylic and polyester/cotton blends.

Dyeing: Classification of dyes.Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes. Dyeing polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends. Batch wise and continuous dyeing machines. Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used. Dye fibre interaction. Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing.Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.Evaluation of fastness properties with the help of grey scale.

Printing: Styles of printing. Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners.Printingauxiliaries.Printing of cotton with reactive dyes.Printing of wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes.Printing of polyester with disperse dyes. Methods of dye fixation after printing. Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester.

Printing of polyester/cotton blends with disperse/reactive combination. Transfer printing of polyester. Developments in inkjet printing.

Finishing: Mechanical finishing of cotton.Stiff.Soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton.Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool.Antis tat finishing of synthetic fiberfabrics.Heat setting of polyester.

Energy Conservation: Minimum application techniques.

Pollution: Environment pollution during chemical processing of textiles. Treatment of textile effluents.

Production and Industrial Engineering (PI)

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and  boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

General Engineering

Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications; effect of strain, strain rate and temperature on mechanical properties of metals and alloys; heat treatment of metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties.

Applied Mechanics: Engineering mechanics – equivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium; strength of materials – stress, strain and their relationship, Mohr’s circle, deflection of beams, bending and shear stress, Euler’s theory of columns.

Theory of Machines and Design: Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and followers; governers and fly wheels; design of elements – failure theories; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches.

Thermal Engineering: Fluid mechanics – fluid statics, Bernoulli’s equation, flow through pipes, equations of continuity and momentum; thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic system and processes, calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes; air standard cycles; basics of internal combustion engines and steam turbines; heat transfer – fundamentals of conduction, convection and radiation, heat exchangers.

Production Engineering

Metal Casting: Casting processes – types and applications; patterns – types and materials; allowances; moulds and cores – materials, making, and testing; casting techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys; solidification; design of casting, gating and risering; casting inspection, defects and remedies.

Metal Forming: Stress-strain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; concept of flow stress, deformation mechanisms; hot and cold working – forging, rolling, extrusion, wire and tube drawing; sheet metal working processes such as blanking, piercing, bending, deep drawing, coining and embossing; analysis of rolling, forging, extrusion and wire /rod drawing; metal working defects.

Metal Joining Processes: Welding processes – manual metal arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc, electro slag, thermit, resistance, forge, friction, and explosive welding; other joining processes – soldering, brazing, braze welding; inspection of welded joints, defects  and remedies; introduction to advanced welding processes – ultrasonic, electron beam, laser beam; thermal cutting.

Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Basic machine tools; machining processes- turning, drilling, boring, milling, shaping, planning, gear cutting, thread production, broaching, grinding, lapping, honing, super finishing; mechanics of machining – geometry of cutting tools, chip formation, cutting forces and power requirements, Merchant’s analysis; selection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life, economics of machining, thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids, machinability; principles and applications of nontraditional machining processes – USM, AJM, WJM, EDM and Wire cut EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM.

Tool Engineering: Jigs and fixtures – principles, applications, and design; press tools – configuration, design of die and punch; principles of forging die design.

Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits, and tolerances, interchangeability, selective assembly; linear and angular measurements by mechanical and optical methods, comparators; design of limit gauges; interferometry; measurement of straightness, flatness, roundness, squareness and symmetry; surface finish measurement; inspection of screw threads and gears; alignment testing of machine tools.

Powder Metallurgy: Production of metal powders, compaction and sintering.

Polymers and Composites: Introduction to polymers and composites; plastic processing – injection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites.

Manufacturing Analysis: Sources of errors in manufacturing; process capability; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; process planning; parameter selection and comparison of production alternatives; time and cost analysis; manufacturing technologies – strategies and selection.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD,CAM, CAPP, cellular manufacturing, NC, CNC, DNC, Robotics, FMS, and CIM.

Industrial Engineering

Product Design and Development: Principles of good product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent engineering.

Engineering Economy and Costing: Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; break-even analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements.

Work System Design: Taylor’s scientific management, Gilbreths’s contributions; productivity – concepts and measurements; methodstudy, micro-motion study, principles of motion economy; work measurement – stop watch time study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS; ergonomics; job evaluation, merit rating, incentive schemes, and wage administration; business process reengineering.

Facility Design: Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; types of plant layout and their evaluation; computer aided layout design techniques; assembly line balancing; materials handling systems.

Production Planning and Inventory Control: Forecasting techniques – causal and time series models, moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production planning; master production scheduling; MRP and MRP-II; order control and flow control; routing, scheduling and priority dispatching; push and pull production systems, concept of JIT manufacturing system; logistics, distribution, and supply chain management; Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic and probabilistic inventory models, quantity discount; perpetual and periodic inventory control systems.

Operation Research: Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis; transportation and assignment models; network flow models, constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers; simple queuing models; dynamic programming; simulation – manufacturing applications; PERT and CPM, time-cost trade-off, resource leveling.

Quality Management: Quality – concept and costs, quality circles, quality assurance; statistical quality control, acceptance sampling, zero defects, six sigma; total quality management; ISO 9000; design of experiments – Taguchi method.

Reliability and Maintenance: Reliability, availability and maintainability; distribution of failure and repair times; determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models; system reliability determination; preventive maintenance and replacement, total productive maintenance – concept and applications.

Management Information System: Value of information; information storage and retrieval system – database and data structures; knowledge based systems.

Intellectual Property System: Definition of intellectual property, importance of IPR; TRIPS and its implications, patent, copyright, industrial design and trademark.

Physics (PH)

Mathematical Physics: Linear vector space; matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis, elementary ideas about tensors.

Classical Mechanics: Conservation laws; central forces, Kepler problem and planetary motion; collisions and scattering in laboratory and centre of mass frames; mechanics of system of particles; rigid body dynamics; moment of inertia tensor; noninertial frames and pseudo forces; variational principle; Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formalisms; equation of motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic motion, small oscillations, normal modes; special theory of relativity – Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass- energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory: Solution of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems includingboundary value problems;dielectricsandconductors; Biot-Savart’s and Ampere’s laws; Faraday’s law; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

Quantum Mechanics: Physical basis of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one, two and three dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom; linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; probability ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, critical point.

Atomic and Molecular Physics: Spectra of one- and many-electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; X-ray spectra; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR; lasers.

Solid State Physics: Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; elastic properties of solids; defects in crystals; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids; metals, semiconductors and insulators; transport properties; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.

Nuclear and Particle Physics: Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model – semi-empirical mass formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; Alpha decay, Beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;Rutherfordscattering,nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.

Electronics: Network analysis; semiconductor devices; Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors, amplifier and oscillator circuits; operational amplifier, negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators; rectifier circuits, regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.

Metallurgical Engineering (MT)

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Metallurgical Engineering

Thermodynamics and Rate Processes: Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electro-chemical cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.

Extractive Metallurgy: Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, Flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro- hydro- and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum  reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.

Physical Metallurgy: Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary  phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminum alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; elements of X-ray and electron diffraction; principles of scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; electronic and opto-electronic materials.

Mechanical Metallurgy: Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; super- plasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

Manufacturing Processes: Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; hot, warm and cold working of metals, Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal  forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; powder metallurgy; NDT using dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.