Tehri Garhwal District of Uttarakhand at a Glance

Lok Sabha Constituencies in Tehri Garhwal district, Uttarakhand (MP Constituencies) Garhwal
Tehri Garhwal
MLA Assembly Constituencies in Tehri Garhwal district, Uttarakhand Devprayag

About Tehri Garhwal District :

Tehri Garhwal is one of the western most district of the Uttarakhand State located on the outer ranges of the mid Himalayas which comprise low line peaks rising contiguously with the planes of the northern India. The district lies between the parallels of 30.3` and 30.53` north latitude and 77.56` and 79.04` east longitude. Uttarkashi from the north, Rudraprayag from the east, Puri Garhwal from the south and Dehra Dun from the west are bounding the districts. On the western front Yamuna river separates it from Jaunsar Pragana of the Dehra Dun district while Bhagirathi rising from the north of the Gangotri in the district Uttarkashi touches the district near village Nagun. Total area of the district is 4421 sq. kms (Census 1991). The district headquarter is located at New Tehri Town. The places of tourist interests in the districts are Buda Kedar, Devprayag, Khatling Glacier, Narendra Nagar, Sem Mukhem, Chamba, Dhanaulti, Kunjapuri New Tehri, Surkanda Devi, Chandrabadni, Kempty Fall and Nagtibba

District at a Glance :

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Tourist Place :

Buda Kedar :

This temple is situated at the confluence of the Bal Ganga and Dharam Ganga rivers, at a motorable distance of 59 kms. from Tehri. It is believed that Duyodhan offered tarpana here.

According to legends, it is at this temple that the Pandavas encountered Rishi Balkhily at Bhrigu Parvat when they were on the lookout for Shiva after the Kurukshetra battle. The Rishi directed them to the site of the confluence to meet an old manmeditating there. But when the Pandava got there, the old man vanished and instead, a shivling appeared there. Rishi Balkhily instructed the Pandavas to embrace the Shivling in order to free themselves from their sins. Their impressions are stamped on this Shivling – the biggest Shivling in northen India.

Devprayag :

Situated at the confluence of the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi, the town of Devaprayag lies at an altitude of 472 m. on the metalled road running from Rishikesh to Badrinath and about 87 km. from Narendra Nagar. Near the town there are two suspension bridges, one each on the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. The metalled road to Badrinath crosses the former by a third bridge. The town is the headquarters of the tahsil of the same name and is one of the five sacred prayags (confluences) of the Alaknanda. Tradition has it that the town is named after Deosharma, a sage, who led a life of penance here and succeeded in having a glimpse of God.

The great temple of Raghunathji is claimed to have been erected some ten thousand years ago and is built of massive uncemented stones. It stands upon a terrace in the upper part of the town and consists of an irregular pyramid capped by a white cupola with a golden ball and spire. Religious ablutions take place at 2 basins excavated in the rock at the junction of the holy streams – on the Bhagirathi known as the Brahm Kund and the other on the Alaknanda called the Vasisht Kund. The temple, along with the other Buildings of the town, was shattered by an earthquake in 1803 but the damage was subsequently repaired through the munificence of Daulat Rao Sindhia. The temple is visited by a large number of pilgrims every year.

The town is the seat of the pandas of the Badrinath Dham and possesses a post and telegraph office, a public call office, a police out-post, a dak bungalow of the public works department and a hospital.

Besides the temple of Raghunathji, there are in the town Baital Kund,Brahm Kund,Surya Kund and Vasisht Kund; the Indradyumna Tirth,Pushyamal Tirth, Varah Tirth ; Pushpavatika ; Baitalshila and Varahishila ; the shrines of Bhairava, Bhushandi, Durga and Vishveshvara ; and a temple dedicated to Bharata. A bath at Baithalshila is claimed to cure leprosy.

Nearby is the Dasharathachal Peak, containing a rock, known as Dashrathshila, on which Raja Dasharath is said to have led a life of penance.A small stream, the shanta running down from the Dasharathachal, is named after Shanta, the daughter of Raja Dasharath and is considered to be sacred.

Chamba :60 kms. from Mussoorie and 48 kms. from Narendra Nagar on the road to Gangotri. Chamba is a township lying high at an altitude of 1676 mts., offering a splendid view of the snow-capped Himalayas and the serene Bhagirathi valley. Chamba happens to be a focal point, being located at the junction of roads leading from Mussoorie, Rishikesh, Tehri and New Tehri. The Chamba- Mussoorie fruit belt is also famous for its delicious apples. Jal Nigam Rest House, Tourist Rest House, Hotel Akash Deep, Akash Lok, Neelkant, Social Palace & Hotel Classic Hill Top provide comfortable accommodation


Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand at a Glance

Lok Sabha Constituencies in Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand (MP Constituencies) Almora
MLA Assembly Constituencies in Pithoragarh district, Uttarakhand Dharchula

About Pithoragarh District :

Pithoragarh District having its entire northern and eastern boundaries being international, assumes a great strategicsignificance and, obviously, is a politically sensitive district along the northern frontier of India. The Pithoragarh town is located at a height of 1645 meters above sea level.The district lies between 29.4° to 30.3° North latitude and 80° to 81° East longitude along the eastern and southern part of the central Himalayas with Indo-Tibbetan watershed divide in the north and the Kali river forming a continuous border with Nepal in the east. The Pithoragarh district is surrounded by the national boundaries of Almora, Champawat, Bageshwar and Chamoli districts and extends over an area of 7,217.7 sq. kms. The district is administratively divided into 11 Tehsils and 8 Blocks. The places of tourist interests in the districts are Chandak, Thal Kedar, Gangolihat famous for its kali temple, Patal Bhuvneshwar, Berinag Tea Garden of Chaukori, Didihat, Munsyari, Dharchula and Jauljibi.

District at a Glance :

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Tourist Places :

Chandak : Situated 7 Kms away by bus through an uphill climb Chandak constitutes the northern of Soar Valley.The famous temple of Mostamanu is 2 Km. from Chandak. Chandak offers a fascinating view of the Himalayan ranges and the sprawling Soar Valley. It is a potential hang gliding resort and the magnesite mining factory is located too here.

Thal Kedar : Known for its famous temple of Mahadev. 16 Km from Pithoragarh. Jayanti Temple of Dhwaj 21 Km via Totanaula. Cave temple of Kapileshwar. Cave temple at Rai , Ulka Devi Temple, Kailash Ashram Wadda , Hanuman Temple etc.

Gangolihat : An important religious place and rich in folk culture and ancient myths , is situated 77 Km from Pithoragarh . It is particularly well known for the famous Mahakali temple where the Shakti Peeth was installed by Shankaracharya himself. During Navratries a fair is held on the occasion of which devotees offer pujas-along with sacrifices. 2 Km from Gangolihat near the Mankeshwar temple are the ruins of the fort which once belonged to the Mankotis -an obscure dynasty of Kumaon region. 2 Km away is Uprara, the native village of poet ‘Gumani’, the first Kumaoni poet, who also wrote in Hindi, Sanskrit and Nepali with great dexterity and command. 4 Km east from Uprara, near the village of Tamanauli is the Bharbhyo cave.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Gopal Tourist Lodge, Shah Tourist Lodge.

Places of Tourist Attraction : Mahakali Temple , Chamunda Temple ,Mankeshwar Temple ,Cave Temple of Patal Bhuvneshwar.

Berinag : A small township facing the glorious snow clad pieces of Himalayas. Berinag is situated at a distance of 102 Km from Pithoragarh at an elevation of 1720 meters.

Accommodation :Tourist Rest House(Chaukori), P.W.D. Rest House, Hotels Kailash Darshan and Kamal Vihar.

Places of Tourist Attraction : Snake Temples, Tripura Devi Temple, Cave Temple of Koteshwar, Tea Gardens of Chaukori,

Chaukori : Eleven Km away from Berinag, Garaun water falls four Kms to the east of the Berinag, Musk Deer Farm at Kotmanya, Him Darshan Kutir at Dharamghar.

Thal : An important transit station for Mun- syari and Chaukori (Berinag). Thal is 62 Km away from Pithoragarh and is situated on the banks of Ram Ganga.

Places of Tourist Attraction :Ek Hatiya Temple, a monolithic shrine in Amiya village is 2 Km away from the motor road.

Kot Gari Devi : Situated about 9 Kms from Thal the temple of Kotgari is held to be the final divine court of appeal for the deprived and the victim of cruelty and injustice.

Didihat : 55 Kms from Pithoragarh, Didihat is situated at an elevation of 1725 meters.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Tourist Rest House.

Hotels : Anand Hotel, Kumaun Hotel, National Hotel, Sharma Hotel.

Places of Tourist Interest : Seerakot fort cum Temple : 3 Km from Didihat Govt. Sericulture Garden is situated near G.I.C.

Munsyari : Munsyari, the center as well as the gateway of Johar region is

situated 154 Km from Pithoragarh at an elevation of 2298 meters and is snuggled in the folds of snow clad mountains.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Tourist Rest House.

Hotel : Himani Tourist Lodge, Zara Residency.

Places of Tourist Interest :Munsyari is the base station for traks to Millam, Ralam and Namik Glaciers.

Dharchula : Situated at the banks of Kali river at the border of Pithoragarh district, Dharchula is 94 Km from Pithoragarh and is an important camp along the Kailash Mansarovar, Chotta Kailash and Narayan Ashram route.

Accommodation : N.H.P.C. Guest House , P.W.D. Rest House , Tourist Reception Centre and Hotel Yash.

Places of Tourist Attraction

Narayan Ashram : Established by Narayan Swami in 1936 , Narayan Ashram is situated at a distance of 17 Kms from Tawaghat. The Ashram is a spiritual cum socio-educational centre.






Jauljibi : A point of confluence of the river Gori and Kali and of three different cultures, is situated at a distance of 77 Km from Pithoragarh.

During the autumn season Jauljibi pulsates with an important trade fair which is an indication of the cultural and commercial prosperity of the region. Along the Kailash Mansarovar route, from Gunji (3500 m), one can move along the quieter Kali to walk to 10 Km to reach Kalapani (3600 m). There are pine, bhojpatra and juniper forests in this region. Although the river has been coming all the way from Lipulekh pass, the small pool formed under a huge rock is considered to be the source of the Kali. There are snow -clad mountains all around and Vyas’s cave is to be found on the mountain in front of Rishi Vyas that the region is known as Byans. There is also a hot water spring at Kalapani.

Adventure Spots : The department of tourism proposes to create and provide necessary infrastructure, equipments and the allied facilities for adventures sports like:
(a) Hang Gliding, (b) Para Gliding

Gliders can be made available on hire and conveyance to the gliding point and first aid facilities can be provided. Chandak, Munakot and Dwaj have been proposed into gliding points.


JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Organic Chemistry)

Organic Chemistry:

  • Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism;  Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage;  Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
  • Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.
  • Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX (X=halogen) and H2O;  Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.
  • Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of  o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.
  • henols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.
  • Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above):  Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions,  nucleophilic substitution reactions;  Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s  Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition);  Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).
  • Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.
  • Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.
  • Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.
  • Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Inorganic Chemistry)

Inorganic Chemistry:

  • Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.
  • Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;  Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.
  • Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
  • Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.
  • Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.
  • Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide process (silver and gold).
  • Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+,  Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Physical chemistry)

Physical chemistry

  • General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.
  • Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.
  • Atomic structure and chemical bonding:  Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;  Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).
  • Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.
  • Chemical equilibrium:  Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔG° in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions;  Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.
  • Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.
  • Chemical kinetics:  Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
  • Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.
  • Solutions:  Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.
  • Surface chemistry:  Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).
  • Nuclear chemistry:  Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of α, β and γ rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 28


 Principles  Related  to  Practical  Chemistry

  •  Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
  •  Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
  • Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
  • Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
  •  Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+.
  • Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO4 2-, NO2-, NO3-, CI -, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded).
  •  Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:

1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4

2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.

3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.

4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 27


 Chemistry  in  Everyday  Life

Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples.

Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples.

Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 26



General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

CARBOHYDRATES – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).

PROTEINS – Elementary Idea of ı – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides;

Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

VITAMINS – Classification and functions.

NUCLEIC ACIDS – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.

Biological functions of nucleic acids.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 25



General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization;

Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 24


 Organic  Compounds  Containing  Nitrogen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.

Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 23


Organic  Compounds  Containing  Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.


Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.

Ethers: Structure.

Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),

Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of ı – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.


Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 21



Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane);

Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.

Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.

Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.

Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity;

Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit – 20


 Some  Basic  Principles  of  Organic  Chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p);

Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – Ch C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur;

Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.

Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)

Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -19


 Purification and Characterisation of  Organic  Compounds

  • Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications.
  • Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
  • Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
  • Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -18


 Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.
  • Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric
  • Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
  • Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
  • Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
  • Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
  • Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
  • Strategies to control environmental pollution.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -17


Co-Ordination Compounds

  • Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -16


 d – and f – Block Elements

  • Transition Elements
  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.
  • Inner Transition Elements
  • Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
  • Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -15


 P – Block Elements

  • Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements

General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.

Groupwise study of the p – block elements

  • Group – 13

Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

  • Group – 14

Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.

  • Group – 15

Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.

  • Group – 16

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

  • Group – 17

Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

  • Group –18

Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

JEE Main 2014 Syllabus Chemistry Unit -14


 S – Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group – 1 and 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

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