Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13, 1919 in Indian History

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13, 1919 in Indian History:

  • In 1919, Rowlatt Act, which authorised the government to detain any person without trial was passed.
  • The Act was passed during the period of Lord Chelmsford.
  • The official name of the Rowlatt Act was the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act (1919).
  • Sir Sydney Rowlatt was the president of the committee to make proposals for the Act.
  • C.Sankaran Nair was the only Indian official member who supported the bill, while all the 22 elected Indian members in the Imperial Legislative Council opposed the bill.
  • Gandhiji set up ‘Rowlatt Committee’ to protest this act.
  • The protest against this ‘Black Act’ was the strongest in Punjab where it led to the Massacre at ‘Jalianwala Bagh’ Amritsar on April 13, 1919. It was on a Baishaki day. The British Officer General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire at unarmed gathering, who were gathered there to protest against the arrest of their popular leaders Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.
  • On this occasion Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest.
  • Michael O’Dyer Governor of the Punjab province supported the incident and on March 15, Martial law was declared
  • Gandhiji renounced the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ medal given to him for his work during the Boer War.
  • Hunter Committee was appointed to enquire into the Jallianwallah Massacre (1920)
  • Hunter Commissions report was described by Gandhiji as a ‘white wash’.
  • Sardar Udham Singh, who took the name Ram Muhammed Singh, Sonak Murdered Dyer in England as a revenge to the Massacre.
  • The English House of Lords presented a jewelled sword to General in which was inscribed ‘‘saviour of the Punjab’’.

vents/Acts/Reforms………….. Viceroy/Governor Generals
Permanent Settlement (1793)……….Lord Cornwallis
Subsidiary Alliance (1798) ………….. Lord Wellesley
Abolition of Sati (1829) ……. Lord William Bentinck
Introduction of Civil service ……….Lord Cornwallis
Doctrine of Lapse ……………………. Lord Dalhousie
Railways started in India …………… Lord Dalhousie
Post and Telegraph ………………….. Lord Dalhousie
English Education in India .. Lord William Bentinck
Vernacular Press Act (1878) ……………..Lord Lytton
Arms Act (1878) ……………………………Lord Lytton
Local Self Government (1882) ………… Lord Rippon
Ryotwari System ………………………….. Lord Munro
Partition of Bengal (1905) ………………. Lord Curzon
Rowlatt Act (1914) …………………. Lord Chelmsford
Simon Commission (1928) … Lord William Bentinck
Sepoy Mutiny (1857) ………………….. Lord Canning
Queens Proclamation (1858) …………. Lord Canning
Factory Act (1881) ………………………… Lord Ripon
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act (1881)Lord Canning
Indian councils Act/Minto -Morley Reforms (1909)
………………………………………………. Lord Minto II
Partition of Bengal revoked (1911) Lord Hardinge II
Transfer Capital to Delhi (1911) … Lord Hardinge II
Dyarchy in province (1919) ……… Lord Chelmsford
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919) .. Lord Chelmsford
Non co-operation ………………….. Lord Chelmsford
Poorna Swaraj resolution (Lahore 1929) . Lord Irwin
Frist Round Table Conference (1930) ….. Lord Irwin
Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931) ………………….. Lord Irwin
Communal Award (1932) ………….. Lord Wellington
Poona Pact (1932) …………………… Lord Wellington
2nd Round Table Conference(1931) …. Lord Wellington
3rd Round Table Conference (1932) ….. Lord Wellington
Separate Electorates (1932) ………. Lord Wellington
Government of India Act (1935) …. Lord Wellington

Provincial Autonomy (1937) ……… Lord Linlithgow
Cripps Mission (1942) ……………….. Lord Linthgow
Quit India Movement ………………. Lord Linlithgow
Cabinet Mission (1946) …………………. Lord Wavell
INA Trial (1945) …………………………… Lord Wavell
Indian Independence Act 1947) …….Lord Mountbatten
Partition of India (1947) ………… Lord Mountbatten

 

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