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GATE 2011 Question Paper Instrumentation Engineering PDF Download

Exams Question Papers General Knowledge Election Directory

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The GATE examination consists of a single paper of **3-hour** duration that contains **65 questions** carrying a maximum of **100 marks**. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type questions.

The examination for all the papers will be carried out in an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT) mode where the candidates will be shown the questions in a random sequence on a computer screen. The candidates are required to either select the answer (for MCQ type) or enter the answer for numerical answer type question using a mouse on a virtual keyboard (keyboard of the computer will be disabled). Candidates will be provided with scribble pad for rough work and these have to be returned back after the examination. At the end of the 3-hour window, the computer will automatically close the screen from further actions.

** Pattern of Question Papers**

In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questions carrying a total of 15 marks are in General Aptitude (GA).

In the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI, TF and XE, the Engineering Mathematics will carry around** 15% of the total marks**, the General Aptitude section will carry **15% of the total marks** and the remaining **70% of the total marks** is devoted to the subject of the paper.

In the papers bearing the codes AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH and XL, the General Aptitude section will carry **15% of the total marks** and the **remaining 85% of the total marks** is devoted to the subject of the paper.

**GATE 2015 would contain questions of two different types in various papers:**

**(i) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)** carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).

**(ii) Numerical Answer Questions** of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.

**Design of Questions**

The questions in a paper may be designed to test the following abilities:

**(i) Recall:** These are based on facts, principles, formulae or laws of the discipline of the paper. The candidate is expected to be able to obtain the answer either from his/her memory of the subject or at most from a one-line computation.

Example

Q. During machining, maximum heat is produced

(A) in flank face

(B) in rake face

(C) in shear zone

(D) due to friction between chip and tool

**(ii) Comprehension:** These questions will test the candidate’s understanding of the basics of his/her field, by requiring him/her to draw simple conclusions from fundamental ideas.

**Example**

Q. A DC motor requires a starter in order to

(A) develop a starting torque

(B) compensate for auxiliary field ampere turns

(C) limit armature current at starting

(D) provide regenerative braking

**(iii) Application:** In these questions, the candidate is expected to apply his/her knowledge either through computation or by logical reasoning.

**Example**

Q. The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48. The

Froude number at the beginning of the jump is:

(A) 5.0 (B) 8.0 (C) 10.0 (D) 12.0

Examples of each of this design are given in the types of questions above.

The questions based on the above logics may be a mix of single standalone statement/phrase/data type questions, combination of option codes type questions or match items type questions.

**(iv) Analysis and Synthesis:** In these questions, the candidate is presented with data, diagrams, images etc. that require analysis before a question can be answered. A Synthesis question might require the candidate to compare two or more pieces of information. Questions in this category could, for example, involve candidates in recognizing unstated assumptions, or separating useful information from irrelevant information.

** Marking Scheme**

For 1-mark multiple-choice questions, 1/3 marks will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple-choice questions, 2/3 marks will be deducted for a wrong answer. There is **NO negative marking** for numerical answer type questions.

** General Aptitude (GA) Questions**

In all papers, GA questions carry a total of 15 marks. The GA section includes 5 questions carrying **1-mark** each (sub-total 5 marks) and 5 questions carrying **2- marks** each (sub-total 10 marks).

**Question Papers other than GG, XE and XL **

These papers would contain 25 questions carrying **1-mark** each (sub-total 25 marks) and 30 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 60 marks). The question paper will consist of questions of multiple choice and numerical answer type. For numerical answer questions, choices will not be given. Candidates have to enter the answer (which will be a real number, signed or unsigned, e.g., 25.06, – 25.06, 25, -25 etc.) using a virtual keypad. An appropriate range will be considered while evaluating the numerical answer type questions so that the candidate is not penalized due to the usual round-off errors.

** GG (Geology and Geophysics) Paper**

Apart from the General Aptitude (GA) section, the GG question paper consists of two parts: Part A and Part B. Part A is common for all candidates. Part B contains two sections: Section 1 (Geology) and Section 2 (Geo-physics). Candidates will have to attempt questions in Part A and either Section 1 or Section 2 in Part B.

Part A consists of 25 multiple-choice questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 25 marks and some of these may be numerical answer type questions). Each section in Part B (Section 1 and Section 2) consists of 30 multiple choice questions carrying **2- marks** each (sub-total 60 marks and some of these may be numerical answer type questions).

** XE Paper (Engineering Sciences)**

In XE paper, Engineering Mathematics section (Section A) is **compulsory**. This section contains 11 questions carrying a total of **15 marks**: 7 questions carrying 1- mark each (sub-total 7 marks), and 4 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 8 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type questions.

Each of the other sections of the XE paper (Sections B through G) contains 22 questions carrying a total of **35 marks**: 9 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 9 marks) and 13 questions carrying **2-marks** each (sub-total 26 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

**XL Paper (Life Sciences)**

In XL paper, Chemistry section (Section H) is **compulsory**. This section contains **15 questions** carrying a total of **25 marks**: 5 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks). Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

Each of the other sections of the XL paper (Sections I through M) contains 20 questions carrying a total of **30 marks**: 10 questions carrying 1-mark each (sub- total 10 marks) and 10 questions carrying 2-marks each (sub-total 20 marks).

Some questions may be of numerical answer type.

**Note on Negative Marking for Wrong Answers**

For a wrong answer chosen for the **multiple choice questions** (MCQs), there would be negative marking. For **1-mark** multiple choice questions, **1/3 mark** will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for **2-mark** multiple choice questions,** 2/3 mark** will be deducted for a wrong answer. However, there is **NO negative marking for a wrong answer** in numerical answer type questions.

GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS) Website Opens: Enrolment, Application Filling, Application Submission |
1st September 2014(00:00 Hrs) |

Last Date for Submission of Online Application through Website | 14th October 2014(23:59Hrs) |

Last Date for Request for Change in the Choice of Examination City via GOAPS login | 21st November 2014 |

Availability of Admit Card on the Online Application Interface for printing | 17th December 2014 |

GATE 2015 Online Examination Forenoon: 9.00 AM to 12.00 Noon Afternoon: 2.00 PM to 5.00 PM |
31st January, 1st, 7th, 8th and 14th February, 2015 |

Announcement of Results on the Online Application Website | 12th March 2015(17:00 Hrs) |

**Section H: Chemistry (Compulsory)**

**Atomic structure and periodicity:** Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom; electronic configuration of atoms; periodic table and periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity, electronegativity, atomic size.

**Structure and bonding:** Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle).

**s.p. and d Block Elements:** Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, general characteristics of 3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic properties.

**Chemical Equilibria:** Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical analysis, equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions, Electrochemistry: Conductance, Kohlrausch law, Half Cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

**Reaction Kinetics:** Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.

**Thermodynamics:** First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff’s equation, heat of reaction, Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free energy, and work function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, free energy change and equilibrium constant, Trouton’s rule, Third law of thermodynamics.

**Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism:** Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and Kharash effect, Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic electrophilic substitution, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

**Structure-Reactivity Correlations:** Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers, concept of aromatic city.

**Section I: Biochemistry**

Organization of life.Importance of water.Cell structure and organelles. Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids.

Biochemical separation techniques and characterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, UV-visible, fluorescence and Mass spectrometry.

Protein structure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes.

Metabolism and bioenergetics.Generation and utilization of ATP. Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides.

Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle. Biological membranes. Transport across membranes. Signal transduction; hormones and neurotransmitters.

DNA replication, transcription and translation.Biochemical regulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNA- microarray.

Immune system.Active and passive immunity. Complement system. Antibody structure, function and diversity. Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages. T and B cell activation. Major histocompatibilty complex. T cell receptor.

Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.

** Section J: Botany**

**Plant Systematics:** Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic – outline), plant groups, molecular systematics.

**Plant Anatomy:** Plant cell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall and membranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

**Morphogenesis & Development:** Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.

Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

**Physiology and Biochemistry:** Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

**Genetics:** Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.

**Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification:** Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker- assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

**Economic Botany:** A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.

**Plant Pathology:** Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe beneficial interactions.

**Ecology and Environment:** Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.

**Section K: Microbiology**

**Historical Perspective:** Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

**Methods in Microbiology:** Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

**Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity:** Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.

**Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells:** Structure and Function: Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

**Microbial Growth:** Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

**Control of Micro-organisms:** Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

**Microbial Metabolism:** Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

**Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction:** Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.

**Chemotherapy/Antibiotics:** General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

**Microbial Genetics:** Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.

**Microbial Ecology:** Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.

** Section L: Zoology**

**Animal world:**Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships.

**Evolution:** Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.

**Genetics:** Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, mutations, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage and mapping of genes.

**Biochemistry and Molecular Biology:** Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

**Cell Biology:** Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal transduction).

**Animal Anatomy and Physiology:** Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

**Parasitology and Immunology:** Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune system.

**Development Biology:** Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis of development, stem cells.

**Ecology:** The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

**Animal Behaviour:** Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of animal behaviour.

** Section M: Food Technology**

**Food Chemistry and Nutrition:** Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

**Food Microbiology:** Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

**Food Products Technology:** Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.

**Food Engineering:** Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non- Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.

**Section A: Engineering Mathematics (Compulsory)**

**Linear Algebra:** Algebra of matrices, inverse, rank, system of linear equations, symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices. Hermitian, skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices.eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalisation of matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital rule, Maxima and minima,Taylor’s series, Fundamental and mean value-theorems of integral calculus. Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Beta and Gamma functions, Functions of two variables, limit, continuity, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem for homogeneous functions, total derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange method of multipliers, double and triple integrals and their applications, sequence and series, tests for convergence, power series, Fourier Series, Half range sine and cosine series.

**Complex variable:** Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Application in solving potential problems, Line integral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof), Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.

**Vector Calculus:** Gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems (without proofs) applications.

**Ordinary Differential Equations:** First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Second order linear differential equations with variable coefficients, Variation of parameters method, higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy- Euler’s equations, power series solutions, Legendre polynomials and Bessel’s functions of the first kind and their properties.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Separation of variables method,Laplace equation, solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of probability and simple theorems, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions, Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions, correlation and linear regression.

**Numerical Methods:** Solution of a system of linear equations by L-U decomposition, Gauss- Jordan and Gauss-Seidel Methods, Newton’s interpolation formulae, Solution of a polynomial and a transcendental equation by Newton-Raphson method, numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature, numerical solutions of first order differential equation by Euler’s method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.

** Section B: Fluid Mechanics**

**Fluid Properties:** Relation between stress and strain rate for Newtonian fluids.

**Hydrostatics:** Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies. Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluid motion, concept of local and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows, control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.

Differential equations of mass and momentum (Euler equation), Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.

Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and potential function.

Potential flow: elementary flow fields and principle of superposition, potential flow past a circular cylinder.

**Dimensional analysis:** Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, importance of non-dimensional numbers.

Fully-developed pipe flow, laminar and turbulent flows, friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation.

Qualitative ideas of boundary layer and separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces.

Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.

** Section C: Materials Science**

**Structure:** Atomic structure and bonding in materials. Crystal structure of materials, crystal systems, unit cells and space lattices, determination of structures of simple crystals by x-ray diffraction, miller indices of planes and directions, packing geometry in metallic, ionic and covalent solids. Concept of amorphous, single and polycrystalline structures and their effect on properties of materials.Crystal growth techniques.Imperfections in crystalline solids and their role in influencing various properties.

**Diffusion:** Fick’s laws and application of diffusion in sintering, doping of semiconductors and surface hardening of metals.

**Metals and Alloys:** Solid solutions, solubility limit, phase rule, binary phase diagrams, intermediate phases, intermetallic compounds, iron-iron carbide phase diagram, heat treatment of steels, cold, hot working of metals, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstrcture, properties and applications of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

**Ceramics:** Structure, properties, processing and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics.

**Polymers:** Classification, polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products, processing and applications.

**Composites:** Properties and applications of various composites.

**Advanced Materials and Tools:** Smart materials, exhibiting ferroelectric, piezoelectric, optoelectric, semiconducting behavior, lasers and optical fibers, photoconductivity and superconductivity, nanomaterials – synthesis, properties and applications, biomaterials, superalloys, shape memory alloys.Materials characterization techniques such as, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry.

**Mechanical Properties:** stress-strain diagrams of metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, toughness, elongation, plastic deformation, viscoelasticity, hardness, impact strength, creep, fatigue, ductile and brittle fracture.

**Thermal Properties:** Heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion of materials.

**Electronic Properties:** Concept of energy band diagram for materials – conductors, semiconductors and insulators, electrical conductivity – effect of temperature on conductility, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, dielectric properties.

**Optical Properties:** Reflection, refraction, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation in solids.

Magnetic Properties: Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials, paramagnetism, diamagnetism, antiferro magnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, magnetic hysterisis.

**Environmental Degradation:** Corrosion and oxidation of materials, prevention.

** Section D: Solid Mechanics**

Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; simple relative motion of particles; force as function of position, time and speed; force acting on a body in motion; laws of motion; law of conservation of energy; law of conservation of momentum.

Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains; Mohr’s circle; generalized Hooke’s Law; thermal strain; theories of failure.

Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin cylinders; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Euler buckling.

Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.

** Section E: Thermodynamics**

**Basic Concepts:** Continuum, macroscopic approach, thermodynamic system (closed and open or control volume); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram, path and process; different modes of work; Zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature; heat.

**First Law of Thermodynamics:** Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, first law applied to systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

**Second Law of Thermodynamics:** Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausiusinequality and concept of entropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability and irreversibility.

**Properties of Pure Substances:** Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases, P-V-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state, compressibility chart.

**Thermodynamic Relations:** T-ds relations, Maxwell equations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.

**Thermodynamic cycles:** Carnot vapor power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle, Air standard Otto cycle, Air standard Diesel cycle, Air-standard Brayton cycle, Vapor- compression refrigeration cycle.

**Ideal Gas Mixtures:** Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, calculations of properties, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them.

** Section F: Polymer Science and Engineering**

** Chemistry of high polymers:** Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for copolymerization-bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.

**Polymer Characterization:** Solubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.

**Synthesis and properties:** Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PU polymers. Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds.

**Natural and synthetic rubbers:** Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR, Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE.

**Polymer blends and composites:** Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic- plastic, rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites.

**Polymer Technology:** Polymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.

**Polymer rheology:** Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitions. Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Visco-elasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR.

**Polymer processing:** Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer.

**Polymer testing:** Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness. Conductivity-thermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance.

**Section G: Food Technology**

**Food Chemistry and Nutrition:** Carbohydrates: Structure and functional properties of mono- oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity, Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning; Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

**Food Microbiology:** Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

**Food Products Technology:** Processing principles: Canning, chilling, freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage, fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning in place and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded products and breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil; Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilized milk, cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese and milk powder; Animal products processing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization and freezing of meat, egg powder.

**Food Engineering:** Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Characteristics of non- Newtonian fluids – generalized viscosity coefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement, Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simple geometry, NTU- effectiveness relationship of co-current and counter current double pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law, Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films and laminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation of liquid, solid-solid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations: Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluation in batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization; Mass transfer operations: Properties of air-water vapor mixture; Humidification and dehumidification operations.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

**Vector Calculus:** Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential Equations:** Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics:** Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:** Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Textile Engineering and Fiber Science **

**Textile Fibers:** Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers; Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool and silk. Introduction to important bastfibres; properties and uses of natural and man-made fibers; physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis.

Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Process of viscose and acetate preparation. Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes, characteristic features of PET, polyamide and polypropylene spinning; wet and dry spinning of viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting, tow-to-top conversion and different texturing methods.

Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. absorption, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology ofman-made fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and property correlation.

**Yarn manufacture and yarn structure & properties:** Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working principle of modern opening and cleaning equipments; the technology of carding, carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber; Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler; ring & traveler designs; mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages; working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn, compact spinning, principle of non-conventional methods of yarn production such as rotor spinning, air jet spinning, wrap spinning, twist less spinning and friction spinning.

Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; twist strength relationship in spun yarns; fibre configuration and orientation in yarn; cause of fibre migration and its estimation, irregularity index, properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns.

**Fabric manufacture and Fabric Structure:** Principles of cheese and cone winding processes and machines; random and precision winding; package faults and their remedies; yarn clearers and tensioners; different systems of yarn splicing; features of modern cone winding machines; different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and sectional warping machines; different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns, modern sizing machines; principles of pirn winding processes and machines; primary and secondary motions of loom, effect of their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; dobby and jacquard shedding; mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle; warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment; functional principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines, principles of multiphase and circular looms.

Principles of weft and warp knitting; basic weft and warp knitted structures. Classification, production and areas of application of nonwoven fabrics.Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions.Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry; elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven fabrics.

**Textile Testing:** Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors. Measurement of fibre length, fineness, crimp, strength and reflectance; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content; HVI and AFIS for fibre testing. Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns; testing equipment for measurement test methods of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance. FAST and Kawabata instruments and systems for objective fabric evaluation.Statistical data analysis of experimental results. Correlation analysis, significance tests and analysis of variance; frequency distributions and control charts.

**Preparatory Processes:** Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk. Mercerization of cotton. Preparatory processes for nylon, polyester and acrylic and polyester/cotton blends.

**Dyeing:** Classification of dyes.Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes. Dyeing polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends. Batch wise and continuous dyeing machines. Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used. Dye fibre interaction. Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing.Methods for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.Evaluation of fastness properties with the help of grey scale.

**Printing:** Styles of printing. Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners.Printingauxiliaries.Printing of cotton with reactive dyes.Printing of wool, silk, nylon with acid and metal complex dyes.Printing of polyester with disperse dyes. Methods of dye fixation after printing. Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester.

Printing of polyester/cotton blends with disperse/reactive combination. Transfer printing of polyester. Developments in inkjet printing.

**Finishing:** Mechanical finishing of cotton.Stiff.Soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton.Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool.Antis tat finishing of synthetic fiberfabrics.Heat setting of polyester.

**Energy Conservation:** Minimum application techniques.

**Pollution:** Environment pollution during chemical processing of textiles. Treatment of textile effluents.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

**Complex variables:** Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.

**Numerical Methods:** Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**General Engineering**

**Engineering Materials:** Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications; effect of strain, strain rate and temperature on mechanical properties of metals and alloys; heat treatment of metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties.

**Applied Mechanics:** Engineering mechanics – equivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium; strength of materials – stress, strain and their relationship, Mohr’s circle, deflection of beams, bending and shear stress, Euler’s theory of columns.

**Theory of Machines and Design:** Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and followers; governers and fly wheels; design of elements – failure theories; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches.

**Thermal Engineering:** Fluid mechanics – fluid statics, Bernoulli’s equation, flow through pipes, equations of continuity and momentum; thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic system and processes, calculation of work and heat for systems and control volumes; air standard cycles; basics of internal combustion engines and steam turbines; heat transfer – fundamentals of conduction, convection and radiation, heat exchangers.

**Production Engineering**

**Metal Casting:** Casting processes – types and applications; patterns – types and materials; allowances; moulds and cores – materials, making, and testing; casting techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys; solidification; design of casting, gating and risering; casting inspection, defects and remedies.

**Metal Forming:** Stress-strain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; concept of flow stress, deformation mechanisms; hot and cold working – forging, rolling, extrusion, wire and tube drawing; sheet metal working processes such as blanking, piercing, bending, deep drawing, coining and embossing; analysis of rolling, forging, extrusion and wire /rod drawing; metal working defects.

**Metal Joining Processes:** Welding processes – manual metal arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc, electro slag, thermit, resistance, forge, friction, and explosive welding; other joining processes – soldering, brazing, braze welding; inspection of welded joints, defects and remedies; introduction to advanced welding processes – ultrasonic, electron beam, laser beam; thermal cutting.

**Machining and Machine Tool Operations:** Basic machine tools; machining processes- turning, drilling, boring, milling, shaping, planning, gear cutting, thread production, broaching, grinding, lapping, honing, super finishing; mechanics of machining – geometry of cutting tools, chip formation, cutting forces and power requirements, Merchant’s analysis; selection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life, economics of machining, thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids, machinability; principles and applications of nontraditional machining processes – USM, AJM, WJM, EDM and Wire cut EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM.

**Tool Engineering:** Jigs and fixtures – principles, applications, and design; press tools – configuration, design of die and punch; principles of forging die design.

**Metrology and Inspection:** Limits, fits, and tolerances, interchangeability, selective assembly; linear and angular measurements by mechanical and optical methods, comparators; design of limit gauges; interferometry; measurement of straightness, flatness, roundness, squareness and symmetry; surface finish measurement; inspection of screw threads and gears; alignment testing of machine tools.

**Powder Metallurgy:** Production of metal powders, compaction and sintering.

**Polymers and Composites:** Introduction to polymers and composites; plastic processing – injection, compression and blow molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites.

**Manufacturing Analysis:** Sources of errors in manufacturing; process capability; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; process planning; parameter selection and comparison of production alternatives; time and cost analysis; manufacturing technologies – strategies and selection.

**Computer Integrated Manufacturing:** Basic concepts of CAD,CAM, CAPP, cellular manufacturing, NC, CNC, DNC, Robotics, FMS, and CIM.

**Industrial Engineering**

**Product Design and Development:** Principles of good product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent engineering.

**Engineering Economy and Costing:** Elementary cost accounting and methods of depreciation; break-even analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments, financial statements.

**Work System Design:** Taylor’s scientific management, Gilbreths’s contributions; productivity – concepts and measurements; methodstudy, micro-motion study, principles of motion economy; work measurement – stop watch time study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS; ergonomics; job evaluation, merit rating, incentive schemes, and wage administration; business process reengineering.

**Facility Design:** Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; types of plant layout and their evaluation; computer aided layout design techniques; assembly line balancing; materials handling systems.

**Production Planning and Inventory Control:** Forecasting techniques – causal and time series models, moving average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production planning; master production scheduling; MRP and MRP-II; order control and flow control; routing, scheduling and priority dispatching; push and pull production systems, concept of JIT manufacturing system; logistics, distribution, and supply chain management; Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic and probabilistic inventory models, quantity discount; perpetual and periodic inventory control systems.

**Operation Research:** Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis; transportation and assignment models; network flow models, constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers; simple queuing models; dynamic programming; simulation – manufacturing applications; PERT and CPM, time-cost trade-off, resource leveling.

**Quality Management:** Quality – concept and costs, quality circles, quality assurance; statistical quality control, acceptance sampling, zero defects, six sigma; total quality management; ISO 9000; design of experiments – Taguchi method.

**Reliability and Maintenance:** Reliability, availability and maintainability; distribution of failure and repair times; determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models; system reliability determination; preventive maintenance and replacement, total productive maintenance – concept and applications.

**Management Information System:** Value of information; information storage and retrieval system – database and data structures; knowledge based systems.

**Intellectual Property System:** Definition of intellectual property, importance of IPR; TRIPS and its implications, patent, copyright, industrial design and trademark.

Mathematical Physics: Linear vector space; matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis, elementary ideas about tensors.

Classical Mechanics: Conservation laws; central forces, Kepler problem and planetary motion; collisions and scattering in laboratory and centre of mass frames; mechanics of system of particles; rigid body dynamics; moment of inertia tensor; noninertial frames and pseudo forces; variational principle; Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formalisms; equation of motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic motion, small oscillations, normal modes; special theory of relativity – Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass- energy equivalence.

Electromagnetic Theory: Solution of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems includingboundary value problems;dielectricsandconductors; Biot-Savart’s and Ampere’s laws; Faraday’s law; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

Quantum Mechanics: Physical basis of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one, two and three dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom; linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; probability ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, critical point.

Atomic and Molecular Physics: Spectra of one- and many-electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; X-ray spectra; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR; lasers.

Solid State Physics: Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; elastic properties of solids; defects in crystals; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids; metals, semiconductors and insulators; transport properties; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.

Nuclear and Particle Physics: Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model – semi-empirical mass formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; Alpha decay, Beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;Rutherfordscattering,nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.

Electronics: Network analysis; semiconductor devices; Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors, amplifier and oscillator circuits; operational amplifier, negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators; rectifier circuits, regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

**Vector Calculus:** Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential Equations:** Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics:** Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:** Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Metallurgical Engineering**

**Thermodynamics and Rate Processes:** Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electro-chemical cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.

**Extractive Metallurgy:** Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, Flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro- hydro- and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.

**Physical Metallurgy:** Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminum alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; elements of X-ray and electron diffraction; principles of scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; electronic and opto-electronic materials.

**Mechanical Metallurgy:** Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; super- plasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

**Manufacturing Processes:** Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; hot, warm and cold working of metals, Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; powder metallurgy; NDT using dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

**Vector Calculus:** Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Diferential Equations:** Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics:** Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:** Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Mining Engineering**

**Mechanics:** Equivalent force systems; Equations of equilibrium; Two dimensional frames and trusses; Free body diagrams; Friction forces; Particle kinematics and dynamics.

**Mine Development, Geomechanics and Ground Control:** Methods of access to deposits; Underground drivages; Drilling methods and machines; Explosives, blasting devices and practices.

Geo-technical properties of rocks; Rock mass classification; Ground control, instrumentation and stress measurement techniques; Theories of rock failure; Ground vibrations; Stress distribution around mine openings; Subsidence; Design of supports in roadways and workings; Rock bursts and coal bumps; Slope stability.

**Mining Methods and Machinery:** Surface mining: layout, development, loading, transportation and mechanization, continuous surface mining systems; Underground coal mining: bord and pillar systems, room and pillar mining, longwall mining, thick seam mining methods; Underground metal mining : open, supported and caved stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems, mine filling.

Generation and transmission of mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic power; Materials handling: haulages, conveyors, face and development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps.

**Ventilation, Underground Hazards and Surface Environment:** Underground atmosphere; Heat load sources and thermal environment, air cooling; Mechanics of air flow, distribution, natural and mechanical ventilation; Mine fans and their usage; Auxiliary ventilation; Ventilation planning.

Subsurface hazards from fires, explosions, gases, dust and inundation; Rescue apparatus and practices; Safety in mines, accident analysis, noise, mine lighting, occupational health and risk.

Air, water and soil pollution : causes, dispersion, quality standards, reclamation and control.

**Surveying, Mine Planning and Systems Engineering:** Fundamentals of engineering surveying; Levels and leveling, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation, contouring, errors and adjustments, correlation; Underground surveying; Curves; Photogrammetry; Field astronomy; EDM, total station and GPS fundamentals.

**Principles of planning:**Sampling methods and practices, reserve estimation techniques, basics of geostatistics and quality control, optimization of facility location, cash flow concepts and mine valuation, open pit design; GIS fundamentals.

Work-study; Concepts of reliability, reliability of series and parallel systems.

Linear programming, transportation and assignment problems, queueing, network analysis, basics of simulation.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

**Complex variables:** Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.

**Numerical Methods:** Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Applied Mechanics And Design**

**Engineering Mechanics:** Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.

**Strength of Materials:** Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.

**Theory of Machines:** Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.

**Vibrations:** Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.

**Design:** Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches.

**Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

**Fluid Mechanics:** Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer; elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

**Heat-Transfer:** Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

**Thermodynamics:** Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and processes; Carnot cycle.irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases, properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.

**Applications:** Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery:Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines — impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.

**Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering**

**Engineering Materials:** Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.

**Metal Casting:** Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design, design considerations.

**Forming:** Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.

**Joining:** Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in welding.

**Machining and Machine Tool Operations:** Mechanics of machining, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs and fixtures Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.

**Computer Integrated Manufacturing:** Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.

**Production Planning and Control:** Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.

**Inventory Control:** Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems.

**Operations Research:** Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

**Linear Algebra:** Finite dimensional vector spaces; Linear transformations and their matrix representations, rank; systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors, minimal polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton Theroem, diagonalisation, Hermitian, Skew-Hermitian and unitary matrices; Finite dimensional inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process, self-adjoint operators.

**Complex Analysis:** Analytic functions, conformal mappings, bilinear transformations; complex integration: Cauchy’s integral theorem and formula; Liouville’s theorem, maximum modulus principle; Taylor and Laurent’s series; residue theorem and applications for evaluating real integrals.

**Real Analysis:** Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence, power series, Fourier series, functions of several variables, maxima, minima; Riemann integration, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss; metric spaces, completeness, Weierstrass approximation theorem, compactness; Lebesgue measure, measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatou’s lemma, dominated convergence theorem.

**Ordinary Differential Equations:** First order ordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems, systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations, linear ordinary differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients; linear second order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; method of Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations, series solutions; Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonality.

**Algebra:** Normal subgroups and homomorphism theorems, automorphisms; Group actions, Sylow’s theorems and their applications; Euclidean domains, Principle ideal domains and unique factorization domains. Prime ideals and maximal ideals in commutative rings; Fields, finite fields.

**Functional Analysis:** Banach spaces, Hahn-Banach extension theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems, principle of uniform boundedness; Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, Riesz representation theorem, bounded linear operators.

**Numerical Analysis:** Numerical solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: bisection, secant method, Newton-Raphson method, fixed point iteration; interpolation: error of polynomial interpolation, Lagrange, Newton interpolations; numerical differentiation; numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules, Gauss Legendrequadrature, method of undetermined parameters; least square polynomial approximation; numerical solution of systems of linear equations: direct methods (Gauss elimination, LU decomposition); iterative methods (Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel); matrix eigenvalue problems: power method, numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: initial value problems: Taylor series methods, Euler’s method, Runge-Kutta methods.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Linear and quasilinear first order partial differential equations, method of characteristics; second order linear equations in two variables and their classification; Cauchy, Dirichlet and Neumann problems; solutions of Laplace, wave and diffusion equations in two variables; Fourier series and Fourier transform and Laplace transform methods of solutions for the above equations.

**Mechanics:** Virtual work, Lagrange’s equations for holonomic systems, Hamiltonian equations.

**Topology:** Basic concepts of topology, product topology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms, Urysohn’s Lemma.

**Probability and Statistics:** Probability space, conditional probability, Bayes theorem, independence, Random variables, joint and conditional distributions, standard probability distributions and their properties, expectation, conditional expectation, moments; Weak and strong law of large numbers, central limit theorem; Sampling distributions, UMVU estimators, maximum likelihood estimators, Testing of hypotheses, standard parametric tests based on normal, X2 , t, F – distributions; Linear regression; Interval estimation.

**Linear programming:**Linear programming problem and its formulation, convex sets and their properties, graphical method, basic feasible solution, simplex method, big-M and two phase methods; infeasible and unbounded LPP’s, alternate optima; Dual problem and duality theorems, dual simplex method and its application in post optimality analysis; Balanced and unbalanced transportation problems, u -u method for solving transportation problems; Hungarian method for solving assignment problems.

**Calculus of Variation and Integral Equations:** Variation problems with fixed boundaries; sufficient conditions for extremum, linear integral equations of Fredholm and Volterra type, their iterative solutions.

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

**Complex variables:** Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

**Probability and Statistics:** Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:** Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Transform Theory:** Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

**Instrumentation Engineering**

**Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems:** Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems.Error and uncertainty analysis.Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.

**Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation:** Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration and shock.Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level.Measurement of pH, conductivity, viscosity and humidity.

**Analog Electronics:** Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits.Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage. Feedbackamplifiers.Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations. Instrumentationamplifier. Precisionrectifier.V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op- Amp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators.

**Digital Electronics:** Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer, S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing.Microcontrollers.

**Signals, Systems and Communications:** Periodic and aperiodic signals. Impulse response, transfer function and frequency response of first- and second order systems.Convolution, correlation and characteristics of linear time invariant systems.Discrete time system, impulse and frequency response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation.Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation.Frequency and time division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for digital modulation.

**Electrical and Electronic Measurements:** Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R, L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer.Digital voltmeter and multi-meter.Time, phase and frequency measurements.Cathode ray oscilloscope. Serial and parallel communication.Shielding and grounding.

**Control Systems and Process Control:** Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steady-state-errors.Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems.Phase and gain margin.State space representation of systems.Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components.Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P, P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.

**Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation:** Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry.X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics.Interferometers, applications in metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted Tomography.

**Part A: Common to Geology and Geophysics**

Earth and Planetary system, size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; atmosphere and greenhouse effect; isostasy; elements of seismology; physical properties of the interior of the earth; continents and continental processes; physical oceanography; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, continental drift, plate tectonics. Weathering; soil formation; action of river, wind, glacier and ocean; earthquakes, volcanism and orogeny. Basic structural geology, mineralogy and petrology.Geological time scale and geochronology; stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions of India. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground water geology.Geological and geographical distribution of ore, coal and petroleum resources of India.

Introduction to remote sensing.Physical basis and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic and radiometric prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water; introductory well logging.

**Part B – Section 1: Geology**

Crystalsymmetry, forms, twinning; crystal chemistry; optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and optical properties of rock forming minerals.

Igneous rocks – classification, forms and textures, magmatic differentiation; phase diagrams and trace elements as monitors of magma evolutionary processes; mantle melting models and derivation and primary magmas. Metamorphism; controlling factors, metamorphic facies, grade and basic types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance; Igneous and metamorphic provinces of India; structure and petrology of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies, basin analysis; association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with tectonic setting.

Stress, strain and material response; brittle and ductile deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints, unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods of projection, tectonites and their significance; shear zone; superposed folding; basement cover relationship.

Morphology, classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, microfossils and palaeoflora; stratigraphic principles and Indian stratigraphy.

Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms; slope and drainage; processes on deep oceanic and near-shore regions; quantitative and applied geomorphology.

Oremineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; ore forming processes vis-à-vis ore- rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and metamorphogenic ores); oresand metamorphism; fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool; prospecting and exploration of economic minerals; sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Coal and petroleum geology; origin and distribution of mineral and fuel deposits inIndia; marine geology and ocean resources; ore dressing and mineral economics.

Cosmic abundance; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements; elements of geochemical thermodynamics, isotope geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water rock interaction.

Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction materials; role of geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology – exploration, well hydraulics and water quality.

Basic principles of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth’s surface, air-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions, digital processing of satellite images. GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector mode operation.

**Part B – Section 2: Geophysics**

The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’s theorem, size and shape of earth; geochronology; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic and continental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower atmospheric phenomena.

Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem; Image theory; integral equations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory. Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems of geophysics, Ill- posedness of inverse problems.

‘G’ and ‘g’ units of measurement, absolute and relative gravity measurements; Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various corrections in gravity data reduction – free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their interpretation – anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass.

Earth’s magnetic field – elements, origin and units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, corrections, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.

Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, non-metals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling, application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence and suppression, self-potential and its origin, field measurement, Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of IP, ground- water exploration, environmental and engineering applications.

Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of electromagnetic field, elliptic polarization, methods of measurement for different source-receiver configuration, components in EM measurements. Skin-depth, interpretation and applications; earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, methods of measurement, processing of data and interpretation. Geological applications including groundwater, mining and hydrocarbon exploration.

Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources , generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip- moveout, static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics.

Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles and zeros.

Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging. SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral and oil exploration.

Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of minerals (radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration and radioactive waste disposal.

Geophysical inverse problems; non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; quasi-linear and non-linear methods including Tikhonov’s regularization method, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.

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