Iraq Transnational Issues

IRAQ

Iraq Disputes – international:

Iraq’s lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Iraq

Iraq Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 15,405 (Turkey), 7,944 (West Bank and Gaza Strip), 7,026 (Iran) (2018); 252,983 (Syria) (2019)

IDPs: 2,619,236 (includes displacement between 2006 and 2008 due to ethno-sectarian violence and displacement in central and northern Iraq since January 2014) (2019)

stateless persons: 47,515 (2018); note – in the 1970s and 1980s under SADDAM Husayn’s regime, thousands of Iraq’s Faili Kurds, followers of Shia Islam, were stripped of their Iraqi citizenship, had their property seized by the government, and many were deported; some Faili Kurds had their citizenship reinstated under the 2,006 Iraqi Nationality Law, but others lack the documentation to prove their Iraqi origins; some Palestinian refugees persecuted by the SADDAM regime remain stateless

note: estimate revised to reflect the reduction of statelessness in line with Law 26 of 2006, which allows stateless persons to apply for nationality in certain circumstances; more accurate studies of statelessness in Iraq are pending (2015)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

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Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

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Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

Iraq Capital Flag:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning “God is great”) in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise replacement for the Ba’thist SADDAM-era flag

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band

Iraq Currency:

Iraqi dinar


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


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Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

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Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

IRAQ

Iraq GOVERNMENT

Iraq Chief of State

President Barham SALIH

Iraq Head of Government

Prime Minister Adil ABD AL-MAHDI

Iraq Government Type

federal parliamentary republic

Iraq Capital

Baghdad

Iraq Legislature

unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (329 seats)

Iraq Judiciary

Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)

Iraq Ambassador to US

Ambassador Farid YASIN

Iraq US Ambassador

Ambassador Douglas A. SILLIMAN

Iraq GEOGRAPHY

Iraq Area,

Total: 438,317 sq km

Land: 437,367 sq km

Water: 950 sq km

Iraq Climate

mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

Iraq Natural Resources

petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Iraq ECONOMY

Iraq Economic Overview

Iraq’s growth slowed in 2017 compared to the previous two years as domestic consumption and investment fell because of civil violence, corruption, and a sluggish oil market

Iraq GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

$649.3 billion (2017 est.)

Iraq GDP per capita (Purchasing Power Parity)

$16,700 (2017 est.)

Iraq Exports

$61.4 billion (2017 est.)

partners: India 21.2%, China 20.2%, US 15.8%, South Korea 9.4%, Greece 5.3%, Netherlands 4.8%, Italy 4.7% (2017)

Iraq Imports

$39.47 billion (2017 est.)

partners: Turkey 27.8%, China 25.7%, South Korea 4.7%, Russia 4.3% (2017)

Iraq PEOPLE & SOCIETY

Iraq Population

40.2 million (July 2018 est.)

Iraq Population Growth

2.5% (2018 est.)

Iraq Ethnicity

Arab 75-80%, Kurdish

15-20%, other 5%

note: most recent available data is a 1987 Iraqi government estimate

Iraq Language

Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population

Iraq Religion

Muslim (official) 95-98% (Shia 64-69%, Sunni 29-34%), Christian 1%, other 1-4% (2015 est.)

note: the Christian population may have dropped by as much as 50% since the fall of the SADDAM Husayn regime in 2003, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon

Iraq Urbanization

urban population: 70.5% of total population (2018)

rate of urbanization: 3.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Iraq Literacy

79.7% (2015 est.)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

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Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

 

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Iraq Background and Introduction

IRAQ

Iraq Background and Introduction:

Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by the United Kingdom during World War I and was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration in 1920. Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. It was proclaimed a “republic” in 1958 after a coup overthrew the monarchy, but in actuality, a series of strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last was SADDAM Husayn from 1979 to 2003. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait but was expelled by US-led UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. After Iraq’s expulsion, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions led to the Second Gulf War in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led forces.

In October 2005, Iraqis approved a constitution in a national referendum and, pursuant to this document, elected a 275-member Council of Representatives (COR) in December 2005. The COR approved most cabinet ministers in May 2006, marking the transition to Iraq’s first constitutional government in nearly a half century. Iraq held elections for provincial councils in all governorates in January 2009 and April 2013 and postponed the next provincial elections, originally planned for April 2017, until 2019. Iraq has held three national legislative elections since 2005, most recently in May 2018 when 329 legislators were elected to the COR. Adil ABD AL-MAHDI assumed the premiership in October 2018 as a consensus and independent candidate – the first prime minister who is not an active member of a major political bloc. His cabinet has been hailed as one of the most technocratic since 2005.

Between 2014 and 2017, Iraq was engaged in a military campaign against the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) to recapture territory lost in the western and northern portion of the country. Iraqi and allied forces recaptured Mosul, the country’s second-largest city, in 2017 and drove ISIS out of its other urban strongholds. In December 2017, then-Prime Minister Haydar al-ABADI publicly declared victory against ISIS while continuing operations against the group’s residual presence in rural areas. Also in late 2017, ABADI responded to an independence referendum held by the Kurdish Regional Government by ordering Iraqi forces to take control of disputed territories across central and northern Iraq that were previously occupied and governed by Kurdish forces.


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

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Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

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Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

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Iraq Geography

IRAQ

Iraq Location:

Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

Iraq Geographic coordinates:

33 00 N, 44 00 E

Iraq Map references:

Middle East

Iraq Area:

total: 438,317 sq km

land: 437,367 sq km

water: 950 sq km

country comparison to the world: 60

Iraq Area – comparative:

slightly more than three times the size of New York state

Area comparison map:

Iraq Land boundaries:

total: 3,809 km

border countries (6): Iran 1599 km, Jordan 179 km, Kuwait 254 km, Saudi Arabia 811 km, Syria 599 km, Turkey 367 km

Iraq Coastline:

58 km

Iraq Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: not specified

Iraq Climate:

mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

Iraq Terrain:

mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

Iraq Elevation:

mean elevation: 312 m

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Cheekha Dar (Kurdish for “Black Tent”) 3,611 m

Iraq Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Iraq Land use:

agricultural land: 18.1% (2011 est.)

arable land: 8.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 9.2% (2011 est.)

forest: 1.9% (2011 est.)

other: 80% (2011 est.)

Iraq Irrigated land:

35,250 sq km (2012)

Iraq Population distribution:

population is concentrated in the north, center, and eastern parts of the country, with many of the larger urban agglomerations found along extensive parts of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; much of the western and southern areas are either lightly populated or uninhabited

Iraq Natural hazards:

dust storms; sandstorms; floods

Iraq Environment – current issues:

government water control projects drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area’s wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification; military and industrial infrastructure has released heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the air, soil, and groundwater; major sources of environmental damage are effluents from oil refineries, factory and sewage discharges into rivers, fertilizer and chemical contamination of the soil, and industrial air pollution in urban areas

Iraq Environment – international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Iraq Geography – note:

strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

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Iraq People and Society

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Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

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Iraq People and Society

IRAQ

Iraq Population:

40,194,216 (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Iraq Nationality:

noun: Iraqi(s)

adjective: Iraqi

Iraq Ethnic groups:

Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, other 5% (includes Turkmen, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka’i, Bedouin, Romani, Assyrian, Circassian, Sabaean-Mandaean, Persian)

note: data is a 1987 government estimate; no more recent reliable numbers are available

Iraq Languages:

Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian are official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population

Iraq Religions:

Muslim (official) 95-98% (Shia 64-69%, Sunni 29-34%), Christian 1% (includes Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Assyrian Church of the East), other 1-4% (2015 est.)

note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, the overall Christian population has decreased at least 50% and perhaps as high as 90% since the fall of the SADDAM Husayn regime in 2003, according to US Embassy estimates, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon

Iraq Age structure:

0-14 years: 39.01% (male 8,005,327 /female 7,674,802)

15-24 years: 19.42% (male 3,976,085 /female 3,829,086)

25-54 years: 33.97% (male 6,900,984 /female 6,752,797)

55-64 years: 4.05% (male 788,602 /female 839,291)

65 years and over: 3.55% (male 632,753 /female 794,489) (2018 est.)

population pyramid:

Iraq Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 77.7 (2015 est.)

youth dependency ratio: 72.3 (2015 est.)

elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 (2015 est.)

potential support ratio: 18.3 (2015 est.)

Iraq Median age:

total: 20.2 years

male: 20 years

female: 20.5 years (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Iraq Population growth rate:

2.5% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Iraq Birth rate:

30 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Iraq Death rate:

3.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Iraq Net migration rate:

-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Iraq Population distribution:

population is concentrated in the north, center, and eastern parts of the country, with many of the larger urban agglomerations found along extensive parts of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; much of the western and southern areas are either lightly populated or uninhabited

Iraq Urbanization:

urban population: 70.5% of total population (2018)

rate of urbanization: 3.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Iraq Major urban areas – population:

6.643 million BAGHDAD (capital), 1.527 million Mosul, 1.299 million Basra, 981,000 Kirkuk, 821,000 Erbil, 820,000 Najaf (2018)

Iraq Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Iraq Maternal mortality rate:

50 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Iraq Infant mortality rate:

total: 37.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Iraq Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.9 years

male: 72.6 years

female: 77.2 years (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Iraq Total fertility rate:

3.94 children born/woman (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Iraq Contraceptive prevalence rate:

52.8% (2018)

Iraq Health expenditures:

5.5% of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 127

Iraq Physicians density:

0.82 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density: This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors – such as demographic issues and the burden of disease – there is . . . more Hospital bed density field listing

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 93.8% of population

rural: 70.1% of population

total: 86.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 6.2% of population

rural: 29.9% of population

total: 13.4% of population (2015 est.)

Iraq Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 86.4% of population (2015 est.)

rural: 83.8% of population (2015 est.)

total: 85.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:

urban: 13.6% of population (2015 est.)

rural: 16.2% of population (2015 est.)

total: 14.4% of population (2015 est.)

Iraq HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

NA

Iraq HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA

Iraq HIV/AIDS – deaths:

NA

Iraq Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate (2016)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)

Iraq Obesity – adult prevalence rate:

30.4% (2016)

country comparison to the world: 23

Iraq Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

7.2% (2011)

country comparison to the world: 72

Iraq Education expenditures:

NA

Iraq Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 79.7%

male: 85.7%

female: 73.7% (2015 est.)

Iraq Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 25.6%

male: 22%

female: 63.3% (2017)

country comparison to the world: 47


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

 

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Iraq Government

IRAQ

Iraq Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Iraq

conventional short form: Iraq

local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq

local short form: Al Iraq/Eraq

former: Mesopotamia, Mandatory Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq

etymology: the name probably derives from “Uruk” (Biblical “Erech”), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River

Iraq Government type:

federal parliamentary republic

Iraq Capital:

name: Baghdad

geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 24 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Iraq Administrative divisions:

18 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular – parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala’; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit

Iraq Independence:

3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note – on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government

Iraq National holiday:

Independence Day, 3 October (1932); Republic Day, 14 July (1958)

Iraq Constitution:

history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and the Council of Minsters collectively, or by one-fifth of the Council of Representatives members; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Council of Representatives, approval by referendum, and ratification by the president; passage of amendments to articles on citizen rights and liberties requires a two-thirds majority vote of Council of Representatives members after two successive electoral terms, approval in a referendum, and ratification by the president (2016)

Legal system: This entry provides the description of a country’s legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United State law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law). An addition . . . more Legal system field listing

mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law

Iraq International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Iraq Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Iraq Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Iraq Executive branch:

chief of state: President Barham SALIH (since 2 October 2018); vice presidents (vacant)

head of government: Prime Minister Adil ABD AL-MAHDI (since 24 October 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives (COR) to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); COR election last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister nominated by the largest COR bloc or by consensus and submission of COR minister nominees for majority COR approval; disapproval requires designation of a new prime minister candidate

election results:

COR vote in first round – Barham SALIH (PUK) 165, Fuad HUSAYN (KDP) 90; Barham SALIH elected president in second round – Barham SALIH 219, Fuad HUSAYN 22; note – the COR vote on 1 October 2018 failed due to a lack of quorum, and a new session was held on 2 October

Iraq Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (329 seats; 320 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 9 seats at the national level reserved for minorities – 5 for Christians, 1 each for Sabaean-Mandaeans, Yazidis, Shabaks, Fayli Kurds; 25% of seats allocated to women; members serve 4-year terms); note – Iraq’s constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council, but it has not been instituted

elections: last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition – NA; seats by party/coalition – Al Sa’irun Alliance 54, Al Fatah Alliance 48, Al Nasir Alliance 42, KDP 25, State of Law Coalition 25, Wataniyah 21, National Wisdom Trend 19, PUK 18, Iraqi Decision Alliance 14, Anbar Our Identity 6, Goran Movement 5, New Generation 4, other 48; composition – men 245, women 84, percent of women 25.5%

Iraq Judicial branch:

highest courts: Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note – court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges selected by the president of the republic from nominees selected by the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), a 25-member committee of judicial officials that manages the judiciary and prosecutors; FSC members appointed for life; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the SJC and confirmed by the Council of Representatives to serve until retirement nominally at age 63

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); civil courts, including first instance, personal status, labor, and customs; criminal courts including felony, misdemeanor, investigative, major crimes, juvenile, and traffic; religious courts

Iraq Political parties and leaders:

Al Fatah Alliance [Hadi al-AMIRI]

Al Nasr Alliance [Haydar al-ABADI]

Al Sadiqun Bloc [Adnan al-DULAYMI]

Al Sa’irun Alliance [Muqtda al-SADR]

Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]

Da`wa Party [Nuri al-MALIKI]

Fadilah Party [Muhammad al-YAQUBI]

Goran Movement [Omar SAYYID ALI]

Iraqi Communist Party [Hamid Majid MUSA]

Iraq Decision Alliance [Khamis al-KHANJAR, Usama al-NUJAYFI]

Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI [Humam HAMMUDI]

Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masoud BARZANI]

National Wisdom Trend [Ammar al-HAKIM]

New Generation Movement [SHASWAR Abd al-Wahid Qadir]

Our Identity [Muhammad al-HALBUSI]

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [KOSRAT Rasul Ali, acting]

State of Law Coalition [Nuri al MALIKI

Wataniyah coalition [Ayad ALLAWI]

numerous smaller religious, local, tribal, and minority parties

Iraq International organization participation:

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Iraq Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Farid YASIN (since 18 January 2017)

chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 742-1600

FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129

consulate(s) general: Detroit, Los Angeles

Iraq Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew TUELLER (since 9 June 2019)

embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad; note – consulate in Al Basrah closed as of 28 September 2018

mailing address: APO AE 09316

telephone: 0760-030-3000

FAX: NA

Iraq Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning “God is great”) in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise replacement for the Ba’thist SADDAM-era flag

note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band

Iraq National symbol(s):

golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black

Iraq National anthem:

name: “Mawtini” (My Homeland)

lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL

note: adopted 2004; following the ouster of SADDAM Husayn, Iraq adopted “Mawtini,” a popular folk song throughout the Arab world; also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

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Iraq Economy

IRAQ

Iraq Economy – overview:

Iraq’s GDP growth slowed to 1.1% in 2017, a marked decline compared to the previous two years as domestic consumption and investment fell because of civil violence and a sluggish oil market. The Iraqi Government received its third tranche of funding from its 2016 Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) with the IMF in August 2017, which is intended to stabilize its finances by encouraging improved fiscal management, needed economic reform, and expenditure reduction. Additionally, in late 2017 Iraq received more than $1.4 billion in financing from international lenders, part of which was generated by issuing a $1 billion bond for reconstruction and rehabilitation in areas liberated from ISIL. Investment and key sector diversification are crucial components to Iraq’s long-term economic development and require a strengthened business climate with enhanced legal and regulatory oversight to bolster private-sector engagement. The overall standard of living depends on global oil prices, the central government passage of major policy reforms, a stable security environment post-ISIS, and the resolution of civil discord with the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG).

Iraq’s largely state-run economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides roughly 85% of government revenue and 80% of foreign exchange earnings, and is a major determinant of the economy’s fortunes. Iraq’s contracts with major oil companies have the potential to further expand oil exports and revenues, but Iraq will need to make significant upgrades to its oil processing, pipeline, and export infrastructure to enable these deals to reach their economic potential.

In 2017, Iraqi oil exports from northern fields were disrupted following a KRG referendum that resulted in the Iraqi Government reasserting federal control over disputed oil fields and energy infrastructure in Kirkuk. The Iraqi government and the KRG dispute the role of federal and regional authorities in the development and export of natural resources. In 2007, the KRG passed an oil law to develop IKR oil and gas reserves independent of the federal government. The KRG has signed about 50 contracts with foreign energy companies to develop its reserves, some of which lie in territories taken by Baghdad in October 2017. The KRG is able to unilaterally export oil from the fields it retains control of through its own pipeline to Turkey, which Baghdad claims is illegal. In the absence of a national hydrocarbons law, the two sides have entered into five provisional oil- and revenue-sharing deals since 2009, all of which collapsed.

Iraq is making slow progress enacting laws and developing the institutions needed to implement economic policy, and political reforms are still needed to assuage investors’ concerns regarding the uncertain business climate. The Government of Iraq is eager to attract additional foreign direct investment, but it faces a number of obstacles, including a tenuous political system and concerns about security and societal stability. Rampant corruption, outdated infrastructure, insufficient essential services, skilled labor shortages, and antiquated commercial laws stifle investment and continue to constrain growth of private, nonoil sectors. Under the Iraqi constitution, some competencies relevant to the overall investment climate are either shared by the federal government and the regions or are devolved entirely to local governments. Investment in the IKR operates within the framework of the Kurdistan Region Investment Law (Law 4 of 2006) and the Kurdistan Board of Investment, which is designed to provide incentives to help economic development in areas under the authority of the KRG.

Inflation has remained under control since 2006. However, Iraqi leaders remain hard-pressed to translate macroeconomic gains into an improved standard of living for the Iraqi populace. Unemployment remains a problem throughout the country despite a bloated public sector. Overregulation has made it difficult for Iraqi citizens and foreign investors to start new businesses. Corruption and lack of economic reforms – such as restructuring banks and developing the private sector – have inhibited the growth of the private sector.

Iraq GDP (purchasing power parity):

$649.3 billion (2017 est.)

$662.9 billion (2016 est.)

$586.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 34

Iraq GDP (official exchange rate):

$192.4 billion (2017 est.)

Iraq GDP – real growth rate:

-2.1% (2017 est.)

13.1% (2016 est.)

2.5% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Iraq GDP – per capita (PPP):

$16,700 (2017 est.)

$17,500 (2016 est.)

$15,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 107

Iraq Gross national saving:

19% of GDP (2017 est.)

13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

18.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Iraq GDP – composition, by end use:

household consumption: 50.4% (2013 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20.6% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2016 est.)

exports of goods and services: 32.5% (2016 est.)

imports of goods and services: -40.9% (2016 est.)

Iraq GDP – composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 3.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 51% (2017 est.)

services: 45.8% (2017 est.)

Iraq Agriculture – products:

wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry

Iraq Industries:

petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing

Iraq Industrial production growth rate:

0.7% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Iraq Labor force:

8.9 million (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Iraq Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 21.6%

industry: 18.7%

services: 59.8% (2008 est.)

Iraq Unemployment rate:

16% (2012 est.)

15% (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175

Iraq Population below poverty line:

23% (2014 est.)

Iraq Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 25.7% (2007 est.)

Iraq Budget:

revenues: 68.71 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 76.82 billion (2017 est.)

Iraq Taxes and other revenues:

35.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Iraq Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-4.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Iraq Public debt:

59.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

66% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Iraq Fiscal year:

calendar year

Iraq Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.1% (2017 est.)

0.5% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Iraq Central bank discount rate:

6% (2016)

6% (2015)

country comparison to the world: 70

Iraq Commercial bank prime lending rate:

12.7% (31 December 2017 est.)

12.7% (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Iraq Stock of narrow money:

$60.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$59.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Iraq Stock of broad money:

$60.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$59.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Iraq Stock of domestic credit:

$34.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$31.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Iraq Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4 billion (9 December 2011)

$2.6 billion (31 July 2010)

$2 billion (31 July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Iraq Current account balance:

$4.344 billion (2017 est.)

-$13.38 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Iraq Exports:

$61.4 billion (2017 est.)

$41.72 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Iraq Exports – partners:

India 21.2%, China 20.2%, US 15.8%, South Korea 9.4%, Greece 5.3%, Netherlands 4.8%, Italy 4.7% (2017)

Iraq Exports – commodities:

crude oil 99%, crude materials excluding fuels, food, live animals

Iraq Imports:

$39.47 billion (2017 est.)

$19.57 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

Iraq Imports – commodities:

food, medicine, manufactures

Iraq Imports – partners:

Turkey 27.8%, China 25.7%, South Korea 4.7%, Russia 4.3% (2017)

Iraq Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$48.88 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$45.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Iraq Debt – external:

$73.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$64.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Iraq Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:

$26.63 billion (2015 est.)

$23.16 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Iraq Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:

$2.109 billion (2015 est.)

$1.956 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Iraq Iraqi dinars (IQD) per US dollar –

1,184 (2017 est.)

1,182 (2016 est.)

1,182 (2015 est.)

1,167.63 (2014 est.)

1,213.72 (2013 est.)


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index


Iraq Energy Resources

IRAQ

Iraq Electricity access:

electrification – total population: 100% (2016)

Iraq Electricity – production:

75.45 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Iraq Electricity – consumption:

38.46 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Iraq Electricity – exports:

0 kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Iraq Electricity – imports:

11.97 billion kWh (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

Iraq Electricity – installed generating capacity:

27.09 million kW (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Iraq Electricity – from fossil fuels:

91% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Iraq Electricity – from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Iraq Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:

9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Iraq Electricity – from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Iraq Crude oil – production:

4.454 million bbl/day (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Iraq Crude oil – exports:

3.092 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Iraq Crude oil – imports:

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Iraq Crude oil – proved reserves:

148.8 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Iraq Refined petroleum products – production:

398,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Iraq Refined petroleum products – consumption:

826,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Iraq Refined petroleum products – exports:

8,284 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Iraq Refined petroleum products – imports:

255,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

Iraq Natural gas – production:

1.274 billion cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Iraq Natural gas – consumption:

2.633 billion cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Iraq Natural gas – exports:

0 cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Iraq Natural gas – imports:

1.359 billion cu m (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Iraq Natural gas – proved reserves:

3.82 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Iraq Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

117.9 million Mt (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

 

Go to All Country Index


 

Iraq Communications System

IRAQ

Iraq Telephones – fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 2,918,396 (2017 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Iraq Telephones – mobile cellular:

total subscriptions: 33,335,316 (2017 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Iraq Telephone system:

general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications have slowed due to political unrest; 2018 showed signs of stability and installations of new fibre-optic cables and growth in mobile broadband subscribers; the most popular plans are pre-paid

domestic: the mobile cellular market continues to expand; 3G services offered by three major mobile operators; 4G offered by one operator in Iraqi Kurdistan Region; conflict has destroyed infrastructure in areas; 7 per 100 for fixed-line and 85 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions

international: country code – 964; satellite earth stations – 4 (2 Intelsat – 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik – Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; international terrestrial fiber-optic connections have been established with Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Kuwait, Jordan, and Iran; links to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the Gulf Bridge International (GBI) submarine fiber-optic cables have been established

Broadcast media:

the number of private radio and TV stations has increased rapidly since 2003; government-owned TV and radio stations are operated by the publicly funded Iraqi Media Network; private broadcast media are mostly linked to political, ethnic, or religious groups; satellite TV is available to an estimated 70% of viewers and many of the broadcasters are based abroad; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are accessible (2015)

Iraq Internet country code:

.iq

Iraq Internet users:

total: 8,098,401 (July 2016 est.)

percent of population: 21.2% (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52


Data for Educational Purpose Only.

Source: 

The World Factbook 2016-17. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2016.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html


Other Pages Relating to Country Iraq:

Iraq at a Glance and One Page Summary

Iraq Background and Introduction

Iraq Geography

Iraq People and Society

Iraq Government

Iraq Economy

Iraq Energy Resources

Iraq Communications System

Iraq Transportation System

Iraq Military and Security System

Iraq Transnational Issues

Iraq Capital Flag and Currency

Go to All Country Index