Date – 01/03/2018: India successfully tests 3rd-gen anti-tank missile NAG in desert conditions

Date – 01/03/2018

India successfully tests 3rd-gen anti-tank missile NAG in desert conditions

– Indigenously developed Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) Nag was successfully test-fired in desert conditions against two tank targets at different ranges and timings. With this, the developmental trials of Nag missile have been completed and it is now ready for induction.

–  ATMG Nag is one of five missile systems developed indigenously by DRDO under integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP). The other four missiles are Agni, Akash, Trishul and Prithvi. It is manufactured by India’s sole missile producer, state-owned Bharat Dynamics Limited.

– The Nag missile is third generation ATMG which works on “fire and forget” principle. It has operational range of 500m to 4km (Land version) and 7-10km (when air-launched).

– It is equipped with highly advanced Imaging Infrared Radar (IRR) seeker along with integrated avionics. This technology is possessed by very few nations.

– It also possesses advanced passive homing guidance system. It has been designed mainly to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets. It can be launched from land and air-based platforms.

Simon Commission of Indian History

Simon Commission of Indian History:

  • simon commissionIn November 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as Simon Commission, to go it to the question of further constitution reform.
  • The Congress passed a resolution to boycott the Simon Commission at its Madras session 1927.
  • The day Simon landed at Mumbai ; 3 February 1928 all the major cities and towns observed a complete hartal.
  • The Madras session 1927 was presided over by Dr. Ansari.
  • On the arrival of the Commission in Mumbai in 1928, it met with the slogan ‘‘Go back Simon’’.
  • There were Seven members in the Simon Commission. but no Indian.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai was severely wounded in a police Lathi charge and died while protesting against the Commission.
  • To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh shot dead General Saunders.


Indian Working Class in Indian History

Indian Working Class in Indian History:

  • First organised strike by any section of the working class was the Signaler’s Strike in May 1899 in the ‘Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railway’.
  • AITUC was formed in 1920 with Lala Lajpat Rai as its first President and Dewan Chaman Lal as its General Secretary.
  • Indian National Congress at its Gaya session of 1922 welcomed the formation of AITUC.
  • Government appointed the Royal Commission on Labour in 1929.

Khilafat Movement (1919) in Indian History

Khilafat Movement (1919) in Indian History:

  • The main object of the Khilafat Movement was to force the British Government to change its attitude towards Turkey and restore the Turkish Sulthan (Khalifa) to his former position.
  • A Khilafat committee was formed under the leadersip of Ali brothers Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal khan, and Hasrat Mohani.
  • The Khilafat Movement lost its relevance due to the reforms of Mustafa Kamal Pasha in Turkey. Pasha abolished Khilafat and made Turkey a secular state.
  • On 1 June 1920 the Khilafat Committee at Allahabad unanimously accepted Gandhi’s suggestion of non co-operation and asked him to lead the Movement.

Non-Co-operation Movement (1920) in Indian History

Non-Co-operation Movement (1920) in Indian History:

  • Non Co-operation Movement was started with the aim of the annulment of the Rowlatt Act, and correcting the ‘Punjab wrong’ changing the ‘Khilafat wrong’ as well as moving towards the cherished goal of ‘swaraj’.
  • It was the first mass based political movement under Gandhiji.
  • The movement was launched as per the resolution of Calcutta session and ratified in Nagpur session in December 1920.
  • The main emphasise of the movement was on boycott of schools, colleges, law courts and advocacy of the use of Charka.
  • The whole movement was called off on 11th February 1922 at Gandhi’s insistence following the news of burning alive of 22 English plicemen by the angry peasants at ChauriChaura (Chauri Chaura Incident) in Gorakhpur district of Up on 5th February 1922.
  • The Non Cooperation movement converted the national movement into a mass movement . It strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity.

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13, 1919 in Indian History

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13, 1919 in Indian History:

  • In 1919, Rowlatt Act, which authorised the government to detain any person without trial was passed.
  • The Act was passed during the period of Lord Chelmsford.
  • The official name of the Rowlatt Act was the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act (1919).
  • Sir Sydney Rowlatt was the president of the committee to make proposals for the Act.
  • C.Sankaran Nair was the only Indian official member who supported the bill, while all the 22 elected Indian members in the Imperial Legislative Council opposed the bill.
  • Gandhiji set up ‘Rowlatt Committee’ to protest this act.
  • The protest against this ‘Black Act’ was the strongest in Punjab where it led to the Massacre at ‘Jalianwala Bagh’ Amritsar on April 13, 1919. It was on a Baishaki day. The British Officer General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire at unarmed gathering, who were gathered there to protest against the arrest of their popular leaders Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.
  • On this occasion Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest.
  • Michael O’Dyer Governor of the Punjab province supported the incident and on March 15, Martial law was declared
  • Gandhiji renounced the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ medal given to him for his work during the Boer War.
  • Hunter Committee was appointed to enquire into the Jallianwallah Massacre (1920)
  • Hunter Commissions report was described by Gandhiji as a ‘white wash’.
  • Sardar Udham Singh, who took the name Ram Muhammed Singh, Sonak Murdered Dyer in England as a revenge to the Massacre.
  • The English House of Lords presented a jewelled sword to General in which was inscribed ‘‘saviour of the Punjab’’.

vents/Acts/Reforms………….. Viceroy/Governor Generals
Permanent Settlement (1793)……….Lord Cornwallis
Subsidiary Alliance (1798) ………….. Lord Wellesley
Abolition of Sati (1829) ……. Lord William Bentinck
Introduction of Civil service ……….Lord Cornwallis
Doctrine of Lapse ……………………. Lord Dalhousie
Railways started in India …………… Lord Dalhousie
Post and Telegraph ………………….. Lord Dalhousie
English Education in India .. Lord William Bentinck
Vernacular Press Act (1878) ……………..Lord Lytton
Arms Act (1878) ……………………………Lord Lytton
Local Self Government (1882) ………… Lord Rippon
Ryotwari System ………………………….. Lord Munro
Partition of Bengal (1905) ………………. Lord Curzon
Rowlatt Act (1914) …………………. Lord Chelmsford
Simon Commission (1928) … Lord William Bentinck
Sepoy Mutiny (1857) ………………….. Lord Canning
Queens Proclamation (1858) …………. Lord Canning
Factory Act (1881) ………………………… Lord Ripon
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act (1881)Lord Canning
Indian councils Act/Minto -Morley Reforms (1909)
………………………………………………. Lord Minto II
Partition of Bengal revoked (1911) Lord Hardinge II
Transfer Capital to Delhi (1911) … Lord Hardinge II
Dyarchy in province (1919) ……… Lord Chelmsford
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919) .. Lord Chelmsford
Non co-operation ………………….. Lord Chelmsford
Poorna Swaraj resolution (Lahore 1929) . Lord Irwin
Frist Round Table Conference (1930) ….. Lord Irwin
Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931) ………………….. Lord Irwin
Communal Award (1932) ………….. Lord Wellington
Poona Pact (1932) …………………… Lord Wellington
2nd Round Table Conference(1931) …. Lord Wellington
3rd Round Table Conference (1932) ….. Lord Wellington
Separate Electorates (1932) ………. Lord Wellington
Government of India Act (1935) …. Lord Wellington

Provincial Autonomy (1937) ……… Lord Linlithgow
Cripps Mission (1942) ……………….. Lord Linthgow
Quit India Movement ………………. Lord Linlithgow
Cabinet Mission (1946) …………………. Lord Wavell
INA Trial (1945) …………………………… Lord Wavell
Indian Independence Act 1947) …….Lord Mountbatten
Partition of India (1947) ………… Lord Mountbatten


Montegue – Chelmsford Reforms 1919 in Indian History

Montegue – Chelmsford Reforms 1919 in Indian History:

  • It is also known as the Government of India Act of 1919.
  • In 1918, Edwin Montague, the Secretary of State and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy produced their scheme of constitutional reforms which led to the enactment of the Government of India Act of 1919.
  • The Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged and the majority of their members were to be elected. The provincial government were given more powers under the system of dyarchy.
  • Indian National Congress in a special session at Bombay in August 1918 criticised the reform as ‘disappointing and unsatisfactory’.
  • The Montague Chelmsford reforms introduced dyarchy in the provinces.
  • Provincial subjects were divided into ‘Reversed subjects’ and ‘‘Transferred Subjects’’.
  • Central legislature was made bicameral by this reform.


Home Rule Movement (1916) in India

Home Rule Movement (1916) in India:

  • Home Rule Movement was started by Annie Besant and Tilak in 1916.
  • Self government for India in British Empire and work for national education, social and political reform etc were the aims of Home Rule League.
  • Annie Besnat was the first woman president of INC (1917, Calcutta Session)
  • Annie Besant set up the newspapers -New India, Common Weal and Young India (1916).
  • Home Rule Movement marks the beginning for the attainment of Swaraj.
  • The Montague declaration of 1917 was the greatest achievement of the Home Rule League.
  • The Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in 1916 marked the re union of the Moderates and Extremists together at Lucknow in 1916.
  • The Lucknow pact was executed between the congress and Muslim League in 1916.


Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 in Indian History

Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 in Indian History:

  • The Minto Morley Reforms for the first time tried to introduce communal representation (for muslims) and a popular element in the govt.
  • The real purpose of the reforms of 1909 was to confuse the Moderate nationalists and to check the growth of unity among Indians.


Surat Split (1907) in Indian History

Surat Split (1907) in Indian History:

  • The clash between the Moderates and Extremists culminated in a split which occurred at Surat in 1907.
  • Dr. Rash Bihari Bose was the INC President during the Surat Split.
  • After the Surat Split the congress remained under the control of the Moderates.
  • The Moderates did not approve the boycott of foreign goods but the Extenmists favoured it. The Moderates continued to have faith in the good intensions of the British government. They wanted self government in gradual stages, while the Extremists wanted complete autonomy at the earliest.


The Formation of the Muslim League (1906) in Indian History

The Formation of the Muslim League (1906) in Indian History:

  • All India Muslim League was founded under the Leadership of Aga Khan to divert the Muslims from the National Political Movement. On December 30th Nawab Salimulla Khan of Dhaka became its first President.
  • Muhammed Iqbal, who presided over the Allahabad session of the League in 1930 gave the idea of Separate Muslim State in North West India. Hence Iqbal is known as the father of the idea of Pakistan. But the name ‘Pakistan’ was framed by Rahmat Ali.
  • Mohammed Ali Jinnah gave his famous Two Nation Theory in March 1940, at the Lahore session of the Muslim League.
  • Sarojini Naidu called Jinnah the Prophet of Hindu- Muslim Unity.
  • Later Jinhah became the first Governor General of Pakistan. He is also known as the father of Pakistan.

HN Kunzru in Indian History

HN Kunzru in Indian History:

  • He founded the Seva Samiti at Allahabad in 1914 with the objective of organising social service during the natural calamities and promoting education sanitation, physical culture etc.

Deva Samaj in Indian History

Deva Samaj in Indian History:

  • It was started in 1887 by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri at Lahore.
  • The religious text of this Samaj was Deva Shastra and the teaching Devadharma.

Jyotiba Phule in Indian History

Jyotiba Phule in Indian History:

  • Belonging to the low caste of Mali from Maharashtra, struggled against upper caste domination and Brahamincal supremacy through his Sathyashodhak Samaj founded in 1873.
  • He wrote Ghulam-giri in 1872 exposing the conditions of the backward castes.
  • He pioneered the Widow Remarriage Movement in Maharashtra and worked for the education of women.


Young Bengal Movement in Indian History

Young Bengal Movement in Indian History:

  • Started by Henry Vivian Derozio, teacher in the Calcutta Hindu College.
  • His followers were known as the Derozians They attacked the old traditions and decadant customs.
  • In 1828 he started the Academic Association.

Theosophical Society in Indian History

Theosophical Society in Indian History:

  • The Theosophical Society was founded by Madame Blavatsky and Col. H.S.Olcott in Newyork in 1875.
  • In 1882 it shifted its head quarters to Adayar near Madras.
  • Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History
  • Dr.Annie Basant came to India in 1893, was its notable President.
  • In 1898 she started the Central Hindu School at Benaras, it later became Benaras Hindu University under Madan Mohan Malavya (1916).
  • She was the first woman to become the president of INC in 1917.
  • She started the Home Rule League with the Cooperation of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916 with Dadabhai Naoroji as its President.


Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History

Ramakrishna Mission in Indian History:

  • Shri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa (1834 – 1886) was born in Kumarpukur village in the Hoogly village of Bengal.
  • His early name was Shuddirama Gadhadhar Chatterjee.
  • He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali temple. So he is called the Saint of Dakshineswar.
  • The most famous disciple of Ramakrishna was Vivekananda (1861 – 1903).
  • Vivekananda was born in a Kayastha family of Calcutta.
  • He attended the Parliament of Reigions at Chicago in 1893, September 11.
  • He was invited to the Congress of the History of Religions at Paris in 1900.
  • He founded the Ramakrishana Mission on Ist May 1897.
  • 1899 the Matha or the centre of the mission was shifted to Belur.
  • He started two papers – the monthly Prabudha Barat in English and Udbodhana a Bengali fortnightly.
  • He is called the‘patriot saint of India’.
  • He was also described as a ‘‘Cyclonic Hindu’’.
  • In 1898 Sister Nivedita, (Margaret Elizebth Noble) an Irish lady was initiated to brahmacharya by Vivekananda.

Arya samaj in Indian History

Arya samaj in Indian History:

  • It was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi in 1875.
  • He considered Vedas as eternal and infalliable and said ‘Go back to Vedas’
  • Dayanand Saraswati (1824 – 1883) was a Sanyasi from Gujarat.
  • He was the first to teach an aggressive, reformed and militant Hinduism.
  • Dayanand, was known in his early life as Mul Shankar.
  • He founded the Arya Samaj at Bombay in 1575.
  • He is known as Luther of Hinduism.
  • He was the first to use the terms – Swarajya Swabhasha and Swadharma
  • He was the first to consider Hindi as a National Language.
  • He started the Suddhi Movement to re-convert to Hinduism those who were converted to other religions.
  • His book Satyartha Prakash is a commentary on Vedas.
  • He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic College in 1866.
  • Aryaprakash was the news paper started by Dayanand Saraswati.

Prarthana Samaj in Indian History

Prarthana Samaj in Indian History:

  • Founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang (not by MG Ranade) as an offshoot of the Brahmasamaj.
  • It was later joined by M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar.

Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj in Indian History

Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj in Indian History:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy is known as the father of Modern India, ‘Herald of New Age’, ‘Bridge between Past and Future. ‘First Modern Man in India’ Father of Indian Renaissance, Pathfinder of his Century etc.
  • Believed in monotheism and opposed idol worship.
  • Established the ‘Atmiya Sabha’ in Calcutta in 1815 inorder to propagate monotheism and to fight against the evil customs and practices in Hinduism.
  • He got legitimisation to his views from Upanishads.
  • In 1821 he started a paper called Samvat Kaumudi.
  • In 1822 he started Mirat-ul-Akbar, which was the first journal in Persian.
  • In the same year Rammohan and Dwarakanath Tagore jointly started a newspaper called Bangadatta.
  • In 1825 he started the Vedanta College at Calcutta.
  • In 1828, August he founded the BrahmaSabha Later in 1845 the name Brahmasamaj was given to it by Devendranath Tagore.
  • Against the Brahmasabha orthodox Hindus lead by Raja Radhakant Deb started Dharmasabha.
  • In 1829 December 4 Sati was abolished by governor general William Bentinck.
  • In 1831 he went to England to argue the case of Akbar II before the Board of Control.
  • The Mughal Emperor Akbarshah II gave Ram Mohan the title ‘Raja’.
  • After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy Brahmasamaj was divided into several sects.
  • Adi Brahmasamaj lead by Devendra Nath Tagore and Bharatiya Brahmasamaj led by Keshav Chandra Sen were started in 1866.
  • Sadharana Brahma Samaj was started by Anandmohan Bose in 1878.
  • Devendra Nath Tagore was the founder of Tatvabodhinisabha in Calcutta in 1839.
  • Keshav Chandrasen started a paper called Indian Mirror in 1861.
  • Brahmasamaj reached outside Bengal under Keshav Chandra Sen.
  • Keshav Chandra Sen was the first Indian who attempted to reform the society on an all India basis.
  • Surendra Nath Banerjee was the first Indian to took up his political activity on an all India basis.
  • ‘Precepts to Jesus’ is a book written by Rajaram Mohan Roy.
  • Thuhafath ul – muvahiddin or Gift to Monotheists is also a work of Raja Ram Mohan Roy

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