|Lok Sabha Constituencies in Dhanbad district, Jharkhand (MP Constituencies)||Dhanbad
|MLA Assembly Constituencies in Dhanbad district, Jharkhand||Baghmara
About Dhanbad District :
Dhanbad district was constituted in 1956 by carving out the old Dhanbad subdivision, Chas and Chandankiyari police stations of the Sadar subdivision of the erstwhile Manbhum district. Dhanbad is Police district since 1928. The re-organisation of the districts in the State of Bihar which took place after 1971 did not affect the district of Dhanbad. In 1991 a part of Dhanbad district was sliced away to form Bokaro district. The district is bounded on the west by Giridih and Bokaro on the north by Giridih and Dumka and on the east and south by Purulia district of West Bengal. The total geographical area of the district is 2886 Sq. Km. The distrcit has one sub-division called the Dhanbad Sadar and 8 blocks viz. Jharia , Baghmara, Dhanbad, Nirsa, Govindpur, Baliapur, Tundi, and Topchanchi. The blocks in turn have 181 panchayats and 1348 villages. The important places to visit in the district are Charak Pathar, Chati Gobindpur, Gopalpur, Jhinjhipahari, Meva, Panrra, Chark – Khurd, Topchanchi, Maithon, Panchet and Jamadoba.
District at a Glance :
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Tourist Places :
Charak Pathar :
The village is situated in GOVINDPUR development block. It is a very large ancient boulder of white stone. It derives its name from this stone
Chati Gobindpur :
The village which also is located in GOVINDPUR development block, contains two ancient pillars which are locally associated with Emperor Asoka and the Afghan Chief Sher Shah
The village lies in Nirsa-cum-Chirkunda development block. It contains an ancient pillar said to date back to the time of Emperor Asoka. There is also a large stone image said to be of Asoka himself
Date of Examination:
11th April, 2015
2½ hours, Time 10.00 A.M. to 12:30 P.M.
Subject Streams, Question Paper and Writing Answers in the Examination
(i) The examination shall be conducted in one of the two subject streams namely ‘Stream-A’ comprising of Physics, Chemistry and Agriculture/Biology subjects and ‘STREAM-B’ comprising of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics subjects.
(ii) Questions for Physics and Chemistry subjects shall be common for both subject streams.
(iii) Paper for ‘Stream–A’ shall carry questions on Biology as well as Agriculture subject, out of which the candidate has to attempt/opt/choose only one subject, either Biology or Agriculture. ‘Stream–B’ paper carries questions on Mathematics subject.
(iv) Question paper will have 180 multiplechoice objective type questions, each with four options, 60 questions in Physics, serially numbered from 1-60, 60 questions
in Chemistry, numbering from 61-120 and 60 questions in Agriculture/Biology/Mathematics, numbering from 121-180.
(v) Marking Scheme: Each correctly answered question will earn four marks, with a maximum of 720 marks for the paper. For each incorrect answer one mark will be deducted from the total score. Question with no response indicated will not be awarded any mark and there will be no negative marking for that question. The candidates are advised not to attempt such questions in the OMR answer sheet, for which they are not sure of the correct answer. More than one answer indicated against a question will be deemed as incorrect answer and will invite negative marking.
(vi) Candidate will be required to choose the correct answer and mark in the OMR answer sheet by darkening the corresponding circle/ bubble against the serial number of the question with black/ blue ball-point pen.
(vii) Question paper for the examination shall be bilingual, i.e., in ENGLISH and HINDI. In case of any variation in English and Hindi versions of question(s), English version will be taken as the final and correct version.
(ix) A visually challenged (blind) candidate, can request for the services of amanuensis (scribe) who must be one grade junior in academic qualification i.e not more than X/Matriculation pass in the present case and should not be related to the candidate. For amanuensis, the candidate must submit a separate request letter, at least one week in advance, to the concerned Nodal Officer of the Examination City Centre giving a copy of the PD/PC certificate issued by a competent authority. The services of amanuensis (Scribe) who should be from academic discipline other than that of the candidate, shall be provided free of cost by the Noda Officer. The scribe will have to give a suitable undertaking,confirming that the scribe fulfills all the stipulated eligibility criteria for a scribe as mentioned above. In case later on it is proved that candidate has suppressed material facts, the candidature of the applicant will stand cancelled, irrespective of the outcome of result of the written test. Such candidates who use a scribe shall be eligible for extra time of 50 minutes during examination.
ICAR AIEEA UG 2015 information will be updated very shortly…
- ICAR National Talent Scholarship (NTS)
- AIEEA – UG – 2015 Introduction
- AIEEA – UG – 2015 Admit Card
- AIEEA – UG – 2015 Online Application
- AIEEA – UG – 2015 Conduct of Examination
- AIEEA UG Degree Programmes (ICAR)
- The examination shall be conducted in one of the two subject streams namely
- ‘Stream-A’ comprising of Physics, Chemistry and Agriculture/Biology subjects.
- ‘Stream-B’ comprising of Physics,Chemistry and Mathematics subjects.
- Questions for Physics and Chemistry subjects shall be common for both subject streams.
- Paper for ‘Stream–A’ shall carry questions on Biology as well as Agriculture subject, out of which the candidate has to attempt/opt/choose only one subject, either Biology or Agriculture. ‘Stream–B’ paper carries questions on Mathematics subject.
- AIEEA Question Paper will have 180 Multiple Choice type questions, each with four options.
- 60 questions in Physics, serially numbered from 1-60,
- 60 questions in Chemistry, numbering from 61-120
- 60 questions in Agriculture/Biology/Mathematics, numbering from 121-180.
- Each correctly answered question will earn four marks, with a maximum of 720 marks for the paper.
- The duration of the exam would be 2½ hours.
- The Entrance Examination
- For each incorrect answer one mark will be deducted from the total score.
- Question with no response indicated will not be awarded any mark and there will be no negative marking for that question.
- The candidates are advised not to attempt such questions in the OMR answer sheet, for which they are not sure of the correct answer.
- More than one answer indicated against a question will be deemed as incorrect answer and will invite negative marking.
- Candidate will be required to choose the correct answer and mark in the OMR answer sheet by darkening the corresponding circle/ bubble against the serial number of the question with black/ blue ball-point pen.
Question paper for the examination shall be bilingual, i.e., in ENGLISH and HINDI. In case of any variation in English and Hindi versions of question(s), English version will be taken as the final and correct version.
A visually challenged (blind) candidate, can request for the services of amanuensis (scribe) who must be one grade junior in academic qualification i.e. not more than X/ Matriculation pass in the present case and should not be related to the candidate. For amanuensis, the candidate must submit a separate request letter, at least one week in advance, to the concerned Nodal officer of the Examination City Centre giving a copy of the PD/PC certificate issued by a competent authority. The services of amanuensis (Scribe) who should be from academic discipline other than that of the candidate, shall be provided free of cost by the Nodal Officer.
- The scribe will have to give a suitable undertaking, confirming that the scribe fulfills all the stipulated eligibility criteria for a scribe as mentioned above. In case later on it is proved that candidate has suppressed material facts, the candidature of the applicant will stand cancelled, irrespective of the outcome of result of the written test. Such candidates who use a scribe shall be eligible for extra time of 50 minutes during examination.
There are 49 exam centres allotted for ICAR – AIEEA 2015 examination. Given below the list of exam centres with their contact telephone numbers.
|AIEEA Examination Centres|
|Name||Contact Phone No. of|
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) AIEEA important Dates
ICAR AIEEA UG 2015 Important Dates
|Last date for receipt of application||23rd February 2015|
|Last date for receipt of applications from certain remote areas namely, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Lahaul & Spiti district and Pangi sub-division of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep||27th February 2015|
|Admit Card or Roll No. query if any||After last week of March 2015|
|Date and Time of Examination||Saturday, April 11 , 2015
(10.00 AM to 12.30 PM)
|Declaration of Result||After 3rd week of May 2015|
|Date of counseling schedule (Tentative)||16th June 2015 – 26th June 2015|
Unit-1: Agrometeorology, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biochemistry and Microbiology
Agrometerology: Elements of Weather-rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, Sunshine weather forecasting, climate change in relation to crop production.
Genetics & Plants Breeding : (a) Cell and its structure, cell division-mitosis and meiosis and their significance (b) Organisation of the genetic materials in chromosomes, DNA and RNA (c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments, Absence of linkage in Mendel’s experiments. (d) Quantitative inheritance, continuous and discontinuous variation in plants. (e) Monogenic and polygenic inheritance. (f) Role of Genetics in Plant breeding, self and cross-pollinated crops, methods of breeding in field crops-introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy, tissue and cell culture, (g) Plant Biotechnology-definition and scope in crop production.
Biochemistry: pH and buffers, Classification and nomenclature of carbohydrates; proteins; lipids; vitamins and enzymes.
Microbiology: Microbial cell structure, Micro-organisms-Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa and Viruses Role of micro-organisms in respiration, fermentation and organic matter decomposition.
Unit-2: Livestock Production
Scope and importance: (a) Importance of livestock in agriculture and industry. White revolution in India. (b) Important breeds Indian and exotic, distribution of cows, buffaloes and poultry in India.
Care and management: (a) Systems of cattle and poultry housing (b) Principles of feeding, feeding practices. (c) Balanced ration-definition and ingredients. (d) Management of calves, bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers, poultry. (e) Signs of sick animals, symptoms of common diseases in cattle and poultry, Rinderpest, black quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagic septicaemia coccidiosis, Fowl pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control.
Artificial Insemination: Reproductive organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial insemination,
role of artificial insemination in cattle improvement, Livestock Products: Processing and marketing of milk and Milk products.
Unit-3: Crop Production
Introduction: (a) Targets and achievements in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections, sustainable crop production, commercialization of agriculture and its scope in India. (b) Classification of field crops based on their utility-cereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops.
Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures: (a) Soil, soil pH, Soil structure, soil organisms, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health. (b) Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms. (c) soil types of India and their characteristics. (d) Organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system.
Irrigation and Drainage: (a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, rivers, wells, tubewells). (b) Scheduling of irrigation based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters. (c) Water requirement of crops. (d) Methods of irrigation and drainage. (e) Watershed management.
Weed Control: Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed management)
Crops: Seed bed preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate; dose, method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi virus and nematode and their control, integrated pest management, harvesting, threshing, post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field crops-Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut, mustard, pigeon-pea, gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem.
(a) Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry. (b) orchard-location and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden. (c) Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn. (d) Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennials-definition and examples. Propagation by seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting.(e) Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of: (i) Fruits – mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes, (ii) Vegetables – Radish, Carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage, (iii) Flowers – Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemus, roses and marigold. (f) Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation. (g) Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing.
Unit-1: Sets and functions
1. Sets : Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets, Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2. Relations & Functions : Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (Upto R × R × R). Definition of relation, Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations. Pictorial representation of a function, domain. Co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions: Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin(x +y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy. Deducing the identities like the following:
Identities related to sin2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin è ? = sin á, cos è ? = cos á? and tan é ? = tan á.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions: Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Properties of triangles, including centroid, incentre, circum-centre and orthocenter, Solution of triangle, Heights and Distances.
1. Principle of Mathematical induction: Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations: Need for complex numbers, especially-1, to be motivated inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.
3. Linear Inequalities: Linear inequalities, Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically.
4. Permutations & Combinations: Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n.(n!). Permutations and combinations, derivation of formula and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem: History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series: Sequence and Series, Arithematic progression (A.P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression(G.P), general term of G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean(G.M.). relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to ne terms of the special series Ón, Ón2, and Ón3.
7. Matrices: Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. None-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix(restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the unquencess of inverse, if it exists.
8. Determinants: Determinant of a square matrix( up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and application of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equation by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
Unit-3: Coordinate Geometry
1. Straight Lines: Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Sections: Sections of a cone: circle ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry: Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.
1. Limits and Derivatives: Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
2. Continuity and Differentiability: Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrang’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
3. Application of Derivatives: Application of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation, maxima and minima(first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Sample problems.
4. Integrals: Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts; only simple integrals of the type
to be a evaluated. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
5. Applications of the Integrals : Application in finding the areas under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/parabolas/ellipses(in standard form only), area between the two above said curves.
6. Differential Equations: Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation, Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogenous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: where p and q are function of x.
Unit-5: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
1. Vectors: Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a pint, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector(cross) product of vectors.
2. Three-dimensional Geometry: Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between(i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit-6: Linear Programming
Linear Programming: Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit-7: Mathematical Reasoning
Mathematical Reasoning: Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases – consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and” “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics Validating the statements involving the connecting words, difference between contradiction, converse and contra positive.
Unit-8: Statistics & Probability
1. Statistics: Measures of central tendency, mean, median and mode from ungrouped/grouped data. Measures of dispersion, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation from ungrouped/ data. Correlation, regression lines.
2. Probability: Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation) Events: occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events. Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability. Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of stochastic variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
Introduction: basic concepts and basic laws of mechanics, force resultant of forces acting at a point, parallelogram law of forces, resolved parts of a force, Equilibrium of a particle under three concurrent forces. Triangle law of forces and its converse, Lami’s theorem and its converse, Two parallel forces, like and unlike parallel forces, couple and its moment.
Speed and velocity, average speed, instantaneous speed, acceleration and retardation, resultant of two velocities. Motion of a particle along a line, moving with constant acceleration. Motion under gravity. Laws of motion, Projectile motion.
Unit: 1 The living World
Nature and scope of Biology, Methods of Biology. Our place in universe. Laws that govern the universe and life. Level of organization. Cause and effect relationship.
Origin of life and its maintenance. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life processes. The living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative aspects of progress in biological sciences. The future of the living world. identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.
Unit:2 Unit of Life
Cells as a unit of life. Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function. Macromolecules in cells – their chemistry, cellular location and functional significance, Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes; chemical nature, classification, mechanism in action-enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), inrreversible activation. Biomembranes; Fluid mosaic model of membrane, role in transport, recognition of external information (brief). Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic view of cell, its organelles and their functions; nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall, cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions. A general account of cellular respiration. Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle outline), mitochondrial electron transports chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation, cell reproduction; process of mitosis and meiosis.
Unit-3: Diversity of Life
Introduction. The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two kingdom classification as plants and animals; the five kingdom classification, Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia; the basic features of five kingdom classification. Modes of obtaining nutrition-autotrophs and heterotrophs. Life style producers, consumers and decomposers. Unicellularity and multicellularity, phyylogenetic relationships. Concepts of species, taxon and categories – hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages; kingdom Monera-archeabacteria – life in extermen environments; Bacteria, Atinomycetes, Cyanobacteria. Examples & illustration of autotrophic and heterotrophic life; mineralizes-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms; disease producers. Kingdom Protissta-Eukaryotic unicellular organisms, development of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. Various life styles shown in the major phyla. Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms. Plant kingdom-complex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Vascularization; development of flower, fruit and seed. Kingdom fungi-lower fungi(Zygomycetes), higher fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); the importance o fungi. Decomposers; parasitic forms; lichens and mycorrhizae. Animal kingdom-animal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in invertebrate vertebrate physia. Salient features with reference to habitat and example of phylum porifera, coelenterate, helminthes, annelids, mollusca, arthropoda, echinoderms; chordate (classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) highlighting major characters.
Unit:4 Organisms and Environment
Species : Origin and concept of species population, interaction between environment and population community. Biotic community, interaction between different species, biotic stability. Changes in the community. Succession, Ecosystem; interaction between biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems, manmade ecosystem – Agro ecosystem. Biosphere; flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food web, biogeochemial cycles, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences. Conservation of natural resources’ nerewable and non-renewable (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development. Wild life and forest conservation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered concept of afforestation. Environmental pollution; air and water pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control, pollution due to fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise pollution; sources and effects.
Unit:5 Multicellulairty : Structure and Function – Plant Life
Form and function. Tissue system in flowering plants; meristematic and permanent. Mineral nutrition-essential elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and water in plants. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation, photorespiration. Transpiration and exchange of gases. Stomatal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants: water relations in plant cells, water potential. Reproduction and development in Angiosperms; asexual and sexual reproduction. Structure and functions of flower : development of male and female gametophytes in angiosperms, pollination, fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentiation and organ formation. Plant hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance. senescence and abscission. Application of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of growth and movement in plants.
Unit:6 Multicellularity : Structure and Function – Animal Life
Animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition, organs of digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mineral and vitamins; nutritional imbalances and deficiency diseases. Gas exchange and transport: Pulmonary gas exchange and organs involved, transport of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous medic circulation: closed and open vascular systems, structure and pumping action of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph. Excretion and osomoregulation. Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, urecotelism, excretion of water and urea with special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lungs in excretion. Hormonal coordination; hormones of mammals, role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Nervous coordination, central autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, receptors, effectors, reflex action, basic physiology of special senses, integrative control by neuroendocrinal systems. Locomotion: joints, muscle movements, types of skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human reproduction, female reproductive cycle. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs layers), growth, repair and ageing.
Unit:7 Continuity of Life
Heredity and variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and concepts of factors. Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Genes: Packaging of heredity material in prokaryotes-bacterial chromosome and plasmid; and eukaryote chromosomes. Extranuclear genes, viral genes. Linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation, Gene expression; genetic code, transcription, translation, gene regulation. Molecular basis of differentiation.
Unit:8 Origin and Evolution of Life
Origin of life: living and non-living, chemical evolution. organic evolution; Oparin ideas, Miller-Urey experiments. Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution: fossil records including geological scale, Morphological evidence – hematology, vestigial organs, embryological similarities and biogeographical evidence.
Darwin’s two major contributoions. Common origin of living organisms and recombination as sourece of variability selection and variation, adaptation (Lederberg’s replica plating experiment for indirect selection of bacterial mutants), reproductive isolation, speciation. Role of selection, change and drift in determining composition of population. Selected examples: industrial melanism; drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disease. Human evolution: Placontological evidence, man’s place among mammals. Brief idea of dryopithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus. H. neanderthlensis, Cro-Magnon man and Homo sapiens. Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with chromosomes of non-human primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs. biological evolution.
Mutation: origin and types of mutation, their role in speciation.
Unit:9 Application of Biology
Introduction, role of biology, in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of plant- a historical account, improvement of crop plants; Principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers, their economic and ecological aspects.
Use of pesticides: advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Underultilized crops with potential uses of oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder. New crops-Leucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Guayule, winged bean, etc. Biofertilizers – green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symbiotic). Applications of tissue culture and genetic engineering in crops. Domestication and introduction of animals. Livestock, poultry, fisheries (Fresh water, marine, aquaculture). Improvement of animals: principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and lac). Bioenergy-biomass, wood(combustion; gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons, for producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocelluloses. Biotechnology, application in health and agriculture, genetically modified (GM) organisms, bio-safety issues. A brief historical account-manufacture of cheese. yoghurt, alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic acids, antibiotics, steroids, dextrins. Scalling up laboratory findings to industrial production, sewage treatment. Production in insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases including STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS, etc) Immune response, vaccine and antisera. Allergies and Inflammation. Inherited diseases and dysfunction, sex-linked diseases, genetic incompatibilities, and genetic counseling. Cancer-major types. causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and organ transplantation. Community health services and measures; blood banks; mental health, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction-physiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical engineering – spare parts for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human population related diseases. Human population, growth, problems and control, inequality between sexes, control measures; test-tube babies aminocentesis. Future of Biology.