**PHYSICS **

**Physical World, Measurements, Units & dimensions:*** Physical World, Measurements, Units & dimensions *Units & Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis & its applications, error in measurements, significant figures.

**Kinematics:** Scalars & vectors, representation of vectors in 3D, dot & cross product & their applications, elementary differential & integral calculus, time-velocity & relevant graphs, equations of motion with uniform acceleration.

**Laws of motion:** Newton’s laws of motion, using algebra & calculus, inertial & non inertial frames, conservation of linear momentum with applications, elastic & inelastic collisions, impulse centripetal force, banking of roads, relative velocity, projectile motion & uniform circular motion

**Work, power, energy:*** Work, power, energy *Work, work-energy theorem, power, energy, work done by constant & variable forces, PE & KE, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces, PE of a spring,

**Motion of centre of mass, connected systems, Friction:** Centre of mass of two-particle system, motion of connected system, torque, equilibrium of rigid bodies, moments of inertia of simple geometric bodies (2D) [without derivation] conservation of angular momentum, friction and laws of friction.

**Gravitation:** Kepler’s laws, (only statement) universal law of gravitation, acceleration due to gravity (g), variation of g, gravitational potential & PE, escape velocity, orbital velocity of satellites, geostationary orbits.

**Bulk properties of matter:** Elasticity, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, rigidity modulus, Poisson’s ratio elastic potential energy. Fluid pressure: Pressure due to a fluid column, buoyancy, Pascal’s law, effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Surface tension: Surface energy, phenomena involving surface tension, angle of contact, capillary rise,

**Viscosity:** Coefficient of viscosity, streamline & turbulent motion, Reynold’s number, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem.

**Heat & Thermal Physics:** Heat & temperature, thermal expansion of solids. liquids & gases, ideal gas laws, isothermal & adiabatic processes; anomalous expansion of water & its effects, sp. heat capacity, Cp, Cv, calorimetry; change of state, specific latent heat capacity. Heat transfer; conduction, thermal and thermometric conductivity, convection & radiation, Newton’s law of cooling, Stefan’s law.

**Thermodynamics:** Thermal equilibrium (Zeroth law of thermodynamics), heat, work & internal energy. 1^{st} law of thermodynamics, isothermal & adiabatic processes, 2nd law of thermodynamics*,* reversible & irreversible processes.

**Kinetic theory of gases:** Equation of state of a perfect gas, kinetic theory of gases, assumptions in Kinetic theory of gases, concept of pressure. & temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (introductory ideas) & application to specific heats of gases; mean free path, Avogadro number.

**Oscillations & Waves:** Periodic motion – time period, frequency, time-displacement eqation, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) & its equation; phase; SHM in different sytems, restoring force & force const, energy in S.H.M.-KE & PE, free, forced & damped oscillations (introductory ideas), resonance wave motion, equation for progressive wave, longitudinal & transverse waves, sound waves, Newton’s formula & Laplace’s correction, factors affecting the velocity of sound in air, principles of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings & organ pipes, fundamental mode, harmonics & overtones, beats, Doppler effect.

**Electrostatics:** Conservation of electric charges, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle & continuous charge distribution. Electric field, & potential due to a point charge & distribution of charges, electric field lines electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field; electric flux, Gauss’ theorem & its simple applications, conductors & insulators, free charges & bound charges inside a conductor; dielectrics & electric polarisation, capacitors & capacitance, combination of capacitors in series & in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with & without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

**Current Electricity:** Electric current, & conductor, drift velocity’ mobility & their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors, electrical energy & power, carbon resistors, colour codes, combination of resistances, temperature dependence of resistances, electric cell, emf and internal resistance of an electric cell, pd, combination of cells, secondary cells, (introductory) Kirchoff’s laws of electrical network, simple applications, principle of Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge and potentiometer and their uses, thermoelectricity; Seebeck effect; Peltier effect, thermo emf.

**Magnetic effect of current:** Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment, Biot – Savart law & its application to current carrying circular loop; Ampere’s law & its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids; force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic & electric fields, cyclotron frequency; force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors– definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity & conversion to ammeter & voltmeter, Inter-conversion of voltmeter & ammeter & change of their ranges.

**Magnetics:** Current loop as a magnetic dipole & its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole bar magnet along its axis & perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field & its magnetic elements. para-, dia- & ferro- magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets & the factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic induction & alternating current:** Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf & current; Lenz’s Law, eddy currents, self & mutual induction, alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current and voltage; reactance and impedance; LR & CR circuits, phase lag & lead, LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.

**Electromagnetic waves:** Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only), transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum, applications of the waves from the different parts of the spectrum

**Optics I (Ray optics):** Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection & its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Newton’s relation: Displacement method to find position of images (conjugate points) Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens & a mirror refraction and dispersion of light through a prism; optical instruments, human eye, image formation & accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia) using lenses, microscopes & astronomical telescopes (reflecting & refracting) & their magnifying powers.

**Optics II (Wave Optics):** Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky, elementary idea of Raman effect; wave optics: wave front & Huygens’ principle, reflection & refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection & refraction using Huygens’ principle Interference, Young’s double slit experiment & expression for fringe width, coherent sources, Fraunhoffer diffraction due to a single slit,

**Particle nature of light & wave particle dualism:** Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light, matter waves; wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.

**Atomic Physics:** Alpha-particle scattering expt Rutherford’s nuclear atom model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, energy levels in a hydrogen atom, hydrogen spectrum, continuous & characteristic x-rays.

**Nuclear Physics:** Composition & size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, radioactivity – alpha, beta & gamma particles/ rays & their properties; radioactive decay law; mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon & its variation with mass number; nuclear fission & fusion.

**Solid state Electronics:** Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators & semiconductors; semiconductor diode – *I-V *characteristics in forward & reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; *I-V *characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell & Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator, junction transistor (BJT), transistor action, characteristics of a BJT, BJT as an amplifier (CE configuration) & oscillator; logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND & NOR).

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