ST. JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF COMMERCE (AUTONOMOUS)
END SEMESTER EXAMINATION – OCTOBER 2013
BBM – I SEMESTER
Time : 3 HOURS Max. Marks : 100
SECTION – A
I) Answer ALL the following: (10×2=20)
1. Explain the ‘ego defensive’ function of attitudes?
2. Distinguish between Job enlargement and Job enrichment.
3. What is ‘Machiavellianism’?
4. Define ‘Organizational Culture’.
5. Which learning theory is B.F Skinner connected to?
6. Distinguish between functional and dysfunctional conflict.
7. Name the stages in conflict.
8 Explain ‘coercive power’.
9. What is ‘Goal succession’?
10. Give two behavioral outcomes of stress.
SECTION – B
II) Answer any FOUR from the following: (4x 5= 20)
11. What are the stages of group formation?
12. Distinguish between Official, Tactical and Operational goals.
13. What are the pre-conditions or antecedents that lead to inter-group
14. Explain the personality attributes influencing OB.
15. What are the organizational challenges present in the current Indian
16. Critically analyze Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.
SECTION – C
III) Answer any THREE of the following: (3×15=45)
17. Why is organizational change often resisted by individuals and groups
within the organization? How can it be overcome?
18. Explain the Managerial Grid, with the help of a diagrammatic
19. Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning and
20. What are perceptual errors? Explain any 5 perceptual errors.
21. Explain the Hawthorne Studies and its contributions.
SECTION – D
IV) Case Study -Compulsory. (1×15=15)
Jyoti Private Limited is an Automotive spare parts company with an annual
turnover of Rs 1000 crores. The company is 10 years old and its workforce
breakdown is as follows :
Workmen -450 Officers -220.
The company has its head office at Gurgaon and has two manufacturing facilities at
Daman and Pune. The Managing Director, Yatin Raj is also the owner of this
company, and he and his family have largely contributed towards the growth of
Jyoti Private Limited.
The company has primarily been run as a family owned business and most people
decisions are taken by the Managing Director, with the HR department being
involved in execution of these decisions.
Yatin Raj is shortly due to retire from the company and hand over the reins of the
company to his only son Sanjeev Raj. Sanjeev has studied at Harvard and believes
in empowerment and a professional approach in managing the company. Yatin
realizes that times are changing and is in agreement with Sanjeev’s ideas in
managing the company. Yatin though, is a worried man on the change management
his company and employees will need to undergo and wonders if the way forward
will be successful.
a) If you were to look at the above case from a ‘change management’
perspective, what would you suggest to Yatin?
b) Critically evaluate HR’s role as a ‘change agent’ in an organization.
c) Why do individuals resist change? Narrate with examples.
- JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF COMMERCE (AUTONOMOUS)
End Semester Examinations – OCTOBER 2014
m.com – i semester
Duration: 3 Hrs Max. Marks: 100
Section – A
- Answer any SEVEN Each carries 5 marks. (7 x 5 = 35)
- What composes the SMART Goals? Explain in detail.
- Identify and comment on the factors which contribute to low creativity in work groups.
- “A happy employee is generally that employee, who is satisfied in his job.” Explain.
- Explain the meaning and types of Values.
- Highlight the differences between Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment.
- Explain Carl Rogers Self Theory.
- Give the meaning of “Strong Culture” and “Weak Culture”.
- “Classical Theory was found on four pillars”. Explain the classical pillars.
- Explain Kurt Lewin’s model of change.
- With the help of a diagram, explain the formation of a team.
Section – B
- Answer any THREE Each carries 15 marks (3 x 15 = 45)
11) “Organizations that learn and cope with change will thrive and flourish and others who fail to do so will be wiped out”. Highlight the stages in the change process, causes of resistance and how to overcome it.
12) Discuss Theory X Y and Theory Z. Which theory – if any – do you believe in? Explain the reasons for the same.
13) Give the meaning and features of OB. Explain the four models of OB.
14) Explain (a) Herzberg’s two-factor theory, (b) Equity theory of motivation.
15) Define “Power”, and “Politics”. Explain the techniques and functions of Organizational Politics.
Section – C
- Compulsory Case study. (1 x 20 = 20)
16) Surviving Plant World’s Hard Times
In ten years, Plant World had grown from a one-person venture into the largest nursery and landscaping business in its area. Its founder, Myta Ong, combined a lifelong interest in plants with a botany degree to provide a unique customer service. Ong had managed the company’s growth so that even with twenty full-time employees working in six to eight crews, the organization culture was still as open, friendly, and personal as it had been when her only “employees” were friends who would volunteer to help her move a heavy tree.
To maintain that atmosphere, Ong involved herself increasingly with people and less with plants as the company grew. With hundreds of customers and scores of jobs at any one time, she could no longer say without hesitation whether she had a dozen arborvitae bushes in stock or when Mrs. Carnack’s estate would need a new load of bark mulch. But she knew when Rose had been up all night with her baby, when Gary was likely to be late because he had driven to see his sick father over the weekend, and how to deal with Ellen when she was depressed because of her boyfriend’s behavior. She kept track of the birthdays of every employee and even those of their children. She was up every morning by five-thirty arranging schedules so that John could get his son out of daycare at four o’clock and Martina could be back in town for her afternoon high school equivalency classes.
Paying all this attention to employees may have led Ong to make a single bad business decision that almost destroyed the company. She provided extensive landscaping to a new mall on credit, and when the mall never opened and its owners went bankrupt, Plant World found itself in deep trouble. The company had virtually no cash and had to pay off the bills for the mall plants, most of which were not even salvageable.
One Friday, Ong called a meeting with her employees and leveled with them: either they would not get paid for a month or Plant World would fold. The news hit the employees hard. Many counted on the Friday paycheck to buy groceries for the week. The local unemployment rate was low, however, and they knew they could find other jobs.
But as they looked around, they wondered whether they could ever find this kind of job. Sure, the pay was not the greatest, but the tears in the eyes of some workers were not over pay or personal hardship; they were for Ong, her dream, and her difficulties. They never thought of her as the boss or called her anything but “Myta.” And leaving the group would not be just a matter of saying good-bye to fellow employees. If Bernice left, the company softball team would lose its best pitcher, and the Sunday game was the height of everyone’s week. Where else would they find people who spent much of the weekend working on the best puns with which to assail one another on Monday morning? At how many offices would everyone show up twenty minutes before starting time just to catch up with friends on other crews? What other boss would really understand when you simply said, “I don’t have a doctor’s appointment, I just need the afternoon off”?
Ong gave her employees the weekend to think over their decision: whether to take their pay and look for another job or to dig into their savings and go on working. Knowing it would be hard for them to quit, she told them they did not have to face her on Monday; if they did not show up, she would send them their checks. But when she arrived at seven-forty Monday morning, she found the entire group already there, ready to work even harder to pull the company through. They were even trying to top one another with puns about being “mall-contents.”
- How would you describe the organization culture at Plant World? Would you like to be a part of such an organization? Give reasons. (10 marks)
- How large can such a company get before it needs to change its culture and structure? What are the structural changes that are required in an organization as it grows from a small to a big company? (10 marks)
m.com- i semester
1.SMART – specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely.
- 2. Factors which contribute to low group creativity are:
- The group has no common goal or core focus.
- No standard method of making decisions is followed.
- The process of generating ideas is not separated from the evaluation of ideas.
- Ideas are not evaluated on their own merits. They are evaluated in terms of which group members suggested them.
- Ideas do not become the property of the group once they are suggested.
- Conclusions are an individual product instead of a group product.
- The group does not perceive members’ time as a valuable and scarce resource.
- Some members do not feel sufficiently at ease to participate and submit their ideas (they fear derision or reprisal).
- Some members dominate or deflect the group from its stated purposes.
- 3. Job Satisfaction – it is the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs.
According to Keith Davis and Newstorm– “job satisfaction is the set of favourable and unfavourable feelings with which employees view their work”.
Factors influencing job Satisfaction –
Work environmental factors
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
- Job Enlargement –
Involves a horizontal expansion of a job.
Its purpose is to reduce the monotony in performing the repetitive jobs.
May not call for the acquisition of higher level or new skills on the part of job holders.
Job holder may need more external direction and control.
Job Enrichment –
Involves vertical loading of functions and responsibilities.
Its purpose is to make the job more lively, challenging and satisfying.
Requires development and utilization of higher skills on the part of job holders.
The employee uses his own capabilities of self direction and control.
- Carl Rogers Self Theory –
- The self-concept includes three components: Self worth, self image and ideal self
- Self worth(or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father.
Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an affect on how a person thinks feels and behaves in the world.
- Ideal self– This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
- Strong cultures
- Organizations that have clear values that are shared to the extent of similar behavior.
- Organizations that have no stated values and do not enforce behavior.
- Classical theory was founded on four pillars
- Division of labour – based on an assumption that more a particular job can be fragmented into smaller, simpler components, more specialized and skilled a worker becomes.
- Scalar and functional process – The scalar and functional process – rests on the assumption that there is a chain of command through out an organization.
- Structure –
- Span of control.
- Kurt Lewins model – Unfreezing–àmoving-àrefreezing. (explanation)
- Team formation –
- Forming – The team meets and learns about the opportunity and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks.
- The forming stage of any team is important because in this stage
- the members of the team get to know one another,
- exchange some personal information, and make new friends.
- This is also a good opportunity to see how each member of the team works as an individual and how they respond to pressure.
- Storming – The storming stage is necessary to the growth of the team. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members of the team who are averse to conflict. Tolerance of each team member and their differences needs to be emphasized. Without tolerance and patience the team will fail. This phase can become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control.
Norming – At some point, the team may enter the norming stage. Team members adjust their behaviour to each other as they develop work habits that make teamwork seem more natural and fluid.
- Performing: Some teams will reach the performing
- These high-performing teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision.
- Adjourning/Mourning – Mourning: Project teams usually exist only for a fixed period. The break up of the team can be particularly hard for members who like routine or have developed close working relationships with other team members, particularly if their future roles or even jobs look uncertain.
- Stages in the change process.
CAUSES OF RESISTANCE
Individual resistance –
Lack of communication
Extent of change
Organizational Resistance –
Threat to power
Threat to specialization
OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE –
Participation and involvement
Facilitation and support
Negotiation and Agreement
Manipulation and co-optation
Timing of change.
Theory X says that most people don’t like to work and will avoid it if they can. Theory X managers believe that they need to force and threaten people to work.
Theory Y says that people can direct and control themselves, working towards the goals set by a company.
Ouchi’s Theory Z says that workers, managers and can share control, work as a team to accomplish the company’s goal.
Theory X Theory Y Theory Z
|Employees dislike work and will try to avoid it.
Employees prefer to be controlled and directed.
Employees seek security, not responsibility.
Employees must be intimidated by managers to perform.
Employees are motivated by financial rewards.
|Employees view work as a natural part of life.
Employees prefer limited control and direction.
Employees will seek responsibility under proper work conditions.
Employees perform better in work environments that are not intimidating.
|Employees like work
Employees help make decisions
Employees take individual responsibility
Employees expect long term employment, slower rates of promotion
- OB – Acc. to John. W. Newstrom and Keith Davis – “the study and application of knowledge about how people as individuals and as groups – act within the organization. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively”.
- Thus it can be defined as studying, predicting and managing human behaviour caused by individuals, groups and structures towards the requirements of organizational strategies.
- Deliberate and conscious creation.
- Attainment of common objectives.
- Aggregation of interrelated individuals.
- Division of work
- Well defined Authority Responsibility relationship.
- Group behaviour
- Custodial model
- Supportive model
- Collegial model
- Autocratic model – In an autocratic model’, the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore, employees are required to follow their orders. The psychological result of this model on employees is their increasing dependence on their boss. Its main weakness is its high human cost
- This model focuses better employee satisfaction and security. Under this model, organizations satisfy the security and welfare needs of employees. Hence, it is known as custodian model.
- This model leads to employee dependence on an organization rather than on boss. As a result of economic rewards and benefits, employees are happy and contented but they are not strongly motivated.
- The supportive model depends on ‘leadership’ instead of power or money. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interest of an organization. This model assumes that employees will take responsibility, develop a drive to contribute and improve them if management will give them a chance. Therefore, management’s direction is to ‘Support’ the employee’s job performance rather than to ‘support’ employee benefit payments, as in the custodial approach. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in an, organization.
- The term ‘collegial’ relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. It is a team concept. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The management is seen as joint contributor rather than as a boss. The employee response to this situation is responsibility. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is ‘self-discipline’. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment and worthwhile contribution towards their work. This results in enthusiasm in employees’ performance.
- Herzbergs theory – Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and
The name hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration.
Hygiene/maintenance factors –
- Job context
- Extrinsic factors
- Company policy and administration
- Quality of supervision
- Relation with superiors
- Working conditions
- Peer relation
- Job security
Motivating factors –
- Job content
- Intrinsic factors
- Work itself
- Possibility of Growth
(B). EQUITY THEORY OF MOTIVATION –
- Equity theory in business, however, introduces the concept of social comparison, whereby employees evaluate their own input/output ratios based on their comparison with the input/outcome ratios of other employees (Carrell and Dittrich, 1978).
- Equity theory proposes that individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will experience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts to restore equity within the relationship.
- It focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. Equity is measured by comparing the ratios of contributions and benefits of each person within the relationship.
- Inputs in this context include
- the employee’s time,
- intangible personal qualities such as drive and ambition, and
- interpersonal skills.
- Outcomes include
- monetary compensation,
- perquisites (“perks”),
- benefits, and
- flexible work arrangements.
- Power – “is the ability to influence people or things, usually obtained through the control of important resources”.
Politics – refers to the way people gain and use power in organizations.
form the right alliance
expect reciprocal favours
try to be popular
be persuasive without being arrogant
control the decision criteria
use outside experts
To overcome employees inadequacies
To cope with the change
To channel personnel contracts
Execution of decisions
To ensure full debate.
- case study – individual perceptions to be valued according to the justifications given/stated by a student.
|ST. JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF COMMERCE (AUTONOMOUS)|
|END SEMESTER EXAMINATION – SEPT/OCT. 2015|
|B.B.A. – i semester|
|M1 15 MC102: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR|
|Duration: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100|
|SECTION – A|
|I)||Answer ALL the questions. Each carries 2 marks. (10×2=20)|
|1.||What is ‘Goal succession’?|
|2.||What is a ‘value system’?|
|3.||Name the 3 components of attitudes.|
|4.||Give two behavioural outcomes of stress.|
|5.||What is ‘Locus of control’?|
|6.||Mention 2 features of ‘learning organisations’.|
|7.||Who is associated with Operant Learning theory?|
|8.||Give 2 examples for non financial incentives.|
|9.||Briefly explain the concept of ‘OB Mod’.|
|10.||Define ‘Organisational Climate’.|
|SECTION – B|
|II)||Answer any FOUR questions. Each carries 5 marks. (4×5=20)|
|11.||Briefly explain some of the measures that can be taken for resistance to change.|
|12.||What are some of the strategies for intergroup conflict resolution?|
|13.||Write a short note on Groupthink.|
|14.||What are the various sources of power?|
|15.||Explain: a) Ohio State University Leadership Studies and
b) Trait theories of leadership.
|16.||What are the stages of group formation?|
|SECTION – C|
|III)||Answer any THREE questions. Each carries 15 marks. (3×15=45)|
|17.||What are the main implications of the Hawthorne studies?|
|18.||What are some of the major sources of interpersonal conflict? Which do you think is most relevant in today’s organizations?|
|19.||Explain the Managerial Grid, with the help of a diagrammatic representation.|
|20.||Explain: a) Classical Conditioning
b) Operant Conditioning.
How does reinforcement help in this context?
|21.||What are perceptual errors? Explain any 5 perceptual errors.|
SECTION – D
|IV)||Case Study – Compulsory question. (1×15=15)|
|22.||Tony Stark had just finished his first week at Reece Enterprises and decided to drive upstate to a small lakefront lodge for some fishing and relaxation. Tony had worked for the previous ten years for the O’Grady Company, but O’Grady had been through some hard times of late and had recently shut down several of its operating groups, including Tony’s, to cut costs. Fortunately, Tony’s experience and recommendations had made finding another position fairly easy. As he drove the interstate, he reflected on the past ten years and the apparent situation at Reece.
At O’Grady, things had been great. Tony had been part of the team from day one. The job had met his personal goals and expectations perfectly, and Tony believed he had grown greatly as a person. His work was appreciated and recognized; he had received three promotions and many more pay increases.
Tony had also liked the company itself. The firm was decentralized, allowing its managers considerable autonomy and freedom. The corporate Culture was easygoing. Communication was open. It seemed that everyone knew what was going on at all times, and if you didn’t know about something, it was easy to find out.
The people had been another plus. Tony and three other managers went to lunch often and played golf every Saturday. They got along well both personally and professionally and truly worked together as a team. Their boss had been very supportive, giving them the help they needed but also staying out of the way and letting them work.
When word about the shutdown came down, Tony was devastated. He was sure that nothing could replace O’Grady. After the final closing was announced, he spent only a few weeks looking around before he found a comparable position at Reece Enterprises.
As Tony drove, he reflected that “comparable” probably was the wrong word. Indeed, Reece and O’Grady were about as different as you could get. Top managers at Reece apparently didn’t worry too much about who did a good job and who didn’t. They seemed to promote and reward people based on how long they had been there and how well they played the never-ending political games.
Maybe this stemmed from the organization itself, Tony pondered. Reece was a bigger organization than O’Grady and was structured much more bureaucratically. It seemed that no one was allowed to make any sort of decision without getting three signatures from higher up. Those signatures, though, were hard to get. All the top managers usually were too busy to see anyone, and interoffice memos apparently had very low priority.
Tony also had had some problems fitting in. His peers treated him with polite indifference. He sensed that a couple of them resented that he, an outsider, had been brought right in at their level after they had had to work themselves up the ladder. On Tuesday he had asked two colleagues about playing golf.
They had politely declined, saying that they did not play often. But later in the week, he had overheard them making arrangements to play that very Saturday.
It was at that point that Tony had decided to go fishing. As he steered his car off the interstate to get gas, he wondered if perhaps he had made a mistake in accepting the Reece offer without finding out more about what he was getting into.
c. Is it possible to find an “ideal” place to work? Explain.