CBSE Class 9 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 9 Science :

                         The subject of Science is very important for a growing child since it drives the thinking power among the children. It enhances the skills such as creativity, objectivity, aesthetic sensibility and enquiry. In the primary stage of the school, students observe, draw, record observation and experiment the science subjects, etc.,

In the secondary stage, students are expected to extract ideas from the principles of science subjects, answer quantitative reasoning questions to occupy more central place in the learning and teaching of science.

CBSE Class 9 and 10 syllabuses are divides into two terms such as Term1 and Term 2.

Term 1:

  1. Matter-Its nature and behavior
  2. Organization in living world
  3. Motion, force and work
  4. Food and Food production

Term 2:

  1. Matter-Its nature and behavior (Continued)
  2. Organization in the living world (Continued)
  3. Motion, force and work (Continued)
  4. Our environment

The above syllabus is in detail below:

 

  • Matter-Its nature and behavior:

     This chapter is covered in both first term and second term. Matter is commonly said to exist in four states such as solid, liquid, gas and plasma. In both Physics and Chemistry matter exhibits both wave like and particle like properties which is so called particle duality.

Term 1 covers the topics such as definition of matter, states of matter, characteristics, condensation and sublimation, Nature of matter.

Term 2 covers the topics such as Particle, nature and basic units, mole concepts and structure of atom.

Nature of matter:

               A molecule consists of two or more atoms belonging to the same elements or different elements which are clinically bound together. In this way let us define elements, compounds and mixtures as below;

Elements:

         An element is which cannot be broken down into simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical processes.

Compounds:

             A compound can be broken into simpler types of matter by chemical means and not by physical means.

Mixtures:

         It can be separated into its components by physical means.

Particles, nature and basic units:

                   An atom is the smallest particle which can exist independently and retain its chemical properties. A molecule is also a smallest particle of an element which can also exist independently and can exist even under ordinary conditions.

Structure of atom:

       An atom can be defined as smallest particle of a chemical substance that can exist. An atom consists of sub atomic particles such as neutrons, electrons, and protons. Protons and neutrons form the central core of the atom which is called as nucleus. The electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed orbits at a great speed.

 

Examples:

  1. What are canal rays?

Answer: E.Goldstein discovered positively charged rays which are called as canal rays.

  1. If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will it carry any charge or not?

Answer: The atom will not contain any charge.

  1. Hydrogen and Oxygen combine in the ratio 1:8 by mass to form water. What mass of oxygen gas would be required to react completely with 3g of hydrogen gas?

Answer: 24 g

  1. Write any two characteristics of particles of matter?

Answer:

  • Particles of matter have a gap between them
  • Particles of matter are continuos in motion
  1. What is a substance?

Answer: A substance can be defined as a matter where constituent particles cannot be separated from each other by any other physical process.

 

  • Organization in living world:

             Just like the first chapter, this chapter is also covered in both term 1 and term 2. In term 1 the topics which are covered are Basic units of life, tissues, organs, organ system, organism, etc. In term 2 the topics which are covered are biological diversity, health and diseases.

Structure and function of cell:

                     All living organisms such as plants, humans and animals are made up of small structures called as cells. If the organism has single cell it is called as single cellular organism whereas if the organism has multiple cell it is called as multi-cellular organism.

Tissues:

               The group of cells performing similar type of functions is called as tissues. These tissues can be classified as plant and animal tissues. Plant tissue can be divided into two types Meristematic, permanent tissue. Animal tissue can be divided into Epethelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue.

Biological diversity:

                 The biological world can be vastly diversified and classified. Plants or animals can be classified according to their order, family, genus, species, binomial nomenclature.

Health and diseases:

             This chapter deals with various health related topic and diseases caused to the living organisms due to several factors. It covers diseases caused by the microbes, bacteria, virus and the prevention tips to safeguard from those harmful microbes.

Examples:

  1. What is a tissue?

Answer: A group of cells that are same in origin and can perform some specialized function is called as tissue.

  1. In what basis plants and animals are put into different categories?

Answer: On the basis of mode of nutrition

 

  • Motion, force and work:

               In term 1 it covers the topics such as Motion, Newton’s law, force and gravitation. In term 2 it covers floatation, work, energy and power, sound.

Laws of Motion:

       The study of relationships between motion, force and energy is called as mechanics.

Force: Force is a push or pull that can change the current state of motion of an object

Motion: It can be defined as an action or the process of moving or being moved.

Energy: Energy can be defined as the ability to do work or elicit change in matter.

There are three important Newton’s Laws of motion such as below:

First law of motion: This is called as law of inertia. This states that any object will stay in motion until acted upon by an outside force.

Second law of motion: The second law can be defined as Force equals to mass and inertia. F= ma

Third law of motion: For every action there is equal and opposite reaction.

Work, energy, power:

           Work results when a force acts upon the object to cause the displacement. Energy is the capability of doing work. Power is the ability to do something or act in a particular way.

Sound:

       This is a form of energy which comes from the vibrations. These vibrations create sound waves that can travel through the air and water before reaching our ears.

Examples:

  1. Distinguish between speed and velocity?

Answer: Speed is the distance travelled by it per unit time.

Velocity is the displacement per unit time of the body during movement.

  1. From a riffle of mass 4 kg, a bullet of mass 50g is fired with an initial velocity of 35ms-1. Calculate the initial recoil velocity of the riffle.

Answer: v = -0.44m/s

  1. Why sound waves are called as mechanical waves?

Answer: Sound waves need a medium for the propagation. Thus, we can say that they are mechanical waves.

 

  • Food and food production:

         This chapter deals with the importance of food and food production, increase in crop production and animal food.

Improvement in the crop yield:

               The improvement of the crop yield can be made in number of ways by harvesting, weeding crop protection, preparation of qualified soil, harvesting and finally storage.

Food from the animals:

           The breeding, feeding and caring animals for food is called as animal husbandry which includes sericulture, apiculture, pisiculture, poultry farming and livestock farming, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Name few macronutrients?

Answer: Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sulphur, magnesium.

  1. What are the factors responsible for the losses of grains during storage?

Answer: Abiotic fators which are unfavourable conditions of humidity and temperature

Biotic factors are factors such as insects, rodents, bacteria, fungi that feed affect the grains.

 

  • Our environment:

       This chapter is covered in the second term of the CBSE Class 10 Science subject. The topics which are covered under this are Physical resources, bio-geo chemical cycles in nature.

Physical resources:

             Air, water and soil are the physical resources which are very important factors for our environment.

This module explains about the classification, consumption of these resources and factors that deplete our environment.

Examples:

  1. What is the major source of fresh water in village, city and twon?

Answer: Rain water, water from lakes, ponds, pools, dams,etc.,

  1. List any one human activity that may cause air pollution?

Answer: Usage of harmful chemicals such as CFC’s and aerosols.

Thus, the above are the topics which are covered under the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 Science .

CBSE Class 9 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 9 Mathematics:

           This is a little higher grade of class which consists of many advanced topics like coordinate geometry, herons formula, Trigonometry, Graphical representation of data, etc., in Mathematics. As per the terms of conditions of CCE (Continuos and Comprehensive Evaluation), the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 and Class 10 has been divided term wise. Each units in both terms will be assessed through Formative and summative assessment. Each term carries two formative assessment each carrying 10% of weightage. It has been declared that the summative assessment for term 1 carries 30% of weightage and summative assessment for the term 2 carries same 30% of weightage.

Let us check the chapters in CBSE Class 9 Mathematics below:

Term 1:

  • Numbers:
  • Geometry
  • Coordinate Geometry
  • Mensuration
  • Algebra

Term 2:

  • Algebra (Continued from Term 1)
  • Geometry (Continued from Term 1)
  • Mensuration (Continued from Term 1)
  • Statistics
  • Probability

Thus, let us see the chapters one by one:

 

  • Numbers:

     As this is the first chapter in all the classes, CBSE Class 9 also includes “Numbers” chapter as the first and foremost chapter. This covers the topics widely as natural numbers, real numbers, rational numbers, terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals, nth root of a real number, etc.

     A set of all rational and irrational numbers are called as real numbers. A number which cannot be represented in the form of p/q, where p and q are integers and q not equal to 0. The decimal expansion of a number is its representation in base 10 of decimal system.

Examples:

  1. The value of 21/3 * 24/3 = ___

Answer: ½

  1. √8 is equal to _______

Answer: 2√2

  1. Find 6 rational numbers between 6/5 and 7/5.

Answer: 61/50,62/50,63/50,64/50,65/50,66/50

 

  • Geometry:

       Just like other classes general topics on Geometry like lines and angles, triangles, circles, quadrilaterals, etc. Another special topic is covered under this chapter which is known as “Euclidean Geometry”. Euclidean Geometry is a mathematical system where geometrical results are proved based on the previously proved results and assumptions called axioms. There are different axioms and theorems based on the Euclidean Geometry.

       In first term, Geometry includes Euclid’s Geometry, Lines & Angles and Triangles whereas in the second term the chapters of Geometry are Quadrilaterals, Area, Circles and construction.

Examples:

  1. The edges of a plane surface:

Answer: Line

  1. Given four points in which no three of them are collinear, then there exists.

Answer: 6 Lines

  1. Which is the correct statement in the following?
  • The line segment has one and only end point
  • Three points are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line
  • Two lines are coincident if they have one point in common
  • The ray AB is same as the ray BA

             Answer: Two lines are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line

  1. Two angles of triangles are 65 degree and 45 degree respectively. Find the third angles.

Answer: 70 degree

  1. Using the Heron’s formula find the area of the triangle whose sides are 3cm, 4cm and 10 cm.

Answer: 24 sq cm

 

  • Coordinate Geometry:

     This is a chapter which deals how to plot a point in a plane when its coordinates are given. The Cartesian plane is a plane with a rectangular coordinate system that associates each point in the plane with a pair of numbers.

     The two numbers are called as x-coordinate which measures the distance of the point from y-axis and y coordinate which measures the distance of the point from the x-axis. This chapter is covered only during the term 1 of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

  1. The point (0,-5) lies on

Answer: -Ve y-axis

  1. The distance of the point from the (3,0) from the x-axis

Answer: 3 Units

  1. Which of the following points belongs to x-axis?
  • (2,0)
  • (3,3)
  • (0,1)
  • (-2,0)

               Answer: (2,0) and (-2,0) belongs to x-axis

 

  • Mensuration:

   This includes topics such as Area of triangle using Heron’s formula, Area of quadrilateral and its application and so on. This chapter is covered during the term 1 and term 2 of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

  1. Find the area of Equilateral triangle whose side is 12 cm

Answer: 36√3 sq cm

  1. The perimeter of a Rhombus ABCD is 80 cm. Find the area of the Rhombus if its diagonal BD measures 12 cm.

Answer: 228.8 sq cm

  1. Find the area of isosceles Triangle whose equal sides is 6cm, 6cm and 8 cm.

Answer: 17.8 sq cm

 

  • Algebra:

                 The topics which are covered in the first term of Algebra are Polynomials whereas in the second term it covers Linear equations in two variables. The topics which are covered are definition of polynomials, its coefficients, its counter examples, degree of polynomial, constant, linear, quadrilateral and cubic polynomials. The topics which are covered in the second term are linear equations with one variable, linear equations with two variables, graph of linear equations, etc.

       Examples:

  1. The degree of a constant function is ______

Answer: 0

  1. If x+y+x=0, then x3+y3+z3 is

Answer: 2xyz

  1. Evaluate 105 * 95

Answer: 9975

 

  • Statistics:

           This chapter includes introduction to the statistics, representation of collection of data in a tabular form, ungrouped and grouped charts, bar charts, frequency polygons, mean, median and mode of ungrouped data. This chapter is covered during the second term of CBSE Class Mathematics.

Examples:

  1. What is the upper class limit of the class 37-43?

Answer: 43

  1. What is the class size of the intervals 10-20?

Answer: 10

  1. Find the sum of the deviations from the variety of values 3,4,6,8,14 from their mean.

Answer: 0

  • Probability:

           The probability is a chance of occurrence of a given event which means that how likely that an event can take place. For better understanding, if we toss a coin, the probability of getting either head or tail is 50% chance. The topics which are covered under this chapter are definition of probability, examples of probability, real life examples of probability and so on. This chapter is covered under the second term of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

Examples:

  1. What is the probability of a number greater than 6 for a single row of a die?

Answer: 0

  1. A coin is tossed two times. What is the probability of getting two at most 2 heads?
  • ¼
  • ½
  • ¾
  • None of these

             Answer: None of these

  1. A card is drawn from a pack of cards. Find the probability that it is queen?

Answer: 1/13

       Thus, above topics sare the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 Mathematics.

CBSE Class 8 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 8 Science:

                 This is a syllabus of elementary standard 8th in CBSE. This covers various topics such as

  1. Food
  2. Materials
  3. The world of living
  4. Moving things, people and ideas
  5. How things work?
  6. Natural Phenomena

 

  • Food:

               This covers various topics under “Food” such as crop production, basic practices in crop production, preparation of soil for cultivation, selection of seeds and sowing techniques, importance of manures and fertilizers, process of irrigation, weeding, harvesting and its importance, methods of storage of water for irrigation, food from animals, microorganisms, etc.

Generally, Agriculture is the cultivation of crops to provide food for all life forms. For such cultivation, soil must be replenished with the nourished manures and fertilizers which can help the seeds to germinate and grow into saplings. Also, enough amounts of other nutrients and water must be supplied at the regular intervals.

Irrigation:

               The proper water supply to the plants according to its type and the season is called as irrigation. There are two types of irrigation such as Traditional irrigation and modern irrigation. Traditional irrigation is the standard method which is done with the help of human labors and animals. This is one of the cheapest irrigation methods which are done with the help of chain pump, moat and rahat. Modern irrigation method is a modern method of supplying water to the crops at the regular interval. This requires solar power or bio gas to automatically sprinkle water to the crops without any wastage.

How to protect the crop?

                Crops are prone to the attacks of pests and insects. Thus, it is necessary to take required steps to protect the crop at the right time. Insects are the six leg organisms which cause heavy loss to the crops whereas pests are the organisms which cause diseases in crop plants. These can be controlled by spraying insecticides and pesticides which can prevent crops from such pests and insects.

Weeding:

   The process of removing waste plants is called as weeding. Weeds If present always compete with the healthy crops in obtaining water, sunlight and nutrients. Thus, it is necessary to remove the weeds or unnecessary crops. Weeding can either be done manually by using harrow before they produce flowers and seeds or it can be tilled along with the soil to kill them. Weeds can also be destroyed by using weedicides which are poisonous to the human beings.

Harvesting:

           The process of cutting the mature crop to gather the grains is called as harvesting. This can either be done manually by using a sickle or using a harvestor.

Threshing:

           It is the process of separating the grains from the straw and chaff. A machine called thresher is used for this purpose.

Winnowing:

         It is the process of natural wind to flow through the grains so that the lighter substances fly away allowing heavier substance falling to the ground.

Animal Husbandry:

                           Breeding and rearing living organisms like cow, goat for the food and other products from them. For example dairy products, poultry farming, pisiculture, sericulture, piggery, etc.,

       Examples:

  1. Give two examples for each type of crops:
  • Kharif crop:
  • Rabi crop:

             Answer:

  • Maize and paddy
  • Wheat and pea
  1. Name the microorganism which can fix the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Answer: Rhizobium, azatobactor, Blue green algae, etc.

 

  • Materials:

       This covers various topics such as Synthetic fibers and plastics, metals and non metals, coal and petroleum, combustion and flame, etc.

Synthetic fibers and plastics:

           There are different types of fibers available such natural and synthetic fibers. Cotton is a natural fiber which is obtained from the cotton plant whereas synthetic fibers are the man-made fibers which are prepared by the many raw materials such as petrochemicals. Synthetic fibers are made up of many small units which combine to form large unit called as a polymer. Plastics are the polymers which consist of very long molecules each composed of carbon atoms linked in chains.

Metals and non-metals:

       Metals are hard, strong and durable which is made used in many machineries, trains, automobiles, aeroplanes, water boiler, etc., However not all metals are hard and strong. Sodium and potassium are soft metals which can be cut with a knife whereas mercury is a liquid. Metals are very good conductors of heat. Non metals exist in three states such as solids, liquids and gas. Non metals do not conduct electricity and heat except graphite.

Coal and petroleum:

                   Animals and plants are drifted down to the earth after their death and decomposed to form peat. Coal was formed due to the compression of peat at high temperature and pressure. Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. Petroleum is formed from the compressed organic matter which is a dark and oily liquid with an unpleasant odour. As petroleum is lighter than that of water, the deposits of petroleum occur above the water level.

Combustion and flame:

   Combustion is a chemical process which gives off heat when reacting with oxygen. Such substances are called as combustible substances. Example of such substances are LPG, Kerosene, petrol, etc. There are three types of combustion such as rapid combustion, spontaneous combustion and explosion. The substances which vaporizes while burning produced flames. Kerosene oil and molten wax are the substances that give flame while burning. There are two types of flames such as luminous flames and non-luminous flames.

Examples:

  1. Name the petroleum product which can surface the road.

Answer: Bitumen

  1. List the conditions under which combustion can take place?

Answer: Inflammable substance, ignition temperature and Air

  • The world of living:

           These covers the topics such as conservation of plants and animals, cell structure and functions, reproduction in animals, etc.

Conservation of plants and animals:

          Conservation of forest refers to the prevention and maintenance of animals and plants species and protecting them from various threats. Forest can be conserved by maintaining biosphere reserves, wild life sanctuaries, national and zoological parks and botanical gardens.

Cell structure and function:

                     Cell is a structural and functional unit of all living organisms. Every cell in the body is meant to have some basic function. For example, alveolar is an example of single cell. A group of cells which combine to perform similar function is said to be a tissue. A structure of the cell is made up of cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and the cell organelles.

Cell wall:

               This is present in the structure of a plant cell which gives basic strength and rigidity to the plant body and stands erect during all environmental conditions.

Cell membrane:

           This is a biological membrane which separates interior of the cells from the outside environment.

Cytoplasm:

         It is a jelly like fluid which is present between the nucleus and cell membrane. Cytoplasm is a site of protein synthesis. Almost all metabolic reactions take place in cytoplasm.

Cell organelles:

       These are the living structures which float in the cytoplasm of a cell.

Reproduction in animals:

           This chapter widely covers the topics such as sexual and asexual reproduction in animals, Oviparous and viviparous animals.

Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals:

       Reproduction is a process of developing own species. This can take place in all living organisms such as humans, animals and plants. There are two types of reproduction. They are sexual and asexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction:

               This type of reproduction involves two organisms such as male and female. Reproductive organs of female produces egg (ovum) whereas the male reproductive organs produce sperm. A zygote is the future individual formed by the fusion of egg and sperm.

Asexual Reproduction:

                 This is a type of reproduction where single parent gives rise to the offspring. Animals reproduce asexually by different process such as binary fission, budding, regeneration, cloning and fragmentation.

Oviparous and viviparous animals:

               Oviparous animals are the animals which can lay eggs. For example: Hen, Frog, Fish, etc., These types of animals undergo external fertilization.

Viviparous animals are the animals which give birth to the young ones. For example, Lion, cat and humans. These types of animals undergo internal fertilization.

Examples:

  1. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitats is called as ________

Answer: Wild life sanctuary

  1. Where does the internal fertilization occur in humans?

Answer: Female body

 

  • Moving things, ideas and people:

    This chapter covers various topics such as force, pressure, friction and sound. Let’s check one by one.

Force:

           An interaction of one object with the other object results in force between two objects. Force has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit of force is Newton.

Pressure:

          Thrust which is a force acted on an object (perpendicular to its surface) acting per unit surface area is called as pressure. The SI unit of pressure is Newton per square meter. (N/m2).

Friction:

   Friction is a type of force which opposes the relative motion between two surfaces of objects in contact.

Sound:

       Sound is a form of energy which causes sensation of hearing. Sound can be heard from all possible objects around us. They are produced from the vibrations caused in the object.

Examples:

  1. Give an example of a situation in which applied force causes a change in the shape of an object.

Answer: Inflated balloon

  1. Sound can travel through _______

Answer: Air, liquids and solids

 

  • How things work?

           This chapter covers topics such as conductivity of liquids and chemical effect of electric current.

Conductivity of liquids:

         Materials through which electric current can pass is called as conductors. Those materials which pass electric current through them are called as good conductors of electricity whereas those materials which do not allow electric current to pass through them are called as bad conductor of electricity.

          Pure water or distilled water is a poor conductor of electricity but if any impurities present in the water, it turns to good conductor of electricity.

Chemical effect of electric current:

           When an electric current is passed through a conducting solution chemical reactions are formed. This is known as chemical effect of electric current. Examples of chemical effects of electric current are:

  • Formation of bubbles of gas on the electrodes
  • Change in the color of solutions
  • Deposition of metals in electrodes

Examples:

  1. When the free ends of the tester are dipped into the solution, the magnetic needle shows the deflection. Why is it so?

Answer: It is because the solution conducts electricity and the solution plays the rule of the cell.

  1. Which of the following cannot be easily charged by friction?
  • A plastic scale
  • A woolen cloth
  • An inflated balloon
  • A Copper rod

 Answer: A copper rod

 

  • Natural Phenomena:

This covers the topic such as Lighting, protection from lightning, earthquakes, etc.,

Lightning:

         Lightning is occurred when friction occurs between water and droplets found in the atmosphere. In other words, lightning is cause due to the heavy electric discharge from the clouds to the earth.

 

Earthquakes:

             A sudden violent shaking of the ground which causes great disaster to the earth.

Examples:

  1. Which of the following is not a green gas?
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Nitrogen
  • Methane

Answer: Sulphur dioxide

  1. State the laws of reflection?

Answer: The angle of incident is equal to the angle of reflection. The ray of incidence, the ray of reflection and the normal point of incidence lie in the same plane.

Thus, the above are the topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 8 Science.

 

CBSE Class 8 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 8 Mathematics:

              Just like other CBSE classes, Class 8 has its unique way of structure of syllabus which helps student to understand the topics better. Since the syllabus are designed by the expert teachers, it is always easy for the students at the level of class 8 to understand their topics better.

Lets check out the syllabus of CBSE Class 8 Mathematics below:

 

  • Numbers:

       The chapter “Numbers” covers the syllabus just as that of the previous classes. It includes all basic and important features of “numbers” such as Exponent and powers, rational numbers, even and odd numbers, playing with numbers and factorization. Among this, the newest topics which are added for the CBSE Class 8 level are Square and square root, cube and cube root, playing with numbers, etc.,

Rational numbers:

                 Rational numbers are the numbers which can be expressed in the form of quotient or fraction of two integers. A number is generally said to be a rational number if the numbers in the fraction (for ex) p/q are integers and q is not equal to zero it is said to be a rational number. In other words, it is also expressed as a ratio between two numbers.

Exponents and powers:

                 Exponent can be defined as number of times a number multiplied by itself. Exponents can be expressed as XY where x is a number and y is the power or exponent.

For example, 24 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2

Squares and square roots:

                 This can be explained as the number raised to the power of 2. In other words, when we multiply a number by itself it is said to be a square of a number. Similarly, a square root of a number x can be explained as the value which when multiplied by itself gives the number x.

For example, 2 is the square root of 4.

Cubes and cube roots:

                 Just like the square root of a number, we can also find out the cube root of a number by just raising the number to the power 3. In other words, the cube root of a number x when multiplied by itself 3 times we get the number x. The topics which are covered under this chapter are Finding the cube of a number, finding cube root of a perfect cubes, cube roots of perfect integers, cube roots of product of integers, cube roots of rational numbers, etc.,

Example for a cube root of 27 = 3 * 3 *3

Playing with numbers:

                This is a chapter which is a fun to solve. This includes topics like finding the patterns of a number, properties and divisibility of a number, a number is said to be divisible by another number when the remainder is zero and so on. Interesting topics which are covered under this chapter are playing Sudoku, magic squares, puzzles, interchanging digits of a number, cryptograms and so on.

        Examples:

  1. Find the multiplicative inverse of 25?

Answer: 1/25

  1. What will be the number of zeroes in the square of 5000?

Answer: 6

  1. Find the square of 39?

Answer: 1521

  1. Find the cube root of 175616.

Answer: 56

  1. What is the rational number that does not have a reciprocal?

Answer: 0

 

  • Algebra:

             A collection of symbols and numbers in an equation and solving them together is called as Algebra. Lot of introduction on Algebra is given in the previous classes and thus in the class 8, advanced concepts like division of algebraic expressions, solving linear equations, etc., are covered.

Identities in Algebra:

               One of the newest topics which has been added in the class 8 is “Identities” of algebra. There are three identities namely

  • Identity 1: Multiplication of monomials
  • Identity 2: Multiplication of a monomial and binomial
  • Identity 3: Multiplication of two binomials

         The other topics which are covered under this chapter are knowing the difference between an equation and identity, multiplication of monomials and polynomials, multiplication of binomials and monomials, etc.,

Factorization:

             Factorization is a process of splitting up an algebraic expression into one or more     factors. Topics which are covered under this are common factors and greatest common factor of monomials, factorization of binomial common factor, factorization of grouping the terms, etc.,

Division of algebraic expression:

                     This covers different topics like division of a monomial with same monomial number, division of polynomial with binomial number, division of polynomial with one variable and division of polynomial by using factorization.

Linear equations:

                         This topic covers introduction to the linear equation, solving linear equation with one variable, finding root of an equation, application and solution of a linear equation, cross multiplication method for solving equations, etc.,

 

Examples:

  1. Solve -36y3 % 9y2 = __

Answer: -4y

  1. In the expression which have the factors of the type (x+a)(x+b), remember the numerical term gives _______

Answer: ab

  1. Which of the following is the monomial?
  • 2x+7
  • 4x +y
  • 3a
  • 3x+5y+7

   Answer: 3a

 

  • Ratio and proportion:

Little advanced problems in ratio and proportion chapter are introduced in class 8. Problems on profit and loss, percentage, discount tax and overhead expenses are covered in this chapter. Other topics which are covered as calculating simple and compound interest, direct variation, inverse variation, time and work problems, etc.

Simple and compound interest:

                     Simple interest means interest calculated on certain amount of money borrowed in a specific period of time. The borrower of the money has to pay back the original principal amount plus the interest amount. It is usually for shorter periods. Compound interest is usually calculated for longer periods. Compound interest is an interest that is added to the principal amount after a specified time period and then the interest is calculated for that new principal amount.

Direct and inverse proportions:

               In a ratio of x:y, if y increases when x increases it is said to be direct proportion whereas y decreases when x increases it is said to be inverse proportion.

Time and work:

                 This is rather an important topic which mainly divided into two variations such as direct and indirect variations. Two variables are said to be “directly variable” if increase in one quantity leads to the corresponding increase in the other quantity. Two variables are said to be “indirectly variable” if increase in one quantity leads to the corresponding decrease in the other quantity.

Examples:

  1. Find the ratio of Rs.6 to 50 paise.

Answer: 12:1

  1. ________ means comparing two quantities.

Answer: Ratio

  1. Write the expression using the exponents: 25 * 25* 25

Answer: 253

  1. The cost of 5 metres of a satin cloth is Rs.210. Find the sot of 15 metres of same type of cloth.

Answer: Rs.630

  1. If 15 workers can build a wall in 48 hours, how many workers are required to do the same work in 30 hours.

Answer: 24

 

  • Geometry:

         As this has become important chapter in the previous classes of CBSE, class 8 covers more important topics under Geometry. This covers various topics like understanding the shapes, properties of different objects like polygon, parallelogram, quadrilateral, etc.,

Understanding polygons:

             A polygon is a closed figure formed by the line segments. There are different types of polygons such as Convex polygon, concave polygon and regular polygon.          

Understanding Quadrilaterals:

           Quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices. Examples of polygons are squares, rhombus and trapezium.

Representing 3 dimensional objects in 2 D:

                 This covers various topics such as drawing 2 D objects in 3 Dimensional form, counting vertices, edges, faces and verifying Euler’s relations, etc.,

Examples:

  1. A two dimensional shape is a ______ shape.

Answer: Plane

  1. How many edges are there in a triangular pyramid?

Answer: 6

  1. State the name of the regular polygon of 4 sides.

Answer: Quadrilateral

  1. The diagonals of a _____ are perpendicular bisectors of each other.

Answer: Square

  1. State true of false for the following:
  • All squares are not parallelograms

             Answer: False

  • Mensuration:

           This is calculation of volume, area and perimeter of an object. Total boundary sizes covered by an object is said to be perimeter whereas total surface covered by an object is called as Area. Similarly, total amount of space occupied by the 3-D figure is called as volume. This chapter covers many topics like calculating volume of many 3D objects such as cubes, cuboids, prism, pyramid and others.

Examples:

  1. Find the side of a cube whose surface area is 2400 cm2.

Answer:20 cm

  1. What is the volume of a cuboid?

Answer: L *B * H

 

  • Introduction to graphs:

            Graphs concepts are introduced in this level of CBSE Class 8. Concepts such as axes, Cartesian plane, plotting points from different kinds of situation, reading off from the graphs, reading off linear graphs, reading distance vs time graphs, etc., are covered under this chapter.

Examples:

  1. On which axis does the points (5,0) lie?

Answer: X-axis

  1. In which quadrant does the point P(-8,1) lie?

Answer: IV

Thus, above topics are the syllabus of CBSE Class 8 Mathematics.

CBSE Class 7 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 7 Mathematics:

               The syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics is an upper primary syllabus for developing the mathematical understanding and interest among the growing children.

The topics which are covered in the CBSE Class 7 are mostly similar to that of class 6. Few of the new topics that are added new in class 7 are Exponents and powers, Congruence of triangle, Triangle and its properties, etc.,

So, let’s check the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics below:

 

  • Numbers:

        Just similar to all the previous classes of CBSE, Numbers is the first and foremost chapter in the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics. Since this is a upper primary syllabus, Number chapter includes various topics such as

  • Integers
  • Fractions and rational numbers
  • Exponents and powers

      Integers:

                           Integers are the special group of numbers which consists of set of positive and negative    

       whole numbers and do not contain any fractional or decimal part. The syllabus which are covered

       under the topic of “integer” are,

  • Multiplication and Division with integers
  • Addition and subtraction with integers
  • Word problems on integers
  • Properties of integers

       Properties such as Closure property, Commutative, Associative, Distributive are very important properties in the syllabus.

       Examples:

  1. In an exam, positive mark is given for every right answer and negative marks are every wrong answer. If sekar scores 23, 4, -7,-4, 10 in five successive rounds, what is his total at the end?

Answer: 26

  1. When two positive integers are added, we get result in _______

Answer: Positive

Fractions and Rational numbers:

                Fractions can be explained as “number of parts in a whole”. This is represented with a slash. The number above the slash is called as a numerator and the number which is below the slash is called as denominator. Any number which can be represented in a fractional form is called as Rational number. This is represented with “:”. The numerator and denominator are whole numbers in a fraction for a rational number. This includes topics such as multiplication of fraction, fraction as an operator, reciprocal of a fraction, division of a fraction, word problems on mixed fractions and decimal fractions, etc.,

 Examples:

  1. 2 * 1/7 = ___

Answer: 2/7

  1. 3/7*4/11 = ___

Answer: 12/77

  1. Is 1.5 a rational number?

Answer: Yes

Exponents and Powers:

                   Exponent is number of times a number multiplied by itself. This covers different laws of Exponents such as First law, second law up to fifth law. The topics which are covered under this are expressing the number in exponential form, laws of exponent, standard forms of exponent, solving the exponential expressions, expressing decimal number system in exponential form using power of 10, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Simplify the following: (220 % 215) * 25 = _____

Answer: 256

  1. The usual form of 1.001 * 109 = ___

Answer: 1001000000

 

  • Algebra:

         As we already know, introduction to Algebra is given in the previous class 6 and thus this is a continuation of advanced concepts of Algebra. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics which deals with the symbol and rules for manipulating those symbols. The topics which are covered under this chapter are Generating algebraic expressions involving one or two variables, identifying constants, coefficients and powers, addition and subtraction of algebraic expression, simple linear equations in one variable, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Subtract the following:

         3a-b+4 – a –b

Answer: 2a +4

  1. Terms which have same algebraic factors are called as ______

Answer: Like terms

  1. The sum or difference of two like terms is called as ______

Answer: Like term

 

  • Geometry:

   This covers vast topics in Geometry like Lines and Angles, Triangle and its properties, Congruence of Triangle, practical geometry and finding out the perimeter and area.

Lines and Angles:

       A line is a single dimensional object which does not have end point. When two lines meet at a point they form an angle. The point at which the angles are formed is called as vertex. There are different types of angles such as acute angles, adjacent angles, interior angles, exterior angles and so on.

Triangle and its properties:

               Triangle is one of the geometrical shapes which is a polygon with three sides, 3 vertices or 3 corners. There are different types of Triangles such as equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle and so on. Similarly, each triangle has its own properties such as Angle sum Property of a triangle, Triangle inequality Property and so on. The topics which are covered under this topic are Medians and Altitudes of the Triangles, Exterior angle of a triangle and its properties, Right angled triangle and Pythagoras theorem, sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle, etc.,

Congruence of a Triangle:

               Two triangles are said to be congruent if their respective angles and sides are equal. This topic covers rules of the congruency of triangles, axioms and so on. The topics which are covered under this are congruence of line segments, angles and plane figures, criteria for congruence of Triangles such as SSS, SAS, ASA, AAS, RHS.

       Examples:

  1. When two angles are supplementary, each angle is said to be ____ of each other.

Answer: Supplement

  1. _____ has no end points.

Answer: Line

  1. According to the Pythagoras property, in a right angled triangle , a square on the ____ = sum of the squares on the legs.

Answer: Hypotenuse

  1. Determine the angle for the following triangle with the sides 3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm respectively.

Answer: Right angled.

  1. How many medians does a Triangle have?

Answer: Three

  1. An ____ is formed when line segment or lines meet?

Answer: Angle

  1. If two angles have same measurement, then they are said to be ______ angle.

Answer: Congruent

 

  • Collection and Organization of data:

                Collection of data which are represented graphically to understand the structure and organization of the data. This is because it is easier to understand and interpret when it is pictorially represented. Thus, a collection of data can be represented using different types of graphs such as :

  • Bar graphs
  • Tally graphs
  • Pictographs
  • Pie charts

    Examples:

  1. Any type of graphs or charts is given. Questions are based on the given pie chart or bar graph. Answers are solved according to the pictorial representation of data.

 

  • Mensuration:

                 This covers the topics such as finding the perimeter and area of the given object. Perimeter means total boundary size of an object whereas Area is the total surface covered by an object. Different objects such as circle, rhombus, Trapezium are covered under this topic. Topics such as area of rhombus, parallelogram, trapezium, circle, finding the circumference and area of the circle, area between two rectangles and two concentric circles and so on.

        Examples:

  1. Write ¾ in the form of percentage?

Answer: 75%

  1. One fourth of the perimeter of a square gives _____

Answer: Side of the square

  1. What is the area of the parallelogram _____

Answer: Base * Height

 

  • Comparing quantities:

             This covers the new topics such as Profit and loss, calculating percentage and simple interest, etc., This is rather very important chapter for a growing child to understand and calculate this day to day mathematical problems.

Examples:

  1. The cost price of 20 articles is same as the selling price of x articles. If the profit is 25%, then the value of x is:

Answer: 16

  1. If the selling price is doubled, the profit triples. Find the profit percentage?

Answer: 100%

 

  • 3-Dimentional visualization:

               This topic deals with the objects which have three dimensions such as length, height and depth. Examples of such object are sphere, prism, pyramid, cube and cuboid.

Examples:

  1. Which is the three dimensional figure which has six rectangular faces at right angles to each other?

Answer: Cuboid

  1. A three dimensional figure which is bounded by polygons are called as ______

Answer: Polyhedrons

Thus, these are the topics which are covered under the syllabus of CBSE Class 7 Mathematics.

 

 

CBSE Class 5 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 5 Mathematics:

             Mathematics gets little tougher this time when compared to the previous classes such as CBSE class 3 and class 4. CBSE Class 5 includes many concepts such as Percentage, lines and angles, shapes and their properties, multiples and factors along with the regular topics of previous classes.

The syllabus covered for CBSE Class 5 mathematics are below:

  • Numbers and Arithmetic operations on it:

             Few advanced concepts in “Numbers” topic are covered such as introduction to abacus, handling prime and composite number , knowing the differences between face value and place value of a number, rounding of numbers and number patterns. Word problems on addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are covered under this topic.

Examples:

  1. The smallest odd prime number ________

Answer: 3

  1. All even numbers are divisible by ___

Answer: 2

  1. Round off 5117 to the nearest ten:
  • 5120
  • 5130
  • 5115
  • 5100

Answer: 5120

  1. Build a five digit number from the following:
  • 3+35+0+1000+70000

               Answer: 71,038

  1. Answer the following using BODMAS rule:
  • 75*(4-2)

               Answer: 150

 

  • Multiplication and Division:

                    Advanced word problems in multiplication and division are covered under this syllabus.

Examples:

  1. Alia saves Rs.546 per month. How much does she save in a full year?

Answer: 6,552

  1. There are 675 pages in a book. How many pages are there in 15 books?

Answer: 10,125

  1. How many weeks are there in 205 days?

Answer: 29 weeks 2 days

 

  • LCM and HCF:

     This comes under the topic of “Multiples and factor”. LCM stands for Lowest Common Mutiple and HCF stands for Highest Common factor.

Examples:

  1. What is the HCF for the numbers 20 and 30?

Answer: 10

  1. What is the common multiple for 5 and 7?

Answer: 35

  1. Sunil planted 35 apple and 30 peach trees. If he wants to plant same number and type of plants in a row, what is the maximum number of trees that he can plant in a row?

Answer: 10

  • Fractions and decimals:

                 The concept of fractions consists of two main parts such as numerators and denominators. Numerator is the number which is above the fraction line whereas denominator is the number which is below the fraction line. The concept of decimals can be defined as the numbers which contains the decimal point. The number to the left of decimal point is an ordinary whole number and the number to the right of the decimal point is called as “tenths” digits. For example, 1.5 is same as 1 plus 1/5.

Examples:

  1. Find out the answer for the following:
  • 85*0.25

               Answer: 0.2125

  1. 10/40 is equal to ____

Answer: 0.25

  1. 3 3/4 % 1 2/3 = ?

Answer: 9/4 which is equal to 2 1/4

 

  • Ratio and percentage:

     Ratio shows relative sizes of two or more values. It is represented with the symbol “:”. If there are totally 4 boys and 5 girls in a classroom, then it can be represented though ratio system as: 4:5 which means there are 4 boys out of 9 students (4/9) and 5 girls out of 9 students (5/9). Percentage can be expressed as a value on the basis of rate or proportion per hundred. For example, 36/100 is equal to 0.36 or 36%.

Examples:

  1. Calculate the following ratios:
  • 2:3 = 36 : _
  • 4:6 = 8 : _
  • 8:3 = 24 : _

               Answer: 36: 54

                               8 : 12

                               24 : 9

  1. 72% of 11 is _ of 40% of 97?
  • =

               Answer: <

 

  • Lines and angles:

           A line is a straight path that goes on and in opposite directions. There are different types of lines such as parallel lines and perpendicular lines. Parallel lines are the lines that never intersect or cross each other. Perpendicular lines are the lines which cross each other or intersect at right angles. An Angle is a two lines that meet at an endpoint called a vertex. There are different types of angles such as acute angles, obtuse angles, supplementary angles,etc. Acute angle is an angle which measures less than 90 degrees through the protractor. Obtuse angle is an angle which measures greater than 90 degrees through the protractor. Two angles whose measurement adds up to 180 degrees are supplementary angles.

Examples:

  1. Questions are based on pictorial representation of angles asking students to identify the type of angles.

 

  • Perimeter and area:

       As these concepts are covered in the previous class 4, a little more advanced syllabus are added under this topic. Perimeter is the total boundary size of the object whereas area is the total surface covered by the object.

Examples:

  1. There are 5 cm cubes which are glued together to form a cuboid. Find the volume of the cuboid.

Answer: 192 cubic cm

  1. How much water does a rectangular tank hold with a square base of 2.5 yards and a height of 4 yards hold?

Answer: 10 cube yards

 

  • Shapes and their properties:

                 This is a part of geometry which covers different types of triangles such as Scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, right and obtuse triangle.

Examples:

  1. Questions based on classifying triangles and properties related to that.

 

  • Patterns and Symmetry:

             An object which has evenly balanced properties called as symmetrical. A shape is symmetrical when its two halves are mirror images along the line of symmetry. Different types of lessons such as mirror games, turning mirror images by ½ turn, examples and problems, identifying different patterns, etc.

Examples:

  1. Pictorial representation of various figures are given to find out the lines of symmetry of each object.

Along with the above topics, regular topics like Time and date, measurement of length, mass and capacity, smart charts are also covered in the syllabus of CBSE Class 5 Mathematics.

CBSE Class 4 Mathematics Syllabus

CBSE Class 4 Mathematics:

              Math is highly important for the growing children and they must be properly trained to solve all the possible problems in their syllabus. Apart from the regular patterns such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Class 4 covers various topics such as geometrical figures, fraction, decimal, etc. It is a known fact that the student who has strong knowledge in math is capable to solve any kind of problems even in other subjects. CBSE Class 4 syllabuses is prepared by experienced teachers who have designed the subjects according to the student’s learning ability.

Now let us check the detailed syllabus of CBSE Class 4 Mathematics below:

 

  • Numbers:

         This is a next level of numerical system which covers the topics such as Rounding of numbers, Indian and International systems, predecessor and successor number, comparing numbers, even odd numbers and so on.

 

Examples:

  1. The Roman numeral for 49 is __________
  • XLIX
  • L
  • XLVI

               Answer: XLIX

  1. Write the numbers in standard expanded form:
  • 45634

               Answer: 40000+5000+600+30+4

  1. Arrange the following in descending order:
  • -9, 0,-4, 5,3,1

               Answer: 5, 3,1,0,-4,-9

 

  • Arithmetic operations on numbers:

               Word problems based on Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are covered in this section. These problems will help the students to solve day-to-day real life problems while dividing cakes among friends, shopping, saving and many more.

Examples:

  1. The smallest 5-digit odd number ______
  • 1002
  • 1233
  • 1001

               Answer: 1001

  1. Subtract the following numbers:
  • 888888-177777 =?

               Answer: 711,111

  1. A factory produces 2050 dolls per day. How many dolls are produced in 45 days?

               Answer: 92,250

  1. 25 % _ = 1

              Answer: 25

 

  • Fractions, Decimals:

     Introduction to Fractions are given in the CBSE Class 3. Thus now, fractions concept cover dividing shapes in half’s, quarters, mixed and advanced word problems in fractions.

     In CBSE Class 4, Decimal section is introduced which covers the topics like reading the decimals and place value, conversion and operations of decimals, etc., This gives a basic understanding for the students of Class 4 that the decimal point goes between units and tenths.

The best example for understanding the concept of fraction and decimal is below:

Fraction: 45/100

Decimal: 0.45

Examples:

  1. Arrange the following fractions in ascending order:
  • 5/12, 3/12,1/12,4/12

             Answer: 1/12, 3/12, 4/12, 5/12

  1. If 25 out of 45 students are girls in a school, then the decimal for the part of girls in the school are:

             Answer: 25/45

 

  • Time and Date:

     Time and date is a very important concept in everyday life. Students must have a strong understanding of time and date formats, AM and PM difference, reading the clock, handling the time, etc. The concept which are covered in “Time and Date” are reading the clock and knowing the correct time, time taken for a task, 24 hour format, etc.,

Examples:

  1. 6 hours after 8.45 P.M is ______

          Answer: 2.45 A.M

  1. Asha leaves home at 7.30 A.M and returns home at 4.15 P.M. How long she has stayed out?

          Answer: 8 Hours 45 minutes

  1. Half past 7 A.M and quarter past 10 P.M?

          Answer: 7.30 A.M and 10.15 P.M

 

  • Money:

           Just like time and date concept, the concept of money is also very important for day-to-day activities. Understanding the profit and loss in a sale, knowing the current balance are most important concepts in everyday life.

Examples:

  1. How many rupees are there in 4560 paise?

          Answer: 45 Rupees 60 paise

  1. The price of color pencil box was Rs.58 on February which was priced up to Rs.98 within next two months. What is the difference in the price increase?

         Answer: Rs.40

 

  • Geometry:

     Geometry is an important and interesting subject of mathematics. In our day-to-day life we come across various objects in different shapes. Also, such objects shapes differ according to the position we look at it. Thus, these positions are named as front view, top view, side view and bottom view. Every object is different in different positions.

Examples:

  1. ________ has two end points?

Answer: Line

  1. The radius of a circle is 5 cm. Find out its diameter?

Answer: 10 cm

  1. Sunil walks around a triangular garden with sides 16m, 23m and 45m. Find out the distance he covers if he walks around it for 4 times.

Answer: 336 m

 

  • Circle:

                 This is part of Geometrical concept, which covers the topics such as drawing circle, radius of the circle, making circle designs using the compass, centre of circle and so on. The main specialty of a circle when compared to other geometrical figures is it does not have any edges or corners. The distance between the centre of the circle and its circumference is said to be radius.

Examples:

  1. Pictorial representations of circles are given to find out the diameter, radius of it.

 

  • Perimeter and Area:

                   These are used to measure the size of an object. Perimeter is the total boundary size of an object whereas Area is the total surface covered by the object. Perimeter is measured in terms of meter.

                   The topics which are covered under this section are calculating the exact boundary of given objects, uneven objects and curved shape, Circle boundary and word problems based on perimeter and area of an object.

Examples:

  1. Examples are based on pictorial representation of a triangle, rectangle or square. Students are asked to find out the perimeter and area of the object by giving the sizes of the sides.

 

  • Measurement of Length, Mass and Capacity:

           This is a very common concept and it covers calculating distance between two objects, converting meter to kilo meter, milli meter, etc., Along with the standard unit meter, in CBSE Class 4, other measuring units such as Miles, yard, feet and inches are also taught. Similarly, measuring mass in terms of kgs and grams are also covered in CBSE Class 4 syllabus. In addition to this, introduction to the problems of jugs and mugs, litters and milli litters are covered under the topic of Measurement of capacity.

Examples:

  1. Divide the following:
  • 25km 96m divided by 2

             Answer: 12548 meter

  1. Convert 7678 kg into quintal:

Answer: 76 quintal 78 kgs

  1. Convert the 25 l 75 ml in ml

Answer: 25075 ml

 

  • Designs and patterns-Building with bricks:

     This is a concept which is a part of Geometry as it mostly covers the concept of Cuboid. Bricks are in the shape of cuboid and math is going to be a fun with these building bricks. Topics covered in this section are Drawing a brick and different wall patterns, shapes and sizes of the bricks, process of building bricks, etc.,

Examples:

  1. A brick has ______ edges
  • 13 edges
  • 8 edges
  • 12 edges

               Answer: 12 edges

  1. A dice has _________ faces
  • 8
  • 6
  • 4

               Answer: 6

Thus, above are the syllabus covered for CBSE Class 4 Mathematics.

CBSE Class 3 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 3 Science:

The topics which are covered under the CBSE Class 3 Science stream are as follows:

  • Living and non living things
  • Plants and animals
  • Our body
  • Home
  • Safety and first aid
  • Our Environment and our universe
  • Force, work and energy
  • Light and sound
  • Matter
  • Transport and communication
  • My family:

These topics in detail are as below:

 

  • Living and non living things:

Living things are the organisms which are made of cells and those which are alive. In other words, alive means breathing, sleeping, growing, moving and reproducing. All types of living things need food and energy for the survival to do their day-to-day activities. Best examples of living things are animals, plants, humans, bacteria, etc.,

Non living things are just opposite to that of living things. Non living things are the things which are not alive and hence does not breathe, reproduce, move and grow. Best examples of non living things are Paper, pen, stone, etc.,

 

Examples:

  1. Name any two living things and non living things:

Answer:

Living things: Plant, dog

Non-living things: soap, pencil

  1. What is difference between a living thing and non living thing:

Answer:

Living thing has life and can move, grow and reproduce.

Non living thing does not have life and does not move, grow and reproduce.

 

  • Plants and animals:

This chapter covers the various types of plants and animals on the earth. Plants are the green shrubs or herbs which have different parts such as stems, roots, branches, etc. The functions of the roots are to carry water and nutrients from the soil to all parts of the plants. There are different types of plants such as flowering, non-flowering, short, long ,etc.,

Similarly, animals are huge in variety and every animal has unique and different characteristics. Every animal has its own color, pattern, body weight and structure. For example, the patterns in the body of the tiger are different when compared to the pattern of zebra. Similarly, the strength of an elephant is quite higher when compared to the strength of a deer.

Animals can be differentiated into various categories like insects, reptiles, birds and mammals. Animals like cow, hen, and goat are tamed for the household purposes and are called as domestic animals. Similarly, animals like tiger, lion, rhino, and deer can be seen only in dark forest and cannot be tamed in the houses for domestic purposes.

 

Carnivores:

Animals which feed on other animals are called as carnivores. Example: Tiger, lion, wolf, etc.,

Omnivores:

Animals which feed on other animals as well as leafy vegetables are called as omnivores. Example: Crow, rat, peacock, etc.,

Herbivores:

These types of animals are soft by nature. They feed only on fruits, green and leafy vegetables, etc., Examples: cow, deer, goat, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Name any two water animals?

Answer: Fish and octopus

  1. I fix the plant to the soil. Who am i?

Answer: Root

  • Our body:

Human body consists of different organs which are responsible for different kinds of tasks individually. This chapter covers the main systems of our human body and their functions.

 

Excretory system:

This is an important system which releases unwanted wastes from our body. Pair of kidneys helps in the process of eliminating unwanted waste from our body.

Nervous system:

This is a main control system for a human body. It consists of brain, spinal cord, sensory organs and nerves which connect throughout the entire body. This is responsible for all the sensory organs of the body.

Circulatory system:

This is a vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for flow of blood, nutrients, hormones and oxygen. Without the circulatory system the body will fail to fight against the diseases and hence the body becomes more vulnerable to any kind of diseases.

Respiratory system:

As the name suggests, respiratory system is responsible for inhaling fresh oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. This process is done with the help of pair of lungs.

Examples:

  1. Which are the organs used for the respiration process?

Answer: Nose, lungs, trachea and bronchi

  1. The process of removing waste from our body is called as

Answer: Excretion

 

  • Home:

House is a place for shelter and safety. This is quite different from the word “Home”. House is made up of different materials whereas home is a place where you live with your family and friends. The topics which are covered under this chapter are your house and people living in it, animals found in the houses, how to keep your home tidy and beautiful, etc.,

Examples:

  1. What kind of animals can be tamed as pet animals in our home?

Answer: Dog, cat, fish, etc.,

 

  • Safety and first aid:

First aid is the immediate attention to the patients before any medical attention. The main aim of a first aid treatment is to prevent further injury, preserve life and promote recovery. First aid box consist of things such as cotton, bandage, scissors, antiseptic powder, ointment, pain killer, etc.,

 

First aid treatment for a bone fracture:

A bone fracture can occur during an athletic completion, accident or during some cases. During such bone fractures immediate medical attention is needed to prevent further injury. But however, before that, few first aid treatments which can be taken are

  1. Please do not move the part which is injured. Be careful during this time since moving the injured part may cause severe damage to the bones.
  2. Apply an ice pack wrapped in cloth
  3. Splint that area if possible
  4. Call for medical attention as soon as possible

Examples:

  1. Write any two steps to be taken when a person is in unconscious state?

Answer: Check their breathing by tilting their head backward and feel the breath, Loosen his tight clothing.

  1. What should be done when a ship catches fire and we are in it.

Answer: Immediately wear life jacket and try to catch a life boat.

 

  • Our environment and our universe:

   This chapter covers the topics such as air and weather and water.

Air:

This is an invisible gaseous substance which is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. This kind of air is pure when it is not polluted. Air pollution occurs due to many factors such as increase in the usage of vehicles, releasing more wastages and dust from the industries, burning plastics and other raw materials, etc.,

Water:

This is a transparent substance which is very much necessary for living organisms. Most part of our body is covered with water. Drinking 3 to 4 liters of water daily is an essential day to day activity. Thus, water must be pure and prevented from pollution.

Our Universe:

This is a study of galaxies, number of planets, solar system, stars, meteoroids, satellites, etc., This chapter covers nine planets and their names, function of our solar system, moo, sun and satellites.

 

Examples:

  1. Name any three activities which can be done without water?

Answer: Writing, singing and running

  1. What is meant by atmosphere?

Answer: The layer of air surrounding the earth.

 

  • Rocks and soil:

Rocks are made up of one or more minerals. There are three main classifications of the rocks such as sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks and igneous rocks. Soil is formed from the fine rock particles mixed with air, water and particles from dead plant and animals.

Examples:

  1. In addition to the rock particles, soil contains?
  • Air and water
  • Water and plants
  • Minerals, organic matter, air and water
  • Water, air and plants

Answer: Minerals, organic matter, air and water

  1. Which top soil is best suited for growing plants?
  • Sandy soil
  • Loamy soil
  • Clayey soil
  • None of these

Answer: Loamy soil

 

  • Force, work and energy:

Work is a result when a force acts upon an object to cause displacement. In other words, it refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the direction of force. Energy is a capacity to do any work. In other words, in order to do any kind of work you need energy.

Force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object’s interaction with another object. Whenever, there is an interaction between two objects, there exists a force. When the interaction ceases, two objects no longer experience force.

 Examples:

  1. Does a work done on a load depend upon the time taken to raise the load?

Answer: No, work does not depend on the time

  1. Is work a scalar or vector quantity?

Answer: Work is a scalar quantity

  1. Can kinetic energy of an object be in negative?

Answer: No it can’t be negative

 

  • Light and sound:

A sound is a vibration that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person’s or animal’s ear. Light is a natural agent that stimulates the eye sight and make things brighter than normal.

Examples:

  1. Sound can travel through?
  • Gases only
  • Solids only
  • Liquids only
  • Solids, liquids and gases

Answer: Sound travels through solids, liquids and gases as it requires a medium to travel through.       These three states provides medium for the sound to travel. Sound cannot travel in vacuum.

  1. Which of the following voices is likely to have minimum frequency?
  • Baby boy
  • Baby girl
  • A man
  • A woman

Answer: A man voice has minimum frequency since the sound is directly proportional to its pitch. Thus, the voice of an adult man has lower pitch when compared to the other voices.

  1. An image that cannot be obtained on the screen is called as ___

Answer: Virtual image

 

  • Matter:

Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space. According to physics, matter consists of various types of particles such as mass and size.

Examples:

  1. Which of the following are matter? Chair, air, cold drink, smell of perfume.

Answer: Anything that occupies space and has mass is called as matter. Matter can exist in three states such as solid, liquid and gas. Chair is a solid state of matter. Air and smell of perfume are gaseous state of matter. Cold drink is a liquid state of matter.

  1. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of matter does this observation show?

Answer: This shows that the matter is made up of particles.

 

  • Transport and communication:

There are different means of transport in our country. In our day-to-day life, we go by bus, car, scooter, bicycle, auto rickshaw or by any other means of transport. Communication is a way of expressing our thoughts and ideas to the people we meet. We talk to our parents, friends, neighbors and share our ideas. Just remember, if we do not have anyone to communicate or share our thoughts? Ideas and feelings cannot be exchanged in such cases. Thus, communication is very important in our everyday life.

Examples:

  1. Give any two transports of the people in villages?

Answer: Tonga, Bullock cart

  1. Which means of transport will you use to travel from Chennai to Delhi?

Answer: Train or Flight

  1. Letters and telegrams are common means of ______

Answer: communication

  1. E-mail is sent through a ______

Answer: computer

  1. Who invented television?

Answer: John Logie Baird

 

  • My Family:

Our first school is our family. Our parents, brothers, sisters, elders are our family. We learn many things from our family such as good manner, discipline, good habits, etc., Our parents teach us basic things in our everyday life and how to respect the elders. Thus, learning about our family is very important and everyone should know their own family’s likes and dislikes.

 

Examples:

  1. What is a family?

Answer: A group consisting of parents and children living together in the same household is called a family.

  1. What is an extended family?

Answer: An extended family consists of close relatives, grandparents, cousins living together in the close proximity or in the same house.

Above are the syllabus covered for the CBSE Class 3 science stream.

 

 

CBSE Class 2 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 2 Science:

The syllabus for CBSE Class 2 is as follows:

  • Our environment
  • Plants and animals
  • My body
  • Food, clothing and shelter
  • Good habits and safety
  • Air, water and weather
  • Earth and sky
  • Rocks
  • Light and shadow
  • Institutions that serve us

These topics in detail are below:

 

  • Our environment:

     It’s our duty to keep our environment neat and clean. A clean environment is necessary for a neat and peaceful life. Natural environment helps humans and animals to live their day-to-day life. They provide fresh air, vegetables, fruits, water and so on. But due to some bad and selfish attitudes of humans, the environment gets spoiled. Thus, it is the duty of the human beings to take care of our environment by preventing pollution and avoiding deforestation.

The types of pollution which are caused due to humans are:

 

Air pollution:    

             Air pollution occurs due to the increased number of vehicles, increased number of waste discharge from the industries, burning plastics and so on. Thus, humans must take step to control air pollution by following ways.

  1. Instead of burning papers, glass bottles, plastics try to recycle them which conserve energy and reduce production emission.
  2. Plant at least one tree at your neighborhoods.
  3. Try to use solar electricity at your homes.
  4. Choose not to smoke anywhere outside the smoking area.

 

Water pollution:

                     Just like air pollution, water pollution is also one of the major threats caused by human beings. Water pollution which are caused due to several factors like mixing chemical wastages from the industries, polluting the ponds and lakes, etc.,

       The ways to control water pollution are:

  1. Do not flush pills, powder medications or any solid waste into your toilet.
  2. Do not pour oil based foods, fat or cheesy foods stuffs in your sinks.
  3. Do not dispose any kinds of chemicals, motor oil or other automotive fluids into the sanitary sewer which may end at the river.

 

Noise pollution:

                   Whenever the sound is excessive or unpleasant, noise pollution occurs. Loud music, sounds raised by the traffic jams on the roads, electrical appliances sound, etc. are all examples of noise pollution.

       The ways to control noise pollution are:

  1. Planting number of trees around your atmosphere may reduce noise pollution.
  2. Approving noise producing industries away from the city areas.
  3. Sound absorption can be done by constructing windows with double or triple panes of glass with sound absorbing material.

     Examples:

  1. What is the role of decomposers in our ecosystem?

Answer: Decomposers decompose dead remains of the plants and animals. This way they channelize the raw materials back to our environment and also reduce the burden of removing the waste dead body away from the environment.

  1. What is ozone and how does it affect any ecosystem?

Answer: Ozone is a form of oxygen. Ozone forms the ozone layer in our atmosphere. Ozone layer prevents the harmful ultraviolet rays from sun and thus protects the living beings.

 

  • Plants and animal life:

         Plants are the living things which has various parts such as roots, stem, branches, leaves, etc., There are different types of plants such as flowering or non-flowering plants, plants that grow longer or shorter, plants that live for longer period or shorter period, etc.,

Plants prepare their own food with the help of the process called photosynthesis. The main foods for the plants are water, sunlight and healthy soil. Reproduction is of two types in plants. Asexual reproduction takes place with the help of single parent whereas sexual reproduction takes place by the fusion of gametes resulting in offspring. Plants main responsibility to our environment is to inhale harmful carbon dioxide and exhale fresh oxygen. Also, we get various types of foods from the plants such as fruits, vegetables, leafy vegetables, etc.,

Animal life:

           Every animal has unique characteristic and feature. The appearance of every animal is different from another. For examples, the body structure and pattern in the skin of cheetah is different to that of zebra. The animals can be of different types and belong to several categories such as

 

Carnivores:

           Animals which feed on another animal for food are called as carnivores. Examples: Tiger, lion, etc.,

Omnivores:

             Animals which feed on plants as well as another animal are called as omnivores. For example, Rat, crow, etc.,

Herbivores:

           Animals which feed only on plants are called as herbivores. For example, cow, deer, etc., Domestic animals are the animals which are tamed as pets in the households. For example, dog, cat, parrot, rabbit, etc. Wild animals are the animals which cannot be tamed at houses and live only in jungle areas. For example, elephants, tiger, lion, wolf, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Name any plant that has flowers but no leaves?

Answer: cactus

  1. Photosynthesis is carried out in which part of the cell?

Answer: Chloroplast

  1. What is the fastest animal with two legs?

Answer: Ostrich

 

  • My body:

       Our body is made up of several organs such as liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, etc which are responsible for individual tasks.

Respiratory system:

                 The primary organ for the process of respiration is lungs. Lungs take in oxygen and expel out carbon dioxide as we breathe.

Excretory system:

             This is a system which releases out unnecessary wastages from our body. Kidneys help in the process of excretion.

Nervous system:

               This consists of brain, spinal cord, sensory organs and all the nerves that connect these organs to the rest of the body. These organs control the body and helps in communication among all the parts.

Examples:

  1. How many chambers does a normal human heart have?

Answer: 4

  1. In the human body, where is the humerus bone?

Answer: Upper arm

  1. How long does a missing finger nail take back to grow again?

Answer: 4 to 5 months

 

  • Food, clothing and shelter:

         Food is an essential thing for human life. Foods can either be in a solid or liquid state. In order to perform everyday activities, every living being depends upon food which gives them energy to perform any function.

         Clothing is also an essential factor for humans which protect them against various types of seasons on earth. For example, cotton keeps the body cool during the summer whereas wool, silk or fur keeps the body warm during winter season.

         Shelter is place where humans can be safe and secure. Houses built up with woods, stones and any other material with proper ventilation, proper security is called as shelter. Shelter is a place which keeps the humans warm during winter and cool during summer.

 

Examples:

  1. What ingredient makes the bread to rise?

Answer: Yeast

  1. Which cloth is made from the skin of polar beer?

Answer: Fur

  1. Name any product that helps us to keep our house clean?

Answer: Broom

  • Good habits and safety:

           It is important to cultivate safety habits right from the child hood period. Learn the safety tips while crossing the road, swimming, traveling, playing games outdoor and indoor, etc.,

Few safety tips while travelling are:

  1. Wear seat belt that is provided at the back of your seat. This will keep you safe whenever the vehicle travels in excess speed.
  2. Always watch the front mirror before overtaking a vehicle.
  3. Never suddenly turn or reverse the vehicle without indicators.

 

      Few safety tips while Crossing road:

  1. Look both sides of the road before crossing it.
  2. Cross the road only when you see “Pedestrain cross” symbol.

      Few safety tips while playing games:

  1. It is always important to wear knee caps and helmets before playing any outdoor game.
  2. Hydrate yourself sufficiently before start playing since the water content of the body highly decreases while playing.

        Examples:

  1. A crack or break in a bone is called as _____

Answer: Fracture

  1. State true or false:
  • If the arm is broken it is supported by tying a sling.

               Answer: True

 

  • Air, water and weather:

           Air, water and weather are the essential things for the survival of living organisms. Air is an invisible gaseous substance surrounding our atmosphere. It is a mixture of mainly oxygen and nitrogen. Water is a colorless, transparent, odorless liquid which forms lakes, seas, rivers and is the most essential for all the living organisms including plants, animals and human beings. Weather is a state of the atmosphere which can be hot or cold, wet or dry, clear or cloudy, calm or stormy.

Examples:

  1. Which gas is found to be highest by volume in air?

Answer: Nitrogen

  1. Taj mahal is suffering from marble cancer? What is called as marble cancer?

Answer: Acidic rain which corrodes marble

  1. What is ground water?

Answer: Some of the rain water goes into the soil and this is called as ground water.

  • Earth and sky:

        This topic covers our earth and our Universe. This covers details about stars, meteoroids, planets, solar system, etc. The Solar system also known as solar family is made up of Sun, nine planets, satellites and other celestial bodies like asteroids and comets. The solar system has sun at its centre and sun keeps the solar family together with its gravitational pull. The planets, comets and asteroids revolve around the sun in different orbits.

       The solar system is considered to be about billion years old which is formed from the dust and gas of the ancient solar nebula. There are nine planets such as mercury, venus, Earth, mars ,Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

Examples:

  1. Which star is at the centre of our solar system?

Answer: Sun

  1. Which planet is nearest to the earth?

Answer: Mercury

  1. Which is the largest planet in our solar system?

Answer: Jupiter

 

  • Rocks:

            Our Earth is formed with the help of rocks and minerals. Rocks are constantly being formed, worn down and formed again. Rocks break down into sand. The sand along with the decomposed products of animals and plants becomes soil.

            The most important thing is, Earth crust is made up of rock. Rocks have been used by the humans for millions of years for making tools, weapons, and other construction materials to make their shelter. There are different types of rocks such as sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks.

Igneous rocks:

When magma cools and solidifies it forms igneous rocks. Examples of such rocks are basalt, gabbro, etc.,

Sedimentary rocks:

             Sediments deposited over years often as the layers at the bottom of the lakes and oceans forms sedimentary rocks. Examples of sedimentary rocks are mudstone, sandstone, flint, etc.,

Metamorphic rocks:

             Extreme pressure and heat over times are called as metamorphic rocks. Examples of such rocks are schist, granulite, etc.,

Examples:

  1. What remains of living things does sediments include?

Answer: Rock, shells, bones, leaves and stems

  1. What is the type of rocks that forms layers?

Answer: Sedimentary rocks

  • Light and shadow:

               This topic covers the concepts of light, definition of light, how light travels through space, what is shadow, how shadows are formed and so on. Light always travels in a straight line and allows one object to hide another. Light comes from the light source such as sun, light bulbs in our houses and candles. Light is reflected off the object and into our eyes. That is why we able to see them. Shadows are formed when the light is blocked. Light cannot travel through opaque objects such as metal and wood.

Examples:

  1. Which travels faster sound or light?

Answer: Light

  1. Which color does yellow and red make?

Answer: Orange

 

  • Institutions that serve us:

                    There are many organizations and institutions such as post office, hospitals, banks, railway station, bus stop, market, etc. We need all these institutions to lead our day to day life easily. Post office is very necessary to send any posts, letters, telegrams, couriers to our friends and relatives. Banks are also very important for any money transactions, crediting or debiting money, savings of money, etc.,

In railway station, trains serve as the best means of transport for an individual’s daily journey. Similarly, nearby hospitals help us vastly when we are sick. They treat us immediately and help us to become completely alright very soon. Thus, this lesson covers all the important institutions and there valuable service for us.

Examples:

  1. Pictorial representation asking the students to point out the function of each persons.

Thus, these are the above topics which are covered in the syllabus of CBSE class 2 Science stream.

CBSE Class 1 Science Syllabus

CBSE Class 1 Science:

  The syllabus which are covered under the CBSE Class 1 Science are:

  • Living and non living things
  • Plant and animal life
  • My body
  • Food
  • Homes
  • Health and hygiene
  • Safety and first aid
  • Air, water and weather
  • Our universe
  • Light and sound
  • People who help us

The above topics in detail are:

 

  • Living and non living things:

            Those things which have life and can move, grow, reproduce are called as living things. On the other hand, those things which do not have life and do not grow, move or reproduce are called as non-living things.

           Best example of living beings are humans, animals, plants. Example for non living things are pencil box, rubber, paper, etc.,

Examples:

  1. Name any two examples for non-living things:

           Answer: Pencil, rubber

  1. Which need air, water and sunlight?

           Answer: Plants

 

  • Plant and animal life:

             Plants can be of different types and shapes. Every plant is unique and has different characteristics when compared to other plants. But however, any plant may have stem, roots, flowers, leaves, etc., There are also few plants like cactus which have flowers but no leaves.

             Plants make their food through a process called as photosynthesis. The leaves of the plant contain a pigment called chlorophyll which gives green color to the leaves. This chlorophyll helps the plant to make their own food through the process called photosynthesis in which the plant mainly requires sunlight, water and other nutrients as their food. During this process of photosynthesis, plants release fresh oxygen and inhales harmful carbon dioxide.

            Plant reproduction takes place either asexually or sexually. Asexual reproduction is the process of producing the offspring through only one single parent whereas sexual reproduction is the process which produces the offspring through the fusion of the gametes. Apart from the above things, plants have wide variety of uses such as it provides clothing, fuel, shelter, and many other necessities for human life.

 

Animal life:

            Just like plants, every animal is different from another. For example, the skin pattern for a cheetah is different from that of a deer. Also, the bodily structure and strength differs for every animal.  Most of the animals such as fish, reptiles, mammals, reptiles and birds have simple life cycle. They are born either directly through their mother or through hatching the eggs. Then they grow similarly just like their own species and die.

           Most of these animals have only three stages of growth such as before birth, young and adult. In all the stages, the physical appearance of the animal varies only in sizes but not in appearance. There are different varieties of animal species such as amphibians, insects, reptiles, birds, mammals, etc. Amphibians like frogs undergo metamorphosis in which they spend their childhood under the water breathing with the help of gills and they start breathing with the help of lungs once they are grown up.

Insects have four stages in life cycle:

These four stages are

  • Egg
  • Larva
  • Pupa
  • Adult

Examples:

  1. Name any one amphibian animal:

          Answer: Frog

  1. Write any two land animals:

          Answer: Cat, dog

  1. I make the seeds for the plants. Who am i?

         Answer: Flower

  • My body:

       Our body is made up of many organs which are responsible for individual task.

Respiratory system:

          This is a system which helps the humans to respire. With the pair of lungs, it inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide.            

Excretory system:

          This system is responsible for removing waste from the human body. A pair of kidneys helps in the process of excretion.

Nervous system:

          This consists of nerves, spinal cord, brain and all sensory organs that connect these nerves to the rest of the body. These organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

Circulatory system:

          The functions of a circulatory system is to deliver the oxygen, removal of carbon dioxide and other waste materials from the body, supplying nutrients and other useful molecules to all the body parts.

Examples:

  1. Name the organ for respiration:

          Answer: Lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi

  1. The system which helps to produce babies is called as ___

          Answer: Reproductive system

  1. What are the parts involved in the digestive system?

          Answer: Mouth, stomach, intestines, Liver and pancreas

 

  • Food:

   The basic nature of different types of food, how long they stay consumable, when does a food gets spoiled?, how did the people find their foods earlier, Who prepares our own food?, different types of taste that our mouth can feel, how do the plants make their food are the key concepts which are covered under this chapter.

 

When food gets spoiled:

       A food gets spoiled when it its atmosphere changes or when the food is prepared long time ago. For example, milk gets spoiled during summer season due to the excess heat in the outside temperature.

Who produces food we eat?

              This chapter makes children to know about the people who really work hard for our daily foods. They study about the farmers, their daily routines in the agricultural farms, how they preserve the crop from natural calamities and so on.

 

What food did people eat earlier?

             Our ancestors or grandparents would have not eaten the same type of food which we eat now. Thus, different types of food habits are followed during olden days in different places.

Taste buds:

         Our taste buds can feel different types of taste such as sweet, sour, bitter, pungent and salt. This chapter tells the importance of taste buds and different kinds of taste that human beings can enjoy.

What are the foods for plants?

                     Just like foods for animals and humans, plants also need food for surviving. The key requirements for a plant are water, air and sunlight. These are said to be the food materials for the plants.

Examples:

  1. Name any three foods that are rich in vitamins:

Answer: Broccoli, papaya, citrus fruits

  1. Rice and jute grow well in ____ types of soil

Answer: Alluvial soil

 

  • Homes:

               A Home is different from the house because house is just a place of shelter and it can be a concrete building. But a home is different. It can be any place the living being chooses to live for. For example, for animals the home can be the dark forest whereas for the humans the home can be their own houses built with the help of several construction materials.

Examples:

  1. Name any two animals that can be tamed as domestic animals at our houses?

Answer: Cat, dog.

 

  • Health and Hygiene:

         Health education plays a very important role in everyday life. To prevent illness and to always stay positive, a clear understanding of health and hygiene is very much necessary. Health is cleanliness and cleanliness is one of the main defense against diseases.

         Similarly, hygiene means the art of keeping oneself healthy. The purpose being hygienic is to make man healthier. It not only depends on the individual’s health but also the whole community can be safe by practicing hygiene.

Few of the tips for Hygiene are:

  1. Brush and floss regularly
  2. Bathe regularly. This will not only keep you fresh but also remove all the unnecessary dirt and dust from the skin.
  3. Trim your nails
  4. Wash your hands
  5. Get good sleep

   Practicing this will keep anyone healthy and hygienic.

Examples:

  1. What is the correct temperature that frozen foods can be kept at?

          Answer: -18 degree or lower

  1. What is the reason for drying your hands after wetting them?

         Answer: Because germs and bacteria easily spread with wet hands.

 

  • Safety and first aid:

             Help which is given during the emergency situations before the person can get the medical attention is called as first aid. This first aid treatment contains the first aid box which includes all the major instruments necessary to treat the patient.

             The first aid may contain scissors, sticky tapes, antiseptic cream, disposable sterile gloves, bandages, pain killers, distilled water for cleaning the wounds, thermometer, etc. But however, before an accident occurs it is very much necessary to be careful preventing any accidents.

First aid tips for burns:

  1. Remove the clothes around the wounded area.
  2. Run cool water (Not very cool) into the wounded area until the pain eases.
  3. Lightly apply gauge bandage.
  4. Do not put any ointments, butter or cream without medical supervision.
  5. Do not break any blisters that might have formed.

      First aid tips for dog bite:

  1. Clean the wound immediately
  2. Run it under the warm water thoroughly until the wound is thoroughly cleaned.
  3. Encourage to bleeding from the wound. This will prevent any bacteria entering into the wound.
  4. Take any pain killers.
  5. Immediately seek medical attention.

Examples:

  1. Write true or false:
  • The meaning of red in the traffic signal is “Stop”

             Answer: True

  1. The immediate help given to an injured person before he gets medical attention is called as ____

Answer: First aid

 

  • Air, water, weather:

               Air is an invisible gaseous substance present around our atmosphere. Air pollution   occurs when the air contains dust, fumes, odour and it can be harmful to the humans, animals and even plants. The substances that causes pollution is called as pollutants.

     Thus, it is the duty of all individuals to keep our air clean and fresh. Few of such ways are:

  1. Avoid burning woods, plastics, bottles, etc.,
  2. Avoid smoking
  3. Keep your surroundings and atmosphere clean
  4. Use air filters in your home

       Water is a colorless, odorless liquid which occupies most of the seas, lakes, ponds in the Earth. Around 71% of human body is made up of water. A human cannot survive long without water. Thus, water is a very important source for the living beings survival.

 

Water pollution:

                 Water in the lakes, ponds, rivers are often contaminated by the human activities. This is called as water pollution. Let’s check out the few ways to control the water pollution.

  1. Please to do not dispose any oil substances, ghee foods, chemical substances into the toilet or sinks at your houses.
  2. Do not flush pills, medicines, chemicals into your toilet.
  3. Use limited pesticides to your garden. Instead make use of environment safe liquids to your gardens.
  4. Do not make use of more detergents, soaps and powders while washing your clothes or dishes.

Weather:

         Weather is all around us all time. Weather controls our everyday life right from the food habits to

the types of clothes to wear. During winter season, we often see people wearing fur clothes, woolen

clothes, coats, jackets to keep themselves warm. Similarly, during summer people use to wear cotton

dresses to keep themselves cool throughout the whole day.

There are different types of weather such as stormy, windy, cloudy, hot, cold, rainy, foggy, snowy,

misty, etc., These are divided into following seasons such as

  • Autumn
  • Winter
  • Spring
  • Summer
  • Monsoon

Examples:

  1. We need ___ for breathing?

          Answer: Oxygen

  1. Rainwater flows down to ______

         Answer: River

  1. Name the elements that determine the weather of the place?

        Answer: Humidity, Wind speed, rainfall, Temperature and air pressure

 

  • Our Universe:

             This lesson covers the major topics such as solar system, nine planets, meteoroids, stars, galaxy, etc. Solar system is made up of sun and all the other smaller particles move around it. Apart from the sun, there are eight other planets which revolve in different orbits.

They are:

  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

The Universe contains billions of galaxies, each containing billions of stars. The space between the galaxies and stars are extremely empty.

Examples:

  1. Is the Sun moving?

Answer: Yes. All the planets move around the sun and in turn the whole solar system (Sun at the centre) revolves around the centre of galaxy, milky way.

  1. What is the biggest planet in the universe?

Answer: Jupiter

 

  • Light and sound:

           Sound and light both travels as waves. Sound waves travel million times slower than the light waves. Light waves are capable of moving through an empty space whereas sound waves moves much slower than the light waves and can travel through any substance such as solid, liquid and gas.

Examples:

  1. What is a light?

          Answer: A form of energy that travels through in waves

  1. Why does not sound travel in a vacuum?

          Answer: There are no atoms to vibrate to carry the sound waves. Thus it needs a medium to travel.

 

  • People who help us:

       Different people do different jobs and provide numerous services to us. These people are called community helpers. Few examples of such community helpers are plumber, doctor, postman, farmer and many others. Thus, this lesson covers the services provided by them and the type of work carried out by them.

Examples:

  1. Who is a cobbler? What is his nature of work?

          A cobbler is a person who repairs shoes.

  1. Name any two instruments used by a carpenter?

         Answer: Driller, hammer

Thus, these are the topics which are covered under the syllabus of CBSE class 1 science stream.