|Lok Sabha Constituencies in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh (MP Constituencies)||Bansgaon
Sant Kabir Nagar
|MLA Assembly Constituencies in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh||Bansgaon
About Gorakhpur District :
The present district of Gorakhpur, 265 Kms east of capital Lucknow, on National Highway -28 lies between Latitude 26° 46´ N and Longitude 83° 22´ E, covers the geographical area of 3483.8 Sq. km. It is bounded by districts Mahrajganj in the north, Ambedkar Nagar, Azamgarh and Mau in the south, Kushinagar and Deoria in the east and Sant Kabirnagar in the west
Gorakhpur is the headquarters of Gorakhpur Division and District. Gorakhpur division comprises of four districts, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Mahrajganj and Kushinagar.
As a basic administration unit the district, has assumed a greater development and regulatory role consequent to emphasis on decentralised planning. It is divided into seven Tehsils ( Revenue Sub- Divisions) presided over by a Sub Divisional Magistrate. Tehsils are further subdivided into nineteen Development Blocks, Blocks into 191 Nyay Panchayat and these Nyay Panchayats into 1233 Gram Sabhas which consists of 3319 Revenue villages
At a Glance :
|Total Area||3483.8 Sq. Km.|
|Main Rivers||Rapti(134 Km.) and Ghaghra(77 Km.)|
|Main Lake||Ramgarh Tal|
|Main Road||National Highway- 28|
|Main Crops||Paddy, wheat, Pulses and Sugarcane|
|Main Industries||Sugar Mills, Handloom & Textiles|
|Main Language||Hindi and Bhojpuri|
|Main Fair||Khicheri Mela(14th Jan.), Syed Salaar Mela, Tarkulha Mela(Chaitra Ram Navami)|
|Handicrafts||Terracota ( Of National & International fame)|
|News Paper Publications||Dainik Jagran, Aaj, Rashtriya Sahara, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times and Swatantra Chetna|
|Tourist Places||Chauri Chaura, Kushinagar, Kapilvastu, Lumbini|
|Tourist Information||U.P. Tourism Information Counter, Railway Station|
|Regional Tourism Office, Gorakhpur|
|Temples||Gorakhnath Temple, Geeta Vatika, Vishnu Mandir|
|Government Hospitals||Telephone Nos.|
|Medical College, Gorakhpur||2311434,2310817|
|Civil Hospital, Gorakhpur||2336622,2332203|
|Railway Hospital, Gorakhpur|
|Private Hospitals||Telephone Nos.|
|Hanuman Prasad Poddar Cancer Hospital|
|Kushth Sewa Ashram|
|M.M. Nursing Home||2203215|
|Saraf Nursing Home||2339498|
|Sitapur Eye Hospital|
|NavJyoti Eye Hospital||2336110|
|Gulati Nursing Home||2333150|
|Agrawal Orthopaedic Hospital||2333102|
|Life Line Nursing Home||2310852|
|Guru Gorakshnath Hospital|
|Raj Eye Hospital||2292340|
Tourist Places :
|Gorakhnath temple is 4 Kms. from Gorakhpur Railway Station on Nepal Road dedicated to great yogi Gorakhnath. It is one of the most prominent and magnificent temples of this area. A month-long ‘Makar Sankranti Mela’ is held every year commencing on 14th of january. Several Lakhsof pilgrims and tourists visit the temple especially during the Mela.|
|The famous temple associated with a large statue of Lord Vishnu, made of Kasauti (Black) stone, belongs to the Pal dynasty of 12th Century A.D. Ram lila is organised here on the Dusshera festival. The procession is so grand that it fetches the tourist to visit in the season.|
|Geeta Vatika is situated on Pipraich road, 3 km. from Railway station., is probably the only place where non-stop 24 hours prayers are offered for goddess ‘RADHA’ the divine love of Lord Krishna. Grand temple of lord Radha – Krishna is the centre of attraction.
|Established by Late Bitthal Das Modi in 1940, it is being visited for Naturopathy. The patients are given natural treatment.
Beautiful building and its green lustre premises are also worth seeing.
|Gita Press is 4 km. from Railway Station on Reti Chowk. All 18 parts of “SHREE MAHABHAGWAT GITA” is written on marble – walls. Other wall hangings and paintings reveal the events of life of Lord Rama & Krishna. All sorts of Hindu religious books and handloom-textiles are sold here on subsidised rates.|
|Built by Hajrat saint Roshan Ali Shah in 1717 AD. It is famous for gold and silver Tajia. A DHUNI (smoke fire) is maintained continuously after sufi Saint death.|
|Ramgarh Tal is a huge and natural lake spread in 1700 acres. Its beauty is attributed with Tara Mandal at its southern bank. Other attractions of this place are Water Sports Complex, Buddha Museum, Planetarium, Tourist Bunglow, Champa Vihar Park and Circuit House.|
1. What are the courses offered by Manipal University?
Manipal University is offering courses in Allied Health Sciences, Applied Sciences, Architecture, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Biotechnology, Commerce, Dentistry, Engineering, European Studies, Geopolitics, Hotel Management, Humanities, Information Sciences, Jewellery Design & Management, Life Sciences, Management, Media and Communication, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Public Health, Social Work and Statistics.
2. Are the courses offered by the Manipal University recognised?
Manipal University is established under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956 vide notification #F9-8/89-U.3 dated 1/6/1993 of the Government of India. All the courses offered by Manipal University are in conformity to the guidelines laid down by UGC. All professional courses are recognised by respective councils like MCI, DCI, AICTE, INC, PCI etc.
3. What are the minimum requirements for applying to a suitable course in Manipal University?
Eligibility requirements differ from course to course.
4. Are marks of the qualifying exams are considered for admission?
All admissions are strictly on merit. Admissions to some courses are based on merit in the all India entrance test and some courses, on merit in the qualifying examination.
5. Can I apply to Manipal University before getting the result of qualifying exams?
Yes, the marks card of the final qualifying examination must be submitted on or before the last date for courses where the admissions are on the basis of marks. For all other courses, the proof of having passed the qualifying examination with requisite marks is to be submitted at the time of counselling/ admission.
6. Can I get admission based on entrance test alone?
Depending on the admission criteria, the admissions will be based on merit in the entrance test or marks in the qualifying examination. However, all candidates must fulfill the minimum eligibility requirements.
7. Can I obtain my application by post?
Yes, by sending DD for the required amount.
8. Can I apply after the last date for submitting the application?
No application will be entertained after the last date for submission.
9. Do I need to come down to Manipal to receive / submit the application form?
No, the application can be obtained by post/ banks and can be submitted through post. You can also apply online.
10. Where can I get the prospectus and application forms?
The application material can be obtained from the Director, Admissions, Manipal University. The application material is also available online and also sold through various branches of State Bank of India.
11. If I have to apply for more than one course, should I get that many application forms?
Courses are combined under different groups. Only one application is sufficient for courses under the same group. Separate applications are required for courses under different groups.
12. When will be the result of entrance test and how will I come to know?
The results will be announced in our website. Candidates can also find out their results by calling the admission office telephone numbers.
13. Will the result displayed on the website?
Yes, the results will be announced in our website.
14. Will I get hostel / hotel accommodation?
Candidates coming for counselling and admission must make their own arrangements for stay. There are plenty of hotels available in Manipal and Udupi. Candidates can log into www.udupipages.com for more details. Almost all candidates admitted are accommodated in Hostels.
15. Can I depute someone as a nominee for counselling if I am not able to travel/ come down?
Yes, the authorised representative must carry the proper authorisation, fees and all the original documents required for admission.
16. Should I need to pay the admission / tuition fee at the time of counselling / admission?
Yes, the fee is to be paid on the day of counselling/admission.
17. Is there any facility for payment of fees in installments?
No, the entire first year fees is to be paid on the day of counselling/admission and subsequent fees on the dates to be notified.
18. Is there a capitation fee?
No, candidates need to pay only the fees mentioned in the prospectus.
19. Is there any agent who can help me in getting admission to Manipal University?
No, we don’t have any agents or middlemen for admissions.
20. Is there any management / reservation/ donation quota?
All admissions are strictly on merit and we don’t have management quota, reserved/ donation seats or payment seats of any kind.
21. Is there any good hostel facility with attached dinning?
Yes, all hostels have mess facility.
22. Will I get hostel allotment at the time of admission?
Yes, all admitted candidates will be accommodated in the hostels.
23. Is there any extracurricular activities avenues promoted / facility available at Manipal University where I can improve upon my skills?
There are plenty of facilities and promoted avenues for the overall personality development.
24. In whose favour should the application/entrance test demand draft (DD) be made, where should it be drawn and in which bank should it be made?
DD should be made in favour of ‘Manipal University’ payable at Manipal or Udupi. DD can be made from any nationalised banks.
25. Can I get model/previous year question paper?
No, Manipal University will not provide any model or previous year question paper.
26. What is a computer based online entrance test, what basic knowledge is required to answer this test?
In the Online Entrance Test, the candidate sits in front of the computer and the questions appear on the monitor and the candidate submits his answers through use of a key board or mouse. Online Entrance Tests assume the candidate has basic familiarity with use of computers like use of keyboard and mouse operation. It is the responsibility of the candidate to acquire these skills before appearing in the test and the University cannot take responsibility for the same.
27. Can I take back the original documents?
The original documents cannot be given back. The University will retain these documents till the completion of the course. Acknowledgement for the original documents will be given.
28. Who can apply under/ for NRI quota?
Foreign nationals or Non Resident Indians or Indian nationals supported by either parents or brother or sister or spouse having NRI status can apply under the Foreign/ NRI category.
29. Can I choose my preferred test centre?
Yes, you can select the preferred test centre and schedule through Online Test Booking System.
30. What about placement after completion of course?
Manipal University has an excellent placement cell.
31. Can I get syllabus for Manipal University Online Entrance Test?
Yes, candidates can download the syllabus from our website. CLICK HERE for details.
32. What account should the NRI sponsor hold?
Savings A/C or Current A/C or Checking A/C or Personal A/C or Non Residential External A/C or Joint Checking A/C or Interest Checking A/C or FCNR A/C or Super Savers A/C or ADCB Current A/C or Private A/C or NRI A/C or Business Economy Checking A/C or Premium Savings A/C or Salary A/C or Circle Checking or Step A/C or Progress Saver A/C.
33. How should the NRI candidate transfer the money?
Candidates are required to remit the fees in US Dollars by Demand Draft or WIRE transfer.
34. Who will be the eligible sponsorer for the NRI candidates?
Father, Mother, Brother, Sister, Spouse are eligible sponsorer.
35. With whom the notary affidavit is to be notarized?
Notary Affidavit is to be notarized either by the embassy of India abroad or notary public abroad.
36. What is the Manipal University fee code to be mentioned in the challan?
“A” is the fee code of Manipal University.
37. Do we receive a laptop for all the courses offered in Manipal University?
Laptops will be given to all students admitted to MBBS, BDS, BTech, BTech (LATERAL), BArch and MBA courses.
38. Do you offer a PhD degree?
Yes, Manipal University offers PhD courses.
39. Is the mess fee included in the hostel fees?
No, the mess charges will be collected annually along with hostel facilities fees & utility charges.
40. Are Hostels compulsory for the first year students?
Yes, it is mandatory for all the first year students to stay in the hostels. In exceptional cases, permission may be granted by the Dean/ Director to stay out before joining the hostel.
41. Is there any negative marking in Manipal University Online Entrance Test?
There is no negative marking for wrong answers other than the MTech courses.
42. In whose favour should the hostel mess DD drawn?
MAHE HOSTELS made payable at Manipal/ Udupi for Manipal University hostels.
MAHE HOSTELS made payable at Mangalore for Mangalore hostels.
MIT HOSTELS made payable at Manipal/ Udupi for MIT hostels.
WGSHA made payable at Manipal/ Udupi for WGSHA hostels.
STEMPEUTICS RESEARCH PVT. LTD. made payable at Bangalore for MIRM hostels.
43. Where can I avail for a loan facility?
A loan facility can be availed from respective bank branches. There is no loan facility offered by Manipal University.
44. What is a merit-cum-means scholarship?
Candidates admitted to MBBS course within the first 500 ranks and BDS, BPharm, BTech courses within the first 1000 ranks of the respective merit list are offered this merit-cum-means scholarship. Scholarship amount shall be determined based on the parents’ annual income from all sources.
51. Do all the students within the rank 500/1000 for MBBS/ BDS/ BPharm/ BTech course get full scholarship?
No, scholarships are limited.
45. If a candidate has secured a rank within the 500 in MUOET for MBBS, will he/ she get the scholarship and should he/ she make any payment during counselling?
Candidate is required to bring the DD for full amount. The chances of getting scholarship will be known at the time of counselling. This is due to limited scholarships.
46. My counselling in my home town & the counselling conducted in Manipal university are supposed to be on same day. Can I attend the counselling with the photocopies of my marks card?
Yes, along with this you are required to bring the proof of the counselling you are attending.
47. I have submitted my original documents in the other counselling. What can be done so that i can attend the counselling in Manipal University?
You are required to produce the acknowledgement for the deposition of original documents at other institution.
48. Do you offer a distance education programme?
Manipal University does not offer a distance education programme. Our group Institutions offers distance education programmes visit http://www.smude.edu.in .
49. Are the classes for the students who have applied under General and NRI categories conducted together?
Yes, classes for both the categories will be conducted together.
50. Printout of E-hall ticket should be in colour or black & white?
The hall ticket can be printed either in colour or black & white.
51. Is there any dress code?
Yes, Students should strictly follow the dress code inside the campus.
52. Do we require printing the E- hall ticket information on single page?
Yes, the e-Hall ticket should be printed on A4 size paper only
53. Can I apply both under Foreign/ NRI & General categories together?
Candidates can apply both under General and Foreign/ NRI category for undergraduate courses. Applicants of postgraduate courses do not have the option of applying under both the categories.
54. Are the hostel charges included in the tuition fee?
No, the hostel fee is mentioned separately.
55. Is it necessary for the parents to accompany children during counselling?
No, it is not mandatory for parents to attend the counselling.
- The test duration is of 2.30 hours and consists of 200 multiple choice questions (MCQ) of the objective type.
- The approximate distribution of questions is as follows:
- Physics – 50 questions,
- Chemistry – 50 questions,
- Mathematics – 70 questions,
- English & General Aptitude – 30 questions.
The test papers in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and General English includes questions based on the 10+2 syllabus followed by major 10+2 Boards/Universities.
General English : (Broadly, this paper includes questions on general English like spotting of errors, sentence improvement, vocabulary etc.)
MATHEMATICS – I
Rational functions, proper and improper fractions, reduction of improper fractions as a sum of a polynomial and a proper fraction.
Rules of resolving a rational function into partial fractions in which denominator contains
(i) Linear distinct factors, (ii) Linear repeated factors, (iii) Non repeated non factorizable quadratic factors [problems limited to evaluation of three constants].
(i) Definition Of logarithm
(ii) Indices leading to logarithms and vice versa
(iii) Laws with proofs:
(a) logam+logan = loga(mn)
(b) logam – logan = loga(m/n)
(c) logamn = nlogam
(d) log b m = logam/logab (change of base rule)
(iv) Common Logarithm: Characteristic and mantissa; use of logarithmic tables,problems theorem
(i) Recapitulation of the nth terms of an AP and a GP which are required to find the general term of the series
(ii) Principle of mathematical Induction proofs of
a. ∑n =n(n+1)/2
c. ∑n3 = n2 (n+1)2/4
By mathematical induction
Sample problems on mathematical induction
SUMMATION OF FINITE SERIES
(i) Summation of series using ∑n, ∑n2, ∑n3
(ii) Arithmetico-Geometric series
(iii) Method of differences (when differences of successive terms are in AP)
(iv) By partial fractions
THEORY OF EQUATIONS
(i) FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA: An nth degree equation has n roots(without proof)
(ii) Solution of the equation x2 +1=0.Introducing square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of unity
(iii) Cubic and biquadratic equations, relations between the roots and the co-efficients. Solutions of cubic and biquadratic equations given certain conditions
(iv) Concept of synthetic division (without proof) and problems. Solution of equations by finding an integral root between – 3 and +3 by inspection and then using synthetic division.
Irrational and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs (without proof). Problems based on this result in solving cubic and biquadratic equations.
Permutation and Combinations:
Recapitulation of nPr and nCr and proofs of
(i) general formulae for nPr and nCr
(ii) nCr = nCn-r
(iii) nCr-1 + n C r = n+1 C r
(1) Statement and proof of the Binomial theorem for a positive integral index by induction. Problems to find the middle term(s), terms independent of x and term containing a definite power of x.
(2) Binomial co-efficient – Proofs of
(a) C 0 + C 1 + C 2 + …………………..+ C n = 2 n
(b) C 0 + C 2 + C 4 + …………………..= C 1+ C 3 + C 5 + ………2 n – 1
Proposition and truth values, connectives, their truth tables, inverse, converse, contrapositive of a proposition, Tautology and contradiction, Logical Equivalence – standard theorems, Examples from switching circuits, Truth tables, problems.
Recapitulation of polyhedra and networks
(i) Definition of a graph and related terms like vertices, degree of a vertex, odd vertex, even vertex, edges, loop, multiple edges, u-v walk, trivial walk, closed walk, trail, path, closed path, cycle, even and odd cycles, cut vertex and bridges.
(ii) Types of graphs: Finite graph, multiple graph, simple graph, (p,q) graph, null graph, complete graph, bipartite graph, complete graph, regular graph, complete graph, self complementary graph, subgraph, supergraph, connected graph, Eulerian graph and trees.
(iii) The following theorems: p
(1) In a graph with p vertices and q edges ∑deg n i = 2 q
(2) In any graph the number of vertices of odd degree is even.
(iv) Definition of connected graph, Eulerian graphs and trees – simple probles.
1. Co-ordinate system
(i) Rectangular co-ordinate system in a plane (Cartesian)
(ii) Distance formula, section formula and mid-point formula, centroild of a triangle, area of a triangle – derivations and problems.
(iii) Locus of a point. Problems.
2 .Straight line
(i)Straight line: Slope m = (tanθ) of a line, where θ is the angle made by the line with the positive x-axis, slope of the line joining any two points, general equation of a line – derivation and problems.
(ii) Conditions for two lines to be (i) parallel, (ii) perpendicular. Problems.
(iii) Different forms of the equation of a straight line: (a) slope – point form (b) slope intercept form (c) two points form(d) intercept form and (e) normal form – derivation; Problems.
(iv) Angle between two lines point of intersection of two lines condition for concurrency of three lines. Length of the perpendicular from the origin and from any point to a line. Equations of the internal and external bisectors of the angle between two lines- Derivations and Problems.
3. Pair of straight lines
(i) Pair of lines, homogenous equations of second degree. General equation of second degree. Derivation of (1) condition for pair of lines (2) conditions for pair of parallel lines, perpendicular lines and distance between the pair of parallel lines.(3) Condition for pair of co-incidence lines and (4) Angle and point of intersection of a pair of lines.
LIMITS AND CONTINUTY
(1) Limit of a function – definition and algebra of limits.
(2) Standarad limits (with proofs)
(i) Lim x n – a n/x – a= na n-1 (n rational) x→a
(ii) Lim sin θ / θ = 1 (θ in radian) and Lim tan θ / θ = 1 (θ in radian)
θ→0 θ →0
(3) Statement of limits (without proofs):
(i) Lim (1 + 1/n) n = e (ii) Lim (1 + x/n) n = ex
n→ ∞ n→∞
(iii) Lim (1 + x)1/x = e (iv) Lim log(1+x)/x = 1
v) Lim (e x – 1)/x= 1 vi) Lim (a x – 1)/x = logea
Problems on limits
(4) Evaluation of limits which tale the form Lim f(x)/g(x)[0/0 form]’ Lim f(n)/g(n)
x→0 x→∞ [∞ /∞ form] where degree of f(n) ≤ degree of g(n). Problems.
(5) Continuity: Definitions of left- hand and right-hand limits and continuity. Problems.
Measurement of Angles and Trigonometric Functions
Radian measure – definition, Proofs of:
(i) radian is constant
(ii) p radians = 1800
(iii) s = rθ where θ is in radians
(iv) Area of the sector of a circle is given by A = ½ r2θ where θ is in radians. Problems
Trigonometric functions – definition, trigonometric ratios of an acute angle, Trigonometric identities (with proofs) – Problems.Trigonometric functions of standard angles. Problems. Heights and distances – angle of elevation, angle of depression, Problems. Trigonometric functions of allied angles, compound angles, multiple angles, submultiple angles and Transformation formulae (with proofs). Problems. Graphs of sinx, cosx and tanx.
Relations between sides and angles of a triangle
Sine rule, Cosine rule, Tangent rule, Half-angle formulae, Area of a triangle, projection rule (with proofs). Problems. Solution of triangles given (i) three sides, (ii) two sides and the included angle, (iii) two angles and a side, (iv) two sides and the angle opposite to one of these sides. Problems.
MATHEMATICS – II
ELEMENTS OF NUMBER THEORY
(i) Divisibility – Definition and properties of divisibility; statement of division algorithm.
(ii) Greatest common divisor (GCD) of any two integers using Eucli’s algorithm to find the GCD of any two integers. To express the GCD of two integers a and b as ax + by for integers x and y. Problems.
(iii) Relatively prime numbers, prime numbers and composite numbers, the number of positive divisors of a number and sum of all positive division of a number – statements of the formulae without proofs. Problems.
(iv) Proofs of the following properties:
(1) the smallest divisor (>1) of an integer (>1) is a prime number
(2) there are infinitely many primes
(3) if c and a are relatively prime and c| ab then c|b
(4) if p is prime and p|ab then p|a or p|b
(5) if there exist integers x and y such that ax+by=1 then (a,b)=1
(6) if (a,b)=1, (a,c)=1 then (a,bc)=1
(7) if p is prime and a is any ineger then either (p,a)=1 or p|a
(8) the smallest positive divisor of a composite number a does not exceed √a
Congruence modulo m – definition, proofs of the following properties:
(1) ≡mod m” is an equivalence relation
(2) a ≡ b (mod m) => a ± x ≡ b ± x (mod m) and ax ≡ bx (mod m)
(3) If c is relatively prime to m and ca ≡ cb (mod m) then a ≡ b (mod m) – cancellation law
(4) If a ≡ b (mod m) – and n is a positive divisor of m then a ≡ b (mod n)
(5) a ≡ b (mod m) => a and b leave the same remainder when divided by m
Conditions for the existence of the solution of linear congruence ax ≡ b (mod m) (statement only), Problems on finding the solution of ax ≡ b (mod m)
Groups – (i) Binary operation, Algebraic structures. Definition of semigroup, group, Abelian group – examples from real and complex numbers, Finite and infinite groups, order of a group, composition tables, Modular systems, modular groups, group of matrices – problems.
(ii) Square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of unity from abelian groups w.r.t. multiplication (with proof).
(iii) Proofs of the following properties:
(i) Identity of a group is unique
(ii)The inverse of an element of a group is unique
(iii) (a-1)-1 = a, ” a Є G where G is a group
(iv)(a*b)-1 = b-1*a-1 in a group
(v)Left and right cancellation laws
(vi)Solutions of a* x = b and y* a = b exist and are unique in a group
(vii)Subgroups, proofs of necessary and sufficient conditions for a subgroup.
(a) A non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G iff (i) ” a, b Є H, a*b Є H and (ii) For each a Є H,a-1Є H (b) A non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G iff a, b Є H, a * b-1 Є H. Problems.
(i) Definition of vector as a directed line segment, magnitude and direction of a vector, equal vectors, unit vector, position vector of point, problems.
(ii) Two-and three-dimensional vectors as ordered pairs and ordered triplets respectively of real numbers, components of a vector, addition, substraction, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, problems.
(iii) Position vector of the point dividing a given line segment in a given ratio.
(iv) Scalar (dot) product and vector (cross) product of two vectors.
(v) Section formula, Mid-point formula and centroid.
(vi) Direction cosines, direction ratios, proof of cos2 α + cos2β +cos2γ = 1 and problems.
(vii) Application of dot and cross products to the area of a parallelogram, area of a triangle, orthogonal vectors and projection of one vector on another vector, problems.
(viii) Scalar triple product, vector triple product, volume of a parallelepiped; conditions for the coplanarity of 3 vectors and coplanarity of 4 points.
(ix) Proofs of the following results by the vector method:
(a) diagonals of parallelogram bisect each other
(b) angle in a semicircle is a right angle
(c) medians of a triangle are concurrent; problems
(d) sine, cosine and projection rules
(e) proofs of 1. sin(A±B) = sinAcosB±cosAsinB
2. cos(A±B) = cosAcosB μ sinAsinB
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
(i) Recapitulation of types of matrices; problems
(ii) Determinant of square matrix, defined as mappings ∆: M (2,R) → R and ∆ :M(3,R)→ R. Properties of determinants including ∆(AB)=∆(A) ∆(B), Problems.
(iii) Minor and cofactor of an element of a square matrix, adjoint, singular and non-singular matrices, inverse of a matrix,. Proof of A(Adj A) = (Adj A)A = |A| I and hence the formula for A-1. Problems.
(iv) Solution of a system of linear equations in two and three variables by (1) Matrix method, (2) Cramer’s rule. Problelms.
(v) Characteristic equation and characteristic roots of a square matrix. Cayley-Hamilton therorem |statement only|. Verification of Cayley-Hamilton theorem for square matrices of order 2 only. Finding A-1 by Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Problems.
(i) Definition, equation of a circle with centre (0,0) and radius r and with centre (h,k) and radius r. Equation of a circle with (x1 ,y1) and (x2,y2) as the ends of a diameter, general equation of a circle, its centre and radius – derivations of all these, problems.
(ii) Equation of the tangent to a circle – derivation; problems. Condition for a line y=mx+c to be the tangent to the circle x2+y2 = r2 – derivation, point of contact and problems.
(iii) Length of the tangent from an external point to a circle – derivation, problems
(iv) Power of a point, radical axis of two circles, Condition for a point to be inside or outside or on a circle – derivation and problems. Poof of the result “the radical axis of two circles is straight line perpendicular to the line joining their centres”. Problems.
(v) Radical centre of a system of three circles – derivation, Problems.
(vi) Orthogonal circles – derivation of the condition. Problems
CONIC SECTIONS (ANANLYTICAL GEOMETRY)
Definition of a conic
Equation of parabola using the focus directrix property (standard equation of parabola) in the form y2 = 4 ax ; other forms of parabola (without derivation), equation of parabola in the parametric form; the latus rectum, ends and length of latus rectum. Equation of the tangent and normal to the parabola y2 = 4 ax at a point (both in the Cartesian form and the parametric form) (1) derivation of the condition for the line y=mx+c to be a tangent to the parabola, y2 = 4 ax and the point of contact. (2) The tangents drawn at the ends of a focal chord of a parabola intersect at right angles on the directix – derivation, problems.
Equation of ellipse using focus, directrix and eccentricity – standard equation of ellipse in the form x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1(a>b) and other forms of ellipse (without derivations). Equation of ellips in the parametric form and auxillary circle. Latus rectum: ends and the length of latus rectum. Equation of the tangent and the normal to the ellipse at a point (both in the cartesian form and the parametric form)
Derivations of the following:
(1) Condition for the line y=mx+c to be a tangrent to the ellipsex2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 at (x1,y1) and finding the point of contact
(2) Sum of the focal distances of any point on the ellipse is equal to the major axis
(3) The locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to an ellipse is a circle (director circle)
Equation of hyperbola using focus, directrix and eccentricity – standard equation hyperbola in the form x2/a2 -y2/b2 = 1 Conjugate hyperbola x2/a2 -y2/b2 = -1 and other forms of hyperbola (without derivations). Equation of hyperbola in the parametric form and auxiliary circle. The latus rectum; ends and the length of latus rectum. Equations of the tangent and the normal to the hyperbola x2/a2 -y2/b2 = 1 at a point (both in the Cartesian from and the parametric form). Derivations of the following results:
(1) Condition for the line y=mx+c to be tangent to the hyperbola x2/a2 -y2/b2 = 1 and the point of contact.
(2) Differnce of the focal distances of any point on a hyperbola is equal to its transverse axis.
(3) The locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to a hyperbola is a circle (director circle)
(4) Asymptotes of the hyperbola x2/a2 -y2/b2 = 1
(5) Rectangular hyperbola
(6) If e1 and e2 are eccentricities of a hyperbola and its conjugate then 1/e12+1/e22=1
(i) Definition of a complex number as an ordered pair, real and imaginary parts, modulus and amplitude of a complex number, equality of complex numbers, algebra of complex numbers, polar form of a complex number. Argand diagram, Exponential form of a complex number. Problems.
(ii) De Moivre’s theorem – statement and proof, method of finding square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of a complex number and their representation in the Argand diagram. Problems.
(i) Differentiability, derivative of function from first principles, Derivatives of sum and difference of functions, product of a constant and a function, constant, product of two functions, quotient of two functions from first principles. Derivatives of Xn , e x, a x, sinx, cosx, tanx, cosecx, secx, cotx, logx from first principles, problems.
(ii) Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions.
(iii) Differentiation of composite functions – chain rule, problems.
(iv) Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions by substitution, problems.
(v) Differentiation of implicit functions, parametric functions, a function w.r.t another function, logarithmic differentiation, problems.
(vi) Successive differentiation – problems upto second derivatives.
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES
(i) Geometrical meaning of dy\dx, equations of tangent and normal, angle between two curves. Problems.
(ii) Subtangent and subnormal. Problems.
(iii) Derivative as the rate measurer. Problems.
(iv) Maxima and minima of a function of a single variable – second derivative test. Problems.
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
(i) Definition of inverse trigonometric functions, their domain and range. Derivations of standard formulae. Problems.
(ii) Solutions of inverse trigonometric equations. Problems.
GENERAL SOLUTIONS OF TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
General solutions of sinx = k, cosx=k, (-1≤ k ≤1), tanx = k, acosx+bsinx= c – derivations. Problems.
(i) Statement of the fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). Integration as the reverse process of differentiation. Standarad formulae. Methods of integration, (1) substitution, (2) partial fractions, (3) integration by parts. Problems.
(4) Problems on integrals of:
1/(a+bcosx); 1/(a+bsinx); 1/(acosx+bsinx+c); 1/asin2x+bcos2x+c; [f(x)]n f ‘ (x);
f'(x)/ f(x); 1/√(a2 – x2 ) ; 1/√( x2 – a2); 1/√( a2 + x2); 1/x √( x2± a2 ) ; 1/ (x2 – a2);
√( a2 ± x2); √( x2- a2 ); px+q/(ax2+bx+c; px+q/√(ax2+bx+c); pcosx+qsinx/(acosx+bsinx); ex[f(x) +f1 (x)]
(i) Evaluation of definite integrals, properties of definite integrals, problems.
(ii) Application of definite integrals – Area under a curve, area enclosed between two curves using definite integrals, standard areas like those of circle, ellipse. Problems.
Definitions of order and degree of a differential equation, Formation of a first order differential equation, Problems. Solution of first order differential equations by the method of separation of variables, equations reducible to the variable separable form. General solution and particular solution. Problems.
BIOLOGY – I
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Biosystematics: Introduction – a) Need, history and types of classification (Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic) b) Species concept, Binomial nomenclature with examples, Rules and advantages of binomial nomenclature. Linnaean hierarchy – Kingdom to species with examples (Cocos nucifera and Homo sapiens). The five – kingdom system of classification in detail – General characters of kingdoms Monera, Protista, Mycota, Metaphyta and Metazoa.
Cell Biology: Cell structure: Structure and functions of cell components – cell wall, plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model), endoplasmic reticulum, plastids (brief), mitochondria (brief), Golgi complex, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Centrosome, vacuole and nucleus – nuclear envelope (nuclear pores and nuclear lamina) nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromatin. A brief account of ergastic substances (mention about reserve food, secretory and excretory substances with examples). Differences between plant cell and animal cell.
Chromosomes: Discovery, shape, size and number of chromosomes, Autosomes and allosomes; Karyotype and idiogram. Chemical composition and function. General structure – Concept of centromere (primary constriction), secondary constriction, satellite, kinetochore, telomere. Types of chromosomes based on the position of centromere. Ultrastructural organization of the eukaryotic chromosome – nucleosome model. Numerical aspects of chromosomes: A brief note on aneuploidy (monosomy and trisomy) and euploidy (haploidy, diploidy and polyploidy).
Cell Reproduction: Cell division and types. Concept of cell cycle. Mitotic division and significance.
Meiotic division and its significance. Cancer – meaning of cancer, benign and malignant tumours, characters of cancer cells, types of cancer (Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Lymphoma and Leukemia), causes of cancer (physical, chemical and biological carcinogens with examples). Concept of cell senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell death).
Diversity of life on earth: Kingdom Monera and other simple living forms – Prions and Viroids: Concept of prions and viroids – definition, discovery, chemical nature with one example of disease each – Creutzfeldt – Jacob disease (CJD) and Potato spindle tuber disease (PSTV).
Viruses: Introduction – living and non-living properties of viruses. Types of viruses – Plant viruses, Animal viruses, Bacterial viruses, DNA viruses and RNA viruses (Only definitions with examples to include the following – Viral disease in plants – Tobacco Mosaic, Cauliflower Mosaic, Potato Mottle, Leaf Mosaic of tomato and Banana Bunchy Top; viral diseases in animals-Rabies, Dog distemper, Viral diseases in man-Japanese Encephalitis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis-B, Herpes, AIDS and Conjunctivitis). Structure of T4 Bacteriophage, multiplication of T4 phage (Lytic cycle only).
Bacteria: Introduction. Classification of bacteria based on mode of nutrition (Heterotrophic bacteria – parasitic, saprophytic and sumbiotic – and Autotrophic bacteria – photosynthetic and chemosynthetic; definition and one example for each group). Ultrastrucutre of the bacterial cell. Reproduction in bacteria – asexual reproduction by binary fission, endospore formation and sexual mechanism (genetic recombination in bacteria – transduction, transformation and conjugation with details of HFR conjugation only). Importance of bacteria (i) Beneficial aspects – Scavenging, Fermentation, Retting, Antibiotics, Ecological importance, Importance in Genetic engineering and Importance in mineral extraction. (ii) Harmful aspects (iii) Food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacterial diseases – Brief and introductory information on the following diseases: Cirtus canker, Anthrax, Cholera, Gastric ulcer, Tuberculosis and Syphilis (details of treatment are not required). (iv) A brief introduction on Archaea and their importance.
Cyanobacteria: Introudction. Structure and reproduction of Nostoc. Differences between bacteria and Cyanobacteria. Importance of Cyanobacteria.
Kingdom Protista: General characters. Mentioning the following divisions with suitable examples –
Chrysophyta (Diatoms), Euglenophyta (Euglena) and Protozoa. Taxonomic position of Algae with reference to the five-kingdom classification choosing the following examples: Desmids (typical members of Protista) and Spirogyra (A member of metaphyta) are both included in division Chlorophyta (Green Algae).Importance of Algae (in brief).
Kingdom Mycota: The Fungi: General characters of Fungi. Mentioning divisions with suitable examples. Zygomycota – Rhizopus: Ascomycota – Saccharomyces; Basidiomycota – Agaricus; Duteromycota – Cercospora. Importance of Fungi; A brief account of mushroom culturing (paddy straw mushroom culturing).
Kingdom Metaphyta: Bryophyta: General characters of Bryophytes. Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Hepaticopsida – Riccia; Anthocerotopsida – Anthoceros; Bryopsida – Funaria.
Pteridophyta: General characters of Pteridophytes.Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Psilotopsida – Psilotum; Lycopsida – Selaginella; Sphenopsida – Equisetum; Pteropsida – Nephrolepis.
Gymnosperms: General characters of Gymnosperms. Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Cycadopsida – Cycas; Coniferopsida – Pinus; Gnetopsida – Gnetum.
Angiosperms: General characters of angiosperms – Typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants (Brassica and brass) and difference between dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Study of the Angiosperm flower. Technical terms used in description of flower – Actinomorphic, Zygomorphic, Unisexual, Bisexual, Pedicellate, Sessile, Bracteate, Ebracteate, Homochlamydeous, Heterochlamydeous. Complete flower, Incomplete flower, Epigynous, Hypogynous and Perigynous flowers. The parts of the flower:
a) Accessory whorls:
(i) Concept of perianth
(ii) Calyx – polysepalous and gemosepalous condition with one example each.
(iii) Corolla – Polypetalous and Gamopetalous condition.
(iv) Aestivation – definition and types – Valvate, Imbricate and Twisted types with one example each.
b) Essential whorls:
(i) Androecium – parts of a stamen, adelphy, syngeny, synandry and epipetaly. Anther lobes – monothecous and dithecous conditions with one example each.
(ii) Gynoecium – part of gynoecium, concept of carpel, Types of gynoecium – apocarpous and syncarpous gynoecium. Types of gynoecium based on number of carpels – monocarpellary, bicarpellary, tricarpellary and multicarpellary conditions.Nature of ovary of gynoecium with reference to locule – unilocular, bilocular, trilocular and multilocular conditions. Placentation – definition, types – marginal, axile, basal and parietal.
International structure of essential parts: a) T.S of mature anther and structure of the pollen grain (Microsporogenesis not needed) b) Structure of a mature anatropous ovule (Megasporogenesis not needed).
Pollination in Angiosperms: Definition, self and cross pollination, types (Autogamy, Allogamy, Geitonogamy, Xenogamy, Cleistogamy, Homogamy). Agents (Anemophily, Zoophily – Entomophily – Ornithophily and Hydrophily) with examples. (Pollination mechanisms not needed).
Fertilization in Angiosperms: Definition, a brief account of double fertiltzation and its significance (Embroyogeny not required).
The Angiosperm fruit: Definition, types of fruits – Simple fruits – fleshy fruits (drupe and berry),
Dry fruits (capsule, cypsela and cremocarp) and Pome (apple). Aggregate fruits – etaerio of follicles. Multi fruits – Scrosis.
The Angiosperm seed: Concept of seed. A typical dicotyledonous seed (Example: Bean seed). A typical monocotyledonous seed (Example: Maize grain).
Taxonomy and Economic Botany: Taxonomy: An outline of classification system of Engler and Prantl. Distinguishing characters and plants of economic interest of the following families of angiosperms:
Malvaceae – (Hibiscus, Cotton, Lady’s finger).
Apocynaceae – ( Catheranthus roseus, Rauwolfia serpentiana, Plumeria alba and Nerium indicum)
Musaceae – (Musa paradisiaca and Ravenala madagascariensis).
Economic Botany: Introduction. Oil yielding plants – Groundnut and Sunflower. Cereals and millets – Rice and Jowar. Pulses – Pigeon pea and Bengal gram. Medicinal plants – Adathoda vasica, Ephedra gerardiana, Dryopteris, Santalum album, Gymnema sylvestre, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus emblica. Spices – Pepper, cloves and cardamom. Beverages – Coffee, cocoa and tea. (Mentioning scientific names, flmily, parts used and uses only).
Elements of plant pathhology: Symptoms, etiology, type and nature of pathogens, and methods of control with reference to the following diseases:
(i) Banana bunchy top
(ii)Tikka disease of groundnut
(iii)Crown gall (of any common dicot plant).
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Introduction to Biology: Definition of Biology and its main branches – Botany and Zoology. Scope of Biology. Branches of Biology(definition only). Classical branches – morphology, cytology, histology, anatomy, physiology, developmental biology, biosystamatics, genetics, ecology, organic evolution and palaeontology. Interdisciplinary branches – biophysics, biochemistry and biostatistics. Applied branches and career prospects – agriculture, entomology, sylviculture, pathology, apiculture, microbiology and bioinformatics. Role of biology in dispelling myths and disbeliefs.
Biomolecules: Carbohydrates: Definition. Classification – monosaccharides (ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, fructose and galactose), oligosaccharides (maltose, sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin, chitin and agar agar). Biological significance.
Proteins: Definition. Classification – simple proteins (albumins, globulins, histones, actin, myosin and keratin), conjugate proteins – Chromoproteins (haemoglobin), glycoproteins (mucin of saliva), phospoproteins (casein of milk) and lipoproteins (lipovitelline of egg yolk). Biological significance of amino acid and proteins.
Lipids: Definition. Classification – Simple lipids – oils (vegetable oil and oil of animal origin), fats (butter) and waxes (beeswax), Compound lipids – phospholipids (lecithin and cephalin) and sphingolipids (cerebrosides),Related compounds – steroids (estrogen, progesterone and testosterone), sterols (cholestoral) and prostaglandins. Biological significance.
Enzymes: Definition, properties, classification based on functions. Mode of action – induced fit theory of Koshland.
Nucleic acid: Occurrence, basic chemical composition (nucleoside and nucleotide), mention of type (DNA and RNA) and functions (structural details are not required). [*Note: Details of chemical structure of biomolecules are not required].
Origin of life and organic evolution: Origin of life: Introduction. Concept of abiogenesis and biogenesis (experimental evidences not required).A.I.Oparin’s Theory of chemical evolution of life (Views of Haldane and Sidney Fox to be mentioned).Stanley Miller’s experiment in support of chemical evolution.
Organic evolution: Introduction. Darwin’s theory (DDT resistance in mosquitoes and industrial melanism in Peppered moth, to illustrate natural selection to be quoted as examples).Brief account of Mutation theory. NeoDarwininism – Introduction, Darwinian concept vs NeoDarwinian concept (gene pool and gene frequency), Hary – Weinberg law and sources of variations as evolutionary force – sexual reproduction, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and isolation (reproductive and geographic).
Diversity of animal life: Introduction. Outline classification of kingdom Animalia (only the major phyla to be considered). Major animal phyla: Outline classification as treated in ‘A Manual of Zoology’ Vol. I and Vol. II (1971) by Ekambarantha Ayyar. Non-chordata (animals without backbone) – General characters and classification up to classes [salient features of classes of Invertebrate phyla not to be given] with suitable examples of the following phyla: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata. Chordata (Animals with backbone) – Fundamental characters and classification of chordata up to subphyla – Hemichordata, Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata with suitable examples. Subphylum Vertebrata – Salient features with examples of (i) Subphylum Pisces: Class Chondreichthyes and Class Osteichthyes); (ii) Superclass Tetrapoda: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. Differences between non-chordates and chordates.
Study of Morphology: Cockroach – Periplaneta sp. Morphology (Structure of head capsule and compound eye not required).Digestive and nervous systems.
Animal resources: Sericulture; Definition. Main aspects – moriculture, rearing of silkworms and reeling.
Brief account of moriculture: definition, methods (row and pit systems) and its importance. Types of silk – mulberry and non-mulberry (Tasar, Eri and Muga). Diseases of mulberry silkworm – Pebrine, Muscardine or Calcino, Flacherie and Grasserie [Listing of diseases and causative organisms only].
Aquaculture: Definition. Areas – fin fisheries and shell fisheries. Pisciculture: definition, capture fisheries and culture fisheries. Inland fisheries – procedure. Monoculture, monosex culture and polyculture (composite fish farming) – meaning with examples.
Dairy: Definition. Types of indigenous cattle with examples based on utility – draught, milching and dual purpose (Cow breeds – Sindhi, Sahiwal, Amrithmahal, Hallikar, Ongole and Haryana; Buffalo breeds – Murrah, Surti, Mehsana and Nagpuri). Examples of high yielding exotic breeds (Holstein, Red Dane, Jersey and Brown Swiss). Nutritive value of milk. Utility of cattle – biogas, leather, gelatin and organic manure.
Poultry: Definition. Types of indigenous fowls with examples based on utility – layers, broilers and dual purpose (Aseel, Chittagong, Ghagus, Basra and Kadaknath). Examples of exotic breeds (White Leghorn, Cornish, Rhode Island Red Plymouth Rock and Newhampshire). Giriraj – origin and salient features.
Nutritive value of egg. Diseases ( Respiratory mycoplasmosis, Fowl pox candidiasis, Raniketh and Fowl cholera) – Mentioning of diseases and causative organisms only.
Vermiculture: Definition and procedure. Vermicompost – degradation of organic wastes and role of Earthworm in soil fertility.
BIOLOGY – II
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids: DNA – Occurrence, DNA as the genetic material (with the experiment of Avery as evidence), chemical composition, structure (Watson – Crick model), Semiconservative method of replication. RNA – Occurrence, chemical composition, brief account of structure and functions of genetic RNA, rRNA, mRNA and tRNA (clover – leaf model).
Gene: The gene, the genetic code and genetic control of protein synthesis – Concept of gene (prokaryotic and eukaryotic), genetic code and its characteristics, genetic control of protein synthesis (transcription and translation) and Lac operon concept.
Biotechnology: Introduction: Scope of biotechnology.
Genetic Engineering: Introduction; Tools used in genetic engineering – Vectors (plasmid – pUC18), Enzymes (REN and Ligase), Host cell (E.coli) and Bioreactors.
Recombinant DNA technology and its applications: Insulin synthesis to be used as an example.
A brief account of: DNA fingerprinting, Gene therapy, Human genome project, Monoclonal antibodies.
Improvement of crop plants: Breeding techniques; Tissue culture technique – organ culture example: stem; transgenic plants example: Golden rice.
Improvement of animals: Breeding techniques and stem cell culture, transgenic animals example: Cattle.
Hazards and safeguards of genetic engineering.
Plant history & anatomy: Introduction: Definition and general classification of plant tissues.
Meristems: Definition, structure and classification based on position, origin and function (theories an apical organization not required).
Permanent Tissues – Distribution, structure and functions of: Simple tissues: Parenchyma (Chorenchyma and Aerenhyma), Clollenchyma (angular, lacunar & lamellar) and Sclerenchyma – Fibres (Intraxylary and Extraxylary), Sclereids (Macrosclereids, Brachysclereids, Astrosclereids and Osteosclereids).
Complex tissues: Xylem and Phloem. Definition of the terms: Primary and secondary vascular tissues, exarch xylem, endarch xylem, collateral conjoint open and collateral conjoint closed vascular bundles, radial arrangement of vascular tissues. Secondary growth in dicot stem: intrastelar and extrastelar secondary growth. Plant physiology.
Water relations of plants: Fundamental concepts: Importance of water to plants. Significance and definitions of the following: Imbibition, Diffusion, Osmosis, Endosmosis, Exosmosis, Plasmolysis, Deplasmolysis, Turgor pressure, Well pressure, Osmotic pressure. Water potential and its components.
Absorption of water: Structure of root hair. Sources of water for plants (available water and nonavailable water). Region of absorption of water in plants. Entry of water from soil into xylem of root. Active and passive absorption of water (active absorption to show osmotic and non osmotic processes).
Ascent of sap: Definition and evidences to show the involvement of xylem (the Balsam plant experiment). Composition of xylem sap. Transpiration pull theory – merits and demerits.
Loss of water in plants: Transpiration – Definition and types. Structure of a typical stomatal apparatus (dicot example only). Mechanism of stomatal movement – Steward’s Starch hydrolysis theory and K+ pump theory. Factors influencing the rate of transpiration (external). Significance of transpiration. A brief note on antitranspirants.
Guttation: A brief account of guttation – occurrence, causes and structure of hydathode.
Translocation of solutes: Definition and evidences in support of involvement of phloem in the process (Girdling experiment and Tracer method). Composition of phloem sap. Munch’s mass flow hypothesis with merits and demerits. Vein loading.
Bioenergetics: Introduction: Light as the source of energy and ATP as energy currency.
Photosynthesis: Definition. Ultrastructure of the chloroplast. Photosynthetic pigments and their role; composition of photsystems I & II. (Molecular structures and formulae not required). Mechanism – light reaction – cyclic and noncyclic photophosprylations; Dark reaction (C3 pathway – Calvin cycle) – (details of regeneration steps not required); C4 pathway and CAM (definition and examples only). Influence of external factors on photosynthesis; Blackman’s law of limiting factors. Significance of photosynthesis.
Respiration: Definition and types (aerobic and anaerobic). Ultra structure of mitochondrion. Mechanism of aerobic respiration – Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and Terminal oxidation. Anaerobic respiration – Mechanism of fermentation in the presence of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. Role of external factors, respiratory quotient (RQ) and its significance and Pasteur effect.
Growth and growth regulators in plants: Growth: Definition, regions of growth, phases of growth and growth curve.
Growth regulators: Definition. Role of the following plant hormones (Details of experiments on discovery of hormones not required):
iv. Abscissic acid.
Synthetic growth regulators and their applications (with reference to IAA, IBA, NAA, 2, 4-D, BAP and Ethephon).
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Genetics: Mendelian genetics: Mendel and his work. Definitions of the following terms: Allele, Phenotype, Genotype, Homozygous and Heterozygous. Principles of inheritance: Unit characters, dominance, law of segregation (purity of gametes) and law of independent assortment. Monohybrid cross, Dilhybrid cross and Test cross.
Deviations from Mendelian laws: Incomplete dominance: Example – Flower colour in Mirabilis jalapa.
Multiple allelism: Example – ABO blood groups and their inheritance in man: Blood typing; Rh factor with a note on erythroblastosis foetalis. Sex linked inheritance in man: Example – Inheritance of colourblindness and hypertrichosis in man.
Genetic disorders in man: Chromosomal disorders – Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Cri-du-Chat syndrome. Gene disorders – Sickle cell anemia, haemophilia.
Biodiversity: Definition and Types: Ecosystem or habitat diversity, Species diversity and Genetic diversity.
Biodiversity profiles of India and Karnataka: Species diversity, Endemic species, Threatened species and Endangered species.
Benefits of biodiversity: Economic – Traditional crop varieties and lesser known plants and animals of food value, medicinal plants harvested from wild habitat. Ecological/Social – For controlling soil – water regimes and hydrology, for efficient organic residue management and soil fertility management. Ethical – Cultural, Spiritual and Religious belief systems centred around the concept of sacred species, sacred groves and sacred landscapes.
Biodiversity depletion: Anthropocentric causes – urbanization, expansion of agriculture, deforestation, pollution, acidification of soil and water, mining activities, desertification and loss of soil fertility.
Intellectual property rights: Patenting life forms.
Concept of ecosystem sustainability: Conservation of natural resources based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK): Conservation of Water – rainwater harvesting and watershed management. Conservation of soil – Prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil fertility: methods of soil conservation. Conservation of forests – Afforestation and maintenance of biosphere reserves. Conservation of wild life – (i) Setting up of national parks, sanctuaries, bioreserves and zoos (ii) Habitat improvement.
Global issues: Concept, causes, effects and control measures of the following: Global warming and greenhouse effect, Ozone layer depletion, Acid rain, Nuclear winter.
Man in health and diseases: Concept of Homeostasis – The central Dogma in physiology: Definition. Meaning of internal environment. Factors to be kept constant to achieve homeostasis. An example to illustrate homeostasis – regulation of blood glucose level by liver and pancreas through negative feed back. A note on diabetes mellitus.
Body defence and immunity: Introduction. Nonspecific body defences : a) Surface barriers b) Cellular and bio-chemical defences: phagocytosis, natural killer cells, interferons and inflammatory response. Specific body defences (immunity): Antigen and antibody, role of B and T lymphocytes. Types of immunity: Active (infection and vaccination) and Passive (from mother and immune serum Y-globulins).
Digestion: Gross anatomy of human digestive system (structure of tooth not required). Components of food (concept of balanced diet). Physiology of digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Disorders: Causes, symptoms and prevention of hyperacidity and ulcer, jaundice and its types and hepatitis.
Circulation: Introduction. Gross anatomy of the human heart. Mechanism of working of heart – cardiac cycle, stroke volume, cardiac out-put, complete double circulation. Origin and conduction of heart beat. Mechanism of blood clotting (Best and Taylor theory). Blood pressure – hypotension and hypertension. Disorders – causes and symptoms of myocardial infarction and cyanosis.
Respiration: Gross anatomy of human respiratory system. Mechanism of respiration:
(i) Breathing (inspiration and expiration)
(ii) External respiration (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood)
(iii) Internal respiration (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and body cells)
(iv) Cellular respiration. Disorders: Rhinitis, Asthma and bronchogenic carcinoma. Artificial breathing.
Excretion: Introduction. Gross structure of nephron, Physiology of urine formation. Chemical composition of urine. Disorders: a. Renal failure – acute and chronic b. Renal calculi. Kidney replacement therapy: a brief note on dialysis (haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) and kidney transplantation.
Nervous system: Components – CNS, PNS & ANS. Human brain – structure (sagittal section only) and functions (functional areas of cerebrum not required). Human spinal cord – structure and functions. Meaning of reflex arc and reflex action. A brief study of the endocrine functions of the pituitary. Disorders: Meaning, causes and symptoms of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s chorea. Alcoholism and its effects. Narcotic drugs – meaning, listing of types (stimulants, depressants, analgesics and hallucinogens) and their effects. Drug abuse and addiction, Efforts to counter alcoholism and drug menace
Continuity of life: Developmental biology (basics of sexual reproduction) – Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis – formation of spermatids and spermiogenesis (details of spermiogenesis are not required). Ultrastructure of human sperm. Oogenesis. Generalized structure of ovum.
Fertilization – Definition. Types – external and internal. Mechanism. Significance.
Early development of frog – Structure of egg. Cleavage. Blastulation. Gastrulation. Derivatives of primary germ layers.
Human Reproduction: A brief account of Fertilization, Implantation, Placenta. Role of gonadotropins and sex hormones in males and females (meaning of menstrual cycle to be highlighted).
Fertility control – Need for fertility control. Survey of family planning methods: Spacing methods (Barriers, IUDs, Hormonal and Physiological) and Terminal methods (Tubectomy and Vasectomy).
Infertility control – Meaning and causes of infertility in males and females. Remedical methods (Assisted conception methods) – IVF,ET,GIFT and ZIET. (details of GIFT AND ZIFT not required).
Sexually transmitted diseases – Meaning, causative organisms, mode of infection, symptoms and preventive measures of gonorrhoea, syphilis and AIDS.
Equivalent mass of elements – definition, principles involved in the determination of equivalent masses of elements by hydrogen displacement method, oxide method, chloride method and inter conversion method (experimental determination not needed). Numerical problems.
Equivalent masses of acids, bases and salts.
Atomic mass, Moleqular mass, vapour density-definitions. Relationship between molecular mass and vapour density. Concept of STP conditions. Gram molar volume. Experimental determination of molecular mass of a volatile substance by Victor Meyer’s method. Numerical problems.
Mole concept and Avogadro number, numerical problems involving calculation of: Number of moles when the mass of substance is given, the mass of a substance when number of moles are given and number of particles from the mass of the substance. Numerical problems involving mass-mass, mass-volume relationship in chemical reactions.
Expression of concentration of solutions-ppm, normality, molarity and mole fraction. Principles of volumetric analysis- standard solution, titrations and indicators-acid-base (phenolphthalein and methyl orange) and redox (Diphenylamine). Numerical problems.
Introduction- constituents of atoms, their charge and mass.
Atomic number and atomic mass.
Wave nature of light, Electromagnetic spectrum-emission spectrum of hydrogen-Lyman series, Balmer series, Paschen series, Brackett series and Pfund series. Rydberg’s equation. Numerical problems involving calculation of wavelength and wave numbers of lines in the hydrogen spectrum. Atomic model- Bhor’s theory, (derivation of equation for energy and radius not required). Explanation of origin of lines in hydrogen spectrum. Limitations of Bhor’s theory. Dual nature of electron- distinction between a particle and a wave. de Broglie’s theory. Matter-wave equation (to be derived). Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle (Qualitative). Quantum numbers – n, l, m and s and their significance and inter relationship. Concept of orbital- shapes of s, p and d orbitals. Pauli’s exclusion principle and aufbau principle. Energy level diagram and (n+1) rule. Electronic configuration of elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 54. Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.
General electronic configurations of s, p and d block elements.
Periodic table with 18 groups to be used.
Atomic radii (Van der Waal and covalent) and ionic radii: Comparison of size of cation and anion with the parent atom, size of isoelectronic ions. Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity- Definition with illustrations. Variation patterns in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity down the group and along the period and their interpretation.
Oxidation and reduction-Electronic interpretation.
Oxidation number: definition, rules for computing oxidation number. Calculation of the oxidation number of an atom in a compound/ion.
Balancing redox equations using oxidation number method, calculation of equivalent masses of oxidising and reducing agents.
GAS LAWS: Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law, Avogadro’s hypothesis, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Graham’s law of diffusion and Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes. Combined gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases-postulates, root mean square velocity, derivation of an equation for the pressure exerted by a gas. Expressions for r.m.s velocity and kinetic energy from the kinetic gas equation. Numerical problems. Ideal and real gases, Ideal gas equation, value of R (SI units). Deviation of real gases from the ideal behaviour. PV-P curves. Causes for the deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Derivation of Van der Waal’s equation and interpretation of PV-P curves.
Introduction. Commercial importance of rate studies. Order of a reaction. Factors deciding the order of a reaction-relative concentrations of the reactants and mechanism of the reaction. Derivation of equation for the rate constant of a first order reaction. Unit for the rate constant of a first order reaction. Half-life period. Relation between half-life period and order of a reaction. Numerical problems.
Determination of the order of a reaction by the graphical and the Ostwald’s isolation method. Zero order, fractional order and pseudo first order reactions with illustrations. Effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction-temperature coefficient of a reaction. Arrhenius interpretation of the energy of activation and temperature dependence of the rate of reaction. Arrhenius equation. Influence of catalyst on energy profile. Numerical problems on energy of activation.
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH OXYGEN-2, AMINES
Uses of phenol.
Classification: Mono, di and tri-hydric Phenols
Isolation from coal tar and manufacture by Cumene process.
Methods of preparation of phenol from – Sodium benzene sulphonate,Diazonium salts
Chemical properties: Acidity of Phenols-explanation using resonance-Effect of substituents on Acidity(methyl group and nitro group as substituents), Ring substitution reactions-Bromination, Nitration, Friedel-craft’s methylation, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction.
Aldehydes and Ketones:
Uses of methanal,benzaldehyde and acetophenone
General methods of preparation of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones from Alcohols and Calcium salts of carboxylic acids
Common Properties of aldehydes and ketones
a) Addition reactions with – Hydrogen cyanide, sodium bisulphate
b) Condensation reactions with-Hydroxylamine, Hydrazine, Phenyl hydrazine, Semicarbazide
Special reactions of aldehydes:Cannizzaro’s reaction-mechanism to be discussed, Aldol condensation, Perkin’s reaction, Reducing properties-with Tollen’s and Fehling’s reagents.
Special reaction of ketones-Clemmensen’s reduction
Uses of methanoic acid and ethanoic acid.
Nomenclature and general methods of preparation of aliphatic acids
From Alcohols, Cyanoalkanes and Grignard reagent
General properties of aliphatic acids: Reactions with – Sodium bicarbonate, alcohols, Ammonia, Phosphorus pentachloride and soda lime
Strength of acids-explanation using resonance.
Effect of substituents (alkyl group and halogen as substituents)
Uses of Aniline
Nomenclature Classification-Primary, Secondary, Tertiary-aliphatic and aromatic.
General methods of preparation of primary amines from – Nitro hydrocarbons, Nitriles(cyano hydrocarbons), Amides(Hoffmann’s degradation)
General Properties – Alkylation,Nitrous acid, Carbyl amine reaction, Acylation
Tests to distinguish between-Primary, secondary, Tertiary amines-Methylation method.
Interpretaion of Relative Basicity of-Methylamine, Ammonia and Aniline using inductive effect.
Stability of Cycloalkanes-Baeyer’s Strain theory-interpretation of the properties of Cycloalkanes, strain less ring. Elucidation of the structure of Benzene – Valence Bond Theory and Molecular Orbital Theory. Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of Benzene-halogenations, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel Craft’s reaction.
Nomenclature and General methods of preparation from-Alcohols and alkenes.
General properties of monohalogen derivatives: Reduction, with alcoholic KOH, Nucleophilic substitution reactions with alcoholic KCN, AgCN and aqueous KOH, with Magnesium, Wurtz reaction, Wurtz-Fittig’s reaction, Friedal-Craft’s reaction
Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution reactions- SN1 mechanism of Hydrolysis of teritiary butyl bromide and SN2 mechanism of Hydrolysis of methyl bromide.
Co-ordination compound: Definition, complex ion, ligands, types of ligands-mono, bi, tri and polydentate ligands. Co-ordination number, isomerism (ionization linkage, hydrate), Werner’s theory, Sidgwick’s theory, and E A N rule, Nomenclature of coordination, compounds.Valance Bond Theory: sp3, dsp2 and d2sp3 hybridisation taking [Ni(Co)4], [Cu(NH3)4]SO4, K4[Fe(CN)6] respectively as examples.
CHEMICAL BONDING – 2
Covalent bonding-molecular orbital theory :linear combination of atomic orbitals (Qualitative approach), energy level diagram, rules for filling molecular orbitals, bonding and anti bonding orbitals, bond order, electronic configuration of H2, Li2 and O2 Non existence of He2 and paramagnetism of O2.
Metallic bond: Electron gas theory (Electron Sea model), definition of metallic bond, correlation of metallic properties with nature of metallic bond using electron gas theory.
Spontaneous and nonSpontaneous process. Criteria for spontaneity-tendency to attain a state of minimum energy and maximum randomness. Entropy-Entropy as a measure of randomness, change in entropy, unit of entropy. Entropy and spontaneity. Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs’ free as a driving force of a reaction Gibbs’ equation. Prediction of feasibility of a process in terms of • G using Gibbs’ equation. Standard free energy change and its relation to Kp(equation to be assumed). Numerical problems.
Crystalline and amorphous solids, differences. Types of crystalline solids – covalent, ionic, molecular and metallic solids with suitable examples. Space lattice, lattice points, unit cell and Co- ordination number.
Types of cubic lattice-simple cubic, body centered cubic, face centered cubic and their coordination numbers. Calculation of number of particles in cubic unit cells. Ionic crystals-ionic radius, radius ratio and its relation to co-ordination number and shape. Structures of NaCl and CsCl crystals.
Electrolytes and non electrolytes. Electrolysis-Faraday’s laws of electrolysis. Numerical problems. Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, Merits and limitations. Specific conductivities and molar conductivity-definitions and units. Strong and weak electrolytes-examples. Factors affecting conductivity.
Acids and Bases: Arrhenius’ concept, limitations. Bronsted and Lowry’s concept, merits and limitations. Lewis concept, Strengths of Acids and Bases – dissociation constants of weak acids and weak bases. Ostwald’s dilution law for a weak electrolytes-(equation to be derived) – expression for hydrogen ion concentration of weak acid and hydroxyl ion concentration of weak base – numerical problems.
Ionic product of water. pH concept and pH scale. pKa and pkb values-numerical problems. Buffers, Buffer action, mechanism of buffer action in case of acetate buffer and ammonia buffer. Henderson’s equation for pH of a buffer (to be derived). Principle involved in the preparation of buffer of required pH-numerical problems. Ionic equilibrium: common ion effect, solubility.2B and AB2product, expression for Ksp of sparingly soluble salts of types AB, A B2Relationship between solubility and solubility product of salts of types AB, A. Applications of common ion effect and solubility product in inorganic2and AB qualitative analysis. Numerical problems.
Electrode potential: Definition, factors affecting single electrode potential. Standard electrode potential. Nernst’s equation for calculating single electrode potential (to be assumed). Construction of electro-chemical cells-illustration using Daniel cell. Cell free energy change [•Go =-nFEo (to be assumed)]. Reference electrode: Standard Hydrogen Electrode-construction, use of SHE for determination of SRP of other single electrodes. Limitations of SHE.
Electrochemical series and its applications. Corrosion as an electrochemical phenomenon, methods of prevention of corrosion.
Inductive effect, Mesomeric effect and Electromeric effect with illustrations, Conversion of methane to ethane and vice versa and Methanol to ethanol and vice versa.
Stereo isomerism:geometrical and optical isomerism
Geometrical isomerism-Illustration using 2-butene, maleic acid and fumaric acid as example, Optical Isomerism-Chirality, optical activity-Dextro and Laevo rotation(D and L notations).
Biological importance of carbohydrates, Classification into mono, oligo and poly saccharides. Elucidation of the open chain structure of Glucose. Haworth’s structures of Glucose, Fructose, Maltose and Sucrose(elucidation not required).
OILS AND FATS
Biological importance of oils and fats, Fatty acids-saturated, unsaturated, formation of triglycerides. Generic formula of triglycerides.
Chemical nature of oils and fats-saponification, acid hydrolysis, rancidity refining of oils, hydrogenation of oils, drying oils, iodine value.
AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS
AminoacidsaBiological importance of proteins, – General formula
Formulae and unique feature of glycine, alanine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, lysine, tyrosine and proline. Zwitter ion, amphiprotic nature, isoelectric point, peptide bond, polypeptides and proteins. Denaturation of proteins
Structural features of Insulin – a natural polypeptide.
METALLURGY – 2
Physico-chemical concepts involved in the following metallurgical operations –
Desilverisation of lead by Parke’s process-Distribution law.
Reduction of metal oxides – Ellingham diagrams – Relative tendency to undergo oxidation in case of elements Fe Ag, Hg, Al, C. Cr, and Mg.
Blast furnace – metallurgy of iron – Reactions involved and their role, Maintenance of the temperature gradient, Role of each ingredient and Energetics
INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS:
Manufacture of Caustic soda by Nelson’s cell Method, Ammonia by Haber’s process, Sulphuric acid by Contact process and Potassium dichromate from chromite.
Uses of the above compounds.
Chemical properties of Sulphuric acid: Action with metals, Dehydrating nature, Oxidation reactions and Reaction with PCI
Chemical properties of potassium dichromate: With KOH, Oxidation reactions, formation of chromyl chloride.
GROUP 18, NOBEL GASES
Applications of noble gases. Isolation of rare gases from Ramsay and Raleigh’s method and separation of individual gases from noble gas mixture (Dewar’s charcoal adsorption method).Preparation of Pt XeF6 by Neil Bartlett.
d – BLOCK ELEMENTS (TRANSITION ELEMENTS)
Definition. 3d series: electronic configurations, size, variable oxidation states, colour, magnetic properties, catalytic behaviour, complex formation and their interpretations.
THEORY OF DILUTE SOLUTIONS
Vant Hoffs theory of dilute Solutions. colligative property. Examples of colligative properties-lowering of vapour pressure, elevation in boiling points, depression in freezing point and osmotic pressure.
Lowering of vapour pressure-Raoult’s law (mathematical form to be assumed). Ideal and non ideal solutions (elementary idea) – measurement of relative lowering of vapour pressure-ostwald and Walker’s dymnamic method. Determination of molecular mass by lowering of vapour pressure). Numerical problems.
Introduction. Colloidal system and particle size. Types of colloidal systems. Lyophilic and lyiphobic sols, examples and differences. Preparation of sols by Bredig’s arc method and peptisation. Purification of sols-dialysis and electro dialysis. Properties of sols-Tyndall effect, Brownian movement electrophoresis, origin of charge, coagulation, Hardy and Schulze rule, Protective action of sols. Gold number. Gold number of gelatin and starch. Applications of colloids. Electrical precipitation of smoke, clarification of drinking water and formation of delta.