BITSAT 2015 Chemistry Syllabus


1. States of Matter

1.1          Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.

1.2       Chemical  reactions:  Laws  of  chemical  combination,  Dalton’s  atomic  theory;  Mole  concept;  Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry

1.3        Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution  of  velocities,  Average,  root  mean  square  and  most  probable  velocities  and  relation  to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, vander Waals equation.

1.4         Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.

1.5          Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals.  Imperfections-  Point  defects,  non-stoichiometric  crystals;  Electrical,  magnetic  and  dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.

2. Atomic Structure

2.1          Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom  spectrum and Bohr model.

2.2          Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality  – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and  wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes  (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.

2.3          Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.

2.4          Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.

3.   Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

3.1          Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond

3.2          Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes

3.3          Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species.

3.4          Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.

3.5          Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

4. Thermodynamics

4.1           Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature

4.2           First  Law  of  Thermodynamics:  Work,  internal  energy,  heat,  enthalpy,  heat  capacities;  Enthalpies  of formation,  phase  transformation,  ionization,  electron  gain;  Thermochemistry;  Hess’s  Law.  Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution

4.3           Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and  non-mechanical  work;  Standard  free  energies  of  formation,  free  energy  change  and  chemical equilibrium

4.4           Third Law: Introduction

5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria

5.1          Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality

5.2          Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass; solid solutions.

5.3          Physical  Equilibrium:  Equilibria  involving  physical  changes (solid-liquid,  liquid-gas,  solid-gas),  Surface chemistry,  Adsorption,  Physical and  Chemical  adsorption,  Langmuir  Isotherm, Colloids  and  emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.

5.4          Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chatelier’s principle.

5.5          Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.

5.6          Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ∆ G and ∆ Gin Chemical Equilibria.

6. Electrochemistry

6.1          Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential;  Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.

6.2          Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2   & F2.

7. Chemical Kinetics

7.1          Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.

7.2          Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.

7.3          Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.

8. Hydrogen and s-block elements

8.1          Hydrogen:  Element:  unique  position  in  periodic  table,  occurrence,  isotopes;  Dihydrogen:  preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.

8.2          s-block elements:   Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii).

8.3          Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.

8.4          Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

9. p- d- and f-block elements

9.1          General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in  chemical  reactivity  of  elements  of  a  group;  electronic  configuration,  oxidation  states;  anomalous properties of first element of each group.

9.2          Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;

9.3          Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites.

9.4          Group  15  elements:  Dinitrogen;  Reactivity  and  uses  of  nitrogen  and  its  compounds;  Industrial  and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their  structures;  Ostwald’s  process  of  nitric  acid  production;  Fertilizers –    NPK  type;  Production  of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine.

9.5          Group 16 elements:   Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur.

9.6          Group  17 and group  18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides,  oxoacids of chlorine (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.

9.7          d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation  state;  ionization  enthalpy;  Ionic  radii;  Catalytic  properties;  Magnetic  properties;  Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.

9.8          f-Block  elements:  Lanthanoids  and  actinoids;  Oxidation  states  and  chemical  reactivity  of  lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.

9.9          Coordination  Compounds:  Coordination  number;  Ligands;  Werner’s  coordination  theory;  IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory  (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

10.1        Classification:   Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative.

10.2        Electronic displacement in a covalent bond:    Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions.

10.3        Alkanes and cycloalkanes:   Structural isomerism, general properties and chemical reactions.

10.4        Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic   character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.

10.5 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons;  mechanism  of  electrophilic  substitution  reaction,  directive  influence  and  effect  of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

10.6        Haloalkanes  and  haloarenes:  Physical  properties,  chemical  reactions  and  mechanism  of  substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.

10.7        Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

11. Stereochemistry

11.1 Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures.

11.2        Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.

11.3        Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen

12.1        General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical properties and uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.

12.2        Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines methods of preparation,  and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.

13. Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry

13.1        The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.

13.2        Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and  glycogen.

13.3        Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary tructures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.

13.4        Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA  &  RNA);  Primary  structure  of  DNA  and  its  double  helix;  Replication;  Transcription  and  protein synthesis; Genetic code.

13.5         Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones

13.6        Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.

13.7        Pollution:   Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry.

13.8        Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti- microbials,  anti-fertility  drugs,  antihistamines,  antibiotics,  antacids;  Preservatives,  artificial  sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.

14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry

14.1        Volumetric  Analysis:  Principles;  Standard  solutions  of  sodium  carbonate  and  oxalic  acid;  Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.

14.2        Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+,

Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S2-, SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, Cl, Br, I, PO43-, CH3COO, C2O42-.

14.3        Physical  Chemistry  Experiments:  preparation  and  crystallization  of  alum,  copper  sulphate,  ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid,  (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite  (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide,    concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.

14.4        Purification  Methods:  Filtration,  crystallization,  sublimation,  distillation,  differential  extraction,  and chromatography.  Principles  of  melting  point  and  boiling  point  determination;  principles  of  paper chromatographic separation – Rf values.

14.5        Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.

14.6        Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.

14.7        Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments:   Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di- benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.

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