List of Presidents of the United States of America

List of Presidents of United States of America :


George Washington

Term of Office  April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797


John Adams

Term of Office  March 4, 1797 –  March 4, 1801


Thomas Jefferson

Term of Office  March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809


James Madison

Term of Office  March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817


James Monroe

Term of Office  March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825


John Quincy Adams

Term of Office  March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829



Andrew Jackson

Term of Office  March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837


Martin Van Buren

Term of Office  March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1841


William Henry Harrison

Term of Office  March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841


John Tyler

Term of Office  April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845


James K. Polk

Term of Office  March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849


Zachary Taylor

Term of Office  March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850


Millard Fillmore

Term of Office  July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853


Franklin Pierce

Term of Office  March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857


James Buchanan

Term of Office  March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861


Abraham Lincoln

Term of Office  March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865


Andrew Johnson

Term of Office  April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869


Ulysses S. Grant

Term of Office  March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877


Rutherford B. Hayes

Term of Office  March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881


James A. Garfield

Term of Office  March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881


Chester A. Arthur

Term of Office  September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885


Grover Cleveland

Term of Office  March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889


Benjamin Harrison

Term of Office  March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893


Grover Cleveland

Term of Office  March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897


William McKinley

Term of Office  March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901 (Died in office)


Theodore Roosevelt

Term of Office  September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909


William Howard Taft

Term of Office  March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913


Woodrow Wilson

Term of Office  March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921


Warren G. Harding

Term of Office  March 4, 1921August 2, 1923
(Died in office)


Calvin Coolidge

Term of Office  August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929


Herbert Hoover

Term of Office  March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933


Franklin D. Roosevelt

Term of Office  March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
(Died in office)


Harry S. Truman

Term of Office  April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953


Dwight D. Eisenhower

Term of Office  January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961


John F. Kennedy

Term of Office  January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
(Died in office)


Lyndon B. Johnson

Term of Office  November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969


Richard Nixon

Term of Office  January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974


Gerald Ford

Term of Office  August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977


Jimmy Carter

Term of Office  January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981


Ronald Reagan

Term of Office  January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989


George H. W. Bush

Term of Office  January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993


Bill Clinton

Term of Office  January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001


George W. Bush

Term of Office  January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009


Barack Obama

Term of Office  January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017


Donald Trump

Term of Office  January 20, 2017 – Incumbent




1. Diversity in Living World

Diversity of living organisms Classification of the living organisms (five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classificaton within each kingdom.) Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature Salient features of animal (non chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level) and plant (major groups; Angiospems up to subclass) classification. Botanical gardens, herbara, Zoological parks and museums

ll Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Tissues in animals and plants. Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Morphology, anatormy and functions of differnt systems of an  nnelid (earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).


Cell: cell wall, cell membrance and cell organelles’ (plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, Centrioles) and nuclear organization. Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids and nucleic acids. Enzymes: types, properties and function.

IV Plant Physiology

Movement of water, food, nutrients and gasses, Plants and Water Mineral nutrition. Respiration, Photosynthesis, Plant growth and development.

V Human Physiology

Digestion and absorption. Dreathing and respiration. Body fluids and circulation. Excretory products and  limination. Locomotion and movement. Control and coordination.


Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants. Development of seeds and fruits. Human reproduction:  eproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle. Production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and prarturation. Reproductive health – birth control, contraception and sexually  ransmitted diseases.

ll Genetics and evolution

Mendelian inheritancce. Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction – Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles). Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY Linkage and crossing over. Inherithnce pattern of harmophilia and blood groups in human beings. DNA:  eplication, transcription, translation. Gene expression and regulation. Genome and Human Genome Project. DNA fingerprinting. Evolution: Theories and evidences.


Animal husbandry. Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines. Pathogens, Parasites. Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.Microbes in household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and evergy  eneration. Cancer and AIDS. Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse.


Recombinant DNA technology. Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry Genetically modified (GM) organisms; biosafety issues. Insulin and Bt cotton


Ecosystems: components, types and energy flow. Species, population and community. Ecological adaptations. Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues.



1. Sets:
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets, Subsets. Susets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of ets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2. Relations & Functions
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, codomain and  ange of a relation, Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of function, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions:
Positive and negative angles, Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle, Truth of the identity sin2 x+cos2x= 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs, Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sin x, sin y, cos x & cos y.
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction :
Processes of the proof by inductin, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the lest inductivesubset of realnumbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simpleapplications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quardratic Equations :
Need for complex numbers, especially – 1, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation, Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.

3. Linear Inequalities :
Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one varibale and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables, solution of system of linear inequalities in two varibales-graphically.

4. Permutations & Theorem:

Fundamental principla counting. Factroial n. permutations and combinations, derivation of formula and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem :
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series :
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A.P.) arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.) general term of a G.P. sum of n terms of a G.P. geometric mean (G.M.) relation between A.M. and
G.M. sum to n terms of the special series. 3 n, 3 n2 and 3n3
1. Straight Lines :
Briet recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slopeintercept form, two-point from, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Section :
Sections of cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as
a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse
and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. lntroduction to Three-dimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between
two points and section formula.

1. Limits and Derivatives :
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea
of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product
and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
1. Mathematical Reasoning :
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases – consolidating the unerstanding of “if
and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words-difference between contradiction, converse and contapositive.
1. Statistics:
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

2. Probability :
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exc lusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events.
1. Relations and Functions :
Types of relations : reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.’
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions :
Definition, range, domaia, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trgonometric functions
1. Matrices:
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, Zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multplication and scalar mulitiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of martices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertibel matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants :
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inerse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.


1. Continuity and Differentiability :
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their
derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagranges mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric intepretations.
2. Applications of Derivatives :
Applications of derivatives : rate of change, increasing/ decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation,
maxima and minima a (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations.)
3. Integrals :
Integration as nverse process of differntiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type.Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals :
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only,) area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly indentifiable).
5. Differential Equations :
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order first degree.


1. Vectors :
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction consines/ ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vecters, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. three – dimensional Geometry :
Direction consines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines, Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane, Distance of a point from a plane.


1. Linear Programming
lntroduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible region, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints).


1. Probability :
Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.



Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction :

Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory : theory : concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass : percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Structure of Atom

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Borh’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglies relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals-Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties :

Significance and classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro Magnetic Effects of current and Magnetism : Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loog in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loog as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Mangetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their stengths. Permanent magnets.
negativity, valence.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure :

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

States of Matter : gases and liquids :

Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in
elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ldeal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State-Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations.)

Thermodynamics :

Concepts of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ÎU and ÎH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization, and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, equilibrium.

Equilibrium :

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature e of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions. Solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Redox Reactions :

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.

Hydrogen :

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial, physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structure; hydrogen as a fuel .

S-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 elements :General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds :

Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca

Some P-Block Elements :

General introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium : uses, reactions with acids and alkalies. Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites. Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques General introduction method, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; heterophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Hydrocarbons : 

Classification of hydrocarbons Alkanes-Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical  roperties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism or halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods  f preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s a dition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation mechanism of electrophilic addition.  Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, Methods of preparation, chemical  reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of -hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons : Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance aromaticity; chemical
properties : mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s  alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and
t  xicity.

Environmental Chemistry :

 Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in  tmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions effect of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes; green  chemistry as an alternative  ool for reducing pollution  strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Solid State : 

Classification of solids based on different binding forces:  molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,  amprophous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two
dimensional a nd three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of
atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.

Solutions :

Types of   olutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions,  olligative properties -relative lowering of vapour  pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing  point,  osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.

Electrochemistry :

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.

Chemical Kinetics :

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate quations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementay idea, no mathematical treatment)

Surface Chemistry :

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivily: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: Distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular clloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – typesof emulsions.

Generla Principles and Processes of lsolation of Elements :

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and lron….

P-Block Elements :

Group 15 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – perparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only) Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemicla properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphurallotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). 

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric aoid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only)

Group 18 elements : General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemicla properties, uses.

D and F Block Elemets :

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states,

Coordination Compounds :
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number colour, magnetic properties and shapes. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes :
Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (direvtive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT,
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers :
Ahenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol,
electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Caboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods. of preparation, physical and chemical porperties; uses.
Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Namenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses,
identifcation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose glycogen), importance.
Proteins – Elementary idea of ex- amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary
structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids : DNA & RNA.
Polymers :
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.

Chemistry in Everyday life:

1. Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility
dmgs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

2. Chemicals in food – preservatives, artifcial sweetening agents.

3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing



Physical World and Measurement :

Physics – scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; Sl units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement, significant figures. Dimensions of phycical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

 Kinematics :

Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line :Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velociy. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time position-time graphs, reations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentation and integration fro describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: position and displacement vectorsgeneral vectors and notation equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number, addition and subtraction of vectros. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components. motion in a plane. Cases of uniform circular motion.

 Laws of Motion :

Intuitive conept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Work, Energy and Power :

Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. 

Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body :

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and center of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors; moment of force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (on derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications

 Gravitation :

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

Properties of Bulk Matter :

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity of fiuid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory :

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules, degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path. Avogadro’s number.

Oscil llations and Waves :

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacements as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase, oscillations of a springrestoring force and force constant, energy in S.H.M -kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. Unit I: Electrostatics Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges, equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Current Electricity :

Electric curren, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Cardon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors, temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metttre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potenatial difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Magnetic Effects of current and Magnetism :

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular  oop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a  oving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a  niform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced  y a current loog in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loog as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Mangetic dipole  oment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an  quivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their stengths. Permanent magnets.

Electromagnetic and Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.


Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection an its applications,
optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula Magnification, power
of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of  ight – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and  stigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction usingHuygens’ principle. Interference, young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent  sources and sustanined interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation :

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observationsl; Einstein’s photoelectric quationparticle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson- Germer experiment.

Atoms & Nuclei :

Alpha-pariticle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isptones. Radioactivity alpha, beta and gamme
particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per
nucleon and its variation with mass number nuclear fission and fusion.

Electronic Devices :

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I – V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a
rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, pho odiode, solar cell, and zener diode; zener diode as a voltage regulator
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter
configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Communication Systems :

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic
waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitued-modulated wave.




a) Tools (Compound microscope & Electron microscope – Magnification & Resolving power) – Brief idea Technique (cell fractionation & Tracer Techniques) – brief idea. Principle & use of

b) Definition of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells with example and comparison between them. c) Structural organization of eukaryotic cells with special reference to i) Nucleus ii) Mitochondria iii) Chloroplast iv) Ribosome v) Lysosome vi) Endoplasmic reticulum vii) Golgi complex viii) Centrosome ix) Cell wall & plasma membrance (Fluid Mosaic Model) & x) Ergastic substances. d) Cell function : i) Physico-Chemical Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, water & ion-absorption. ii) Cell reproduction – Cell cycle with a brief idea of its control & regulation. Cell division – Mitosis & Meiosis (with special reference to prophase – I).


a) Photosynthesis (Major photosynthetic pigments, Dark and light reactions, basic idea of bacterial photosynthesis C3, C4 & CAM pathways). b) Basic mode of plant nutrition (only types). Basic constituents of food and their nutritional significances Vitamins – (chemical names, dietary sources and dificiency symptoms), Provitamins, Pseudovitamins and Antivitamins. Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats (classification with example) c) Enzymes – its characteristics, classification with example, Mechanism of action, Allosterism and Regulation. d) Basal metabolism and BMR, Elementary idea about metabolic pathways (glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acid, ketone body formation & its significance, deamination and transamination with their significances). Ornithin cycle (Flow sheet only).


a) Toxonomy & classification – Definition and importance of taxonomy, Basic concept of classification, Binomial nomenclature, species concept & role of reproductive isolation in speciation. b) Concepts of Biodiversity – Definition, Species and Ecosystem biodiversity (Elementary idea), Five kingdoms classification (only distinctive characters). Salient features of major animal phyla with common examples. Classification of Chordata (upto class) with distinctive characters only. Important Botanical gardens, Zoological parks & Museum of India. c) Population Biology – Concept of population growth (logistic and exponential) and population control. d) Spcial physiology – Mental health, Tobacco smoking and chewing, Alcoholism, Drug addiction & Global immunization.


a) Viruses and Becteria – Definition, Characterization, Classification, Size and shape, General organization & Reproduction. Structure of bacteriophage, TMV, Influenza virus & E. coli (Typical bacterium). Staining of bacteria. Impotance of both virus & bacteria. Biotechnological Application of microbes (Agricultural-Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Bio-fertilizer and Bio-pesticide, Industrial – Curd, Tanning, Brewery, Antibiotics & Vitamin – C). b) Plant breeding – Definition, Hybridization technique Emasculation. Importance of plant breeding. c) Immunology – A brief idea of Antigen and Antibody, elementary idea of inherited, acquired, humoral cell medicated immunity. Active and passive immunity.


a) Evolution – Oparin and Haldane concept on origin of life, Miller’s experiment, Evidences of evolution – Morphological, Embryological and palaentological. Modern concept of natuaral selection. Human evolution – an outline. b) Ecosystem – Its components, food chain, food web, Energy flow and food pyramids, Concepts of biosphere, Autoecology & synecology. Byogeochemical cycles with reference to Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. c) Conservation – Its concept, Renewable & Non-renewable resources, Conservation of soil & water, Conservation of
forest & wild life. Concepts of endangered species with some examples. Red data book, Green data book. d) Environmental pollution – Air, Water, Noise and Radioactive pollution, probable control strategies, Biomagnification. Green house effect, BOD, COD, Acid rain, Ozone hole & Global warming.


a) Economically important plants – (Mention uses of edible parts only). Algae – Spirulina, Fungi – Mushroom, Bryophyta – Sphagnum, Pteridophyta – Marselia, Gymnosperm – Pinus, Monocot – Bamboo, Dicot – Jute and lemon. b) Economic zoology – Poultry (types of poultry birds, high yielding poultry birds). Sericulture (definition of silk, types of silk and silk moth, voltinism and diapause, silk gland, disease of silk worm), Apiculture (types of honey bee, composition and uses of honey). c) Medical zoology – outline idea of disease, their causative organism, mode of infection, symptoms and preventive mea- sures of i) Malaria ii) Filaria iii) Ascariasis iv) Taeniasis. Distinguishing features of Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. Control measures of mosquito. d) Pest and their management – definitiion, types (Major and Minor pest) Mammalian pest, Insect pest (Tryporyza, Leptocorisa and Hispa sp), pest control ; IPM, biological control of insect pest. Fishery – Major carp, Minor carp, Exotic carp (definition & example), common diseases and control measures of carp Gill rot, Fin rot & Dropsy.


a) Plant hormones – Sources, chemical name and functions of Auxins, Gibberallins, Cytokinins and Florigen in relation to plant life. b) Endocrine system – Definition of Endocrine gland and mixed gland sources and functions of some important hormones in human – STH, TSH, ACTH, GTH, Thyroxine, Adrenaline, Insulin, Oestrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone, Local hormone (Gastrin, Secretin & Cholecystokinin) and Neurohormone (ADH & Oxytocin). Elementary idea of hormone action (protein and steroid hormones) Prostaglandin – Definition and function. c) Growth, Metamorphosis and Ageing – phases and factors of growth, Difference between plant and animal growth, Grand period of growth. Metamorphosis -Definition. Types and role of hormones. Senescence and ageing of plants and animals and its factors. Growth of seedling and the role of gibberalic acid. d) Reproduction and developmental Biology – Human Gonads – Testis and Ovary (Histology, Hormones and their functions). Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Structure of sperm and graffian follicle. Menstrual cycle, Fertilization, implantation. A brief idea about cleavage, morula, blastula and gastrula formation.


a) Chromosome and DNA : Chromosome structure (both physical and chemical) euchromatin and heterochromatin. DNA structure (Watson – Crick Model) DNA functions and Central Dogma with brief account of replication, transcription and translation, RNA – general organization and types, brief idea on gene and genetic code. b) Mendelism : Mendel’s monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. (citing one example from plant and one from animal) Mendel’s laws of heredity with an explanation of different contradictions due to Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles. Epistasis and Linkage (brief idea only). c) Mutation : Gene mutation and chromosomal aberration, (ref. Albinism, Down syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klienfelter’s syndrome).


(Life system – 1) a) Digestion : Structural organization of alimentary tract, salivary gland, liver and pancreas, main digestive juices & enzymes, digestion & absorption of Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipid. Movement of small intestine (Types only). b) Nervous system : A brief outline of the organization and basic functions of nervous system (central and peripheral). Autonomic Nervous System. Functions of six major parts of brain – Cerebral – cortex, Thalamus, Hypo thalamus, Pons, Cerebellum & Medulla oblongata. Reflex action and its properties, Reflex are neuromuscular transmission. Major sense organ (Eye & Ear) and Receptors. c) Muscle Tissue : Different types of muscles and their structures in brief. Properties of muscle – Excitability, Contractility. All or none law, Refractory period, Rigormortis, Important muscles of hand and leg.


(Life system – 2) a) Circulation : Composition and functions of blood. Blood coagulation (Process in brief). Anti Coagulant. Blood groups – ABC system and Rh factor. Anatomy of the heart – Junctional tissues of the heart, origin and propagation of cardiac impulse. Histological structure of Arteries. / Veins and Capillaries. Blood pressure, Cardiac cycle and Cardiac output. Mechanism of breathing. Definition of Tidal volume, Total lung capacity, Residual volume, Vital capacity, Expiratory and inspiratory Reserve volume, Dead space. Transport of O2 and CO2 through blood. b) Excretion : Definition of Excretion. Excretory products of animal (general) Human kidney and its unit – Structure and function of both. Ultra filtration reabsorption, Hypertonic urine formation Normal and Abnormal constituents of urine. Accessory excrertory organs – Skin, Liver, Salivary glands.





Principle of Mathematical Induction (PMI) :
Statement of the principle of divisibility, summation and inequality by using P M I, Simple applications. Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions : Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means and relation among them, sum to first n terms of an arithmetic, geometric and arithmetic-geometric series, simple applications. Theory of quadratic equations : Its rational, irrational and complex roots, relation between roots and coefficients of a quadratic equation, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equation, symmetric functions of the roots, quadratic expression, its maximum and minimum values. Simple applications. Complex numbers : Its real and imaginary parts, polar form and conjugate of a complex number, Argand diagram, cube roots of unity, triangle inequality, simple problems. Permutation and combination : Fundamental theorem of counting, permutation as arrangement and combination as selection. Permutation and combination of like and unlike things. Circular permutation is to be excluded. Simple applications


Binomial Theorem : Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term, middle term (terms), equidistant terms, simple applications. Infinite series : Infinite geometric series, Binomial theorem for fractional and negative index, exponential series, logarithmic series, simple applications Matrices and deterinants : Matrices upto third order, addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication and multiplication of matrices. Determinants upto third order, Properties of deterinants, Minors and confactors, application of determinants for evaluation of area of a triangle and solution of a system of linear equations by using Cramer’s rule. Inverse of a 2 X 2 matrix, simple applications. Probability Theory : Random experiment and their outcomes, events, sample space, equally likely, mutually exclusive and exhaustive cases, classical definition of probability, addition and multiplication theorems. Simple applications.


Trigonometric ratios of associated angles, compound angles, multiple and submultiple angles, conditional identities, general solution of trigonometric equations, inverse circular functions. Simple applications.


Properties of triangles : Sine, Cosine, Tangent rules, formulae for semi angels, expression for area of a triangle, circum radius. Co-ordinate geometry : Cartesian & Polar co-ordinates, relation between them, distance between
two points, section ratio, co-ordinates of centroid and incentre of a triangle, area of the triangle, idea of loci, equations of straight line in different forms, angle between two straight lines, condition of perpendicularity & parallelism, position of a point with respect to a straight line, distance of a point from a straight line. Simple applications.


Circle : Equation of a circle, its centre and ratius, equation of circle in general form, equation of a circle interms of end points of a diameter, length of intercept on a circle by a straight line. Conics : Idea of a conic, equation of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola in standard form, focus, directrix, chord, elementary properties, Parametric representation of conics. Simple applications.


Differential calculus : Concept of a function, different kinds of functions, domain and range of a function, geometrical representation of a function. Concept of limit of a function at a point, right and left hand limits. Evaluation of limits using standard limits and not by using L-Hospital’s Theorem. Concept of continuity of a function (i) at a point, (ii) in an interval, Idea of discontinuity, removable discontinuity, height of the jump. Determination of continuity of a function graphically and analytically. Concept of derivative of a function at a point, derivative from first principle, first and second order derivative of a function. Simple applications.


Integral calculus : Integration as an inverse of differentiation, integration by substitution and by parts, integration by partial fraaction, simple integrals of the type :


Definite integral : Definite integral as the limit of a sum, geometrical meaning of a definite integral, properties of definite integral, fundamental theorem of integral calculus. Evalution of definite integrals. Differential Equation : Genesis of differential equation, meaning of solution of differential equation, solution of differential equation of 1st order by variable seperable method, homogeneous differential equation of 1st order, solution of equation of the type


Derivative as a rate measure. Calculation of approximate value and error.
Increasing and decreasing functions.
Tangents and normals.
Maxima and minima :
Determination of maxima and minima of a function by using (i) first
order derivative only, (ii) first and second order derivatives.
Determination of area :
Calculation of area of a closed region. Simple applications.


Relations & Mapping :
Ordered pair, Cartesian product of sets, relation – different types of
relations, different types of mappings.
Vectors :
Idea of vectors – addition and subtraction of vectors, scalar multiplication
of a vector, triangle law, Position vector of a point dividing a
line segment in a given ratio, dot and cross product of vectors, projection
of a vector on another vector, application of vectors in
geometry.Simple application.




A. Atomic structure : Concept of nuclear atom : Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number ; Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Extra nuclear structure, line spectrum of hydrogen atom ; quantization of energy (Planck’s equation = hv), Bohr model of atom and its limitations, Sommerfeld’s modification (elementary idea), the four quantum numbers, ground state electronic configurations of many electron atoms and mono atomic ions, the Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s Rule, Dual nature of electron, the concept of atomic orbitals, shapes of S, P and d-orbitals (Pictorial Approach) B. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry : Natural Radioactivity alpha, beta, gamma – rays and their properties, rate of radioactive decay, decay constant and half-line period of radio elements, Numerical Problems, Artificial radioactivity, Nuclear reactions, stability of atomic nucleus, effect of neutron – proton (n/p) ratio on the modes of decay, group displacement law, radio isotopes and their uses ( 6C14, 15P32 and 53I137 as examples ), isobars and isotones, Nuclear fission and fusion reactions. C. The Periodic table and Chemical families : Morn periodic law, Modern periodic table based onelectronic configurations, groups and periods, types of elements : Representative (s and p-block) elements, transition (d-block) elements and inner transition (f-block) elements (lanthanides and actinides) and their general characteristics, periodic trends in physical and chemical properties – atomic radii, Valency, ionization energy, electron affinity, metallic character, acidic and basic characters of oxides and hydrides of the representative elements (upto Z = 36), position of hydrogen and noble gases in the periodic table, Diagonal relationships.


A. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure : Valence electrons, the octet rule, Electrovalent, convalent and coordinate convalent bonds with examples, properties of electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate covalent compounds, limitations of octet rule (examples), Fajan’s rule. Directionality of covalent bonds, shapes of polyatomic molecules (examples). Concept of hybridization of atomic orbitals involving s.p and d orbitals. Molecular Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species – bond order and magnetic properties, Valence shell electron pair Repulsion (VSEPR) concept, (elementary idea) – shapes of molecules, concept of resonance (elementary idea), resonance structure (examples), Elementary idea about electronegativity, bond polarity and dipolemoment, Hydrogen bonding and its effect on physical properties (M.P., B.P. and Solubility). Double and complex salts, Werner’s Co-ordination compounds (examples only), co-ordination number and geometry (example with CN 4 and 6 only), IUPAC nomenclaature of mono nuclear co-ordination complexes (examples). B. Chemical Energetics and Chemical Dynamics : Some basic concepts of Thermodynamics : System, Sorroundings, Types of system, types of processes, intensive and extensive properties, state functions, irreversible process, internal energy, enthalpy, work, heat capacity specific heat capacity, molar heat capacity, enthalpy changes during phase transitions, Enthalpy change in chemical reactions, standard enthalpy of formation, Hess’s law and its applications, bond enthalpy, measurement of enthalpy of reactions, energy of combustion reactions, conservation of energy and the first law of thermodynamics, Mathematical form of First law of thermodynamics, Numerical problems. Spontaneity of a process, entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, elementary idea about entropy change ( Δ S) and free energy change ( Δ G), significance of the relation ; Δ G = Δ H – T Δ S (without derivation), example with gaseous reaction, Numerical problems. Chemical Dynamics : Dependence of reaction rates with concentration, pressure, temperature, catalyst, size of particles etc.concept of energy barrier and activation energy. Order and molecularity of reactions (determination excluded), First order reaction, specific rate constant, half life period, numerical problems, examples of first order, pseudo first order and second order reactions.


A. Gaseous State : Measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law and Charle’s Law, absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, PV = nRT, Dalton’s Law of partial pressure, Graham’s Law of diffusion, Derivation from ideal behaviour, Liquifaction of gases, real gases, Vander waal’s equation, Numerical problems. B. Chemical Equilibria, Ionic Equilibria and Redox Equilibria : Chemical Equilibria : The law of mass action, dynamaic nature of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant (K), Le Chatelier’s principle, Equilibrium constants of Gaseous reactions (Kp and Kc) and relation between them (examples). Ionic Equilibria : Ionization of weak electrolytes, Ostwald’s dilution law, Ionization constants of weak acids and bases, ionic product of water, the PH – scale, PH of aqueous solutions of acids and bases, Buffer solutions, buffer action and Henderson equation, acid – base titrations, acid – base indicators (structures non evaluative), solubility and solubility product, common ion effect (examples), Numerical problems. Redox Equilibria : Oxidation – Reduction reactions as electron transfer processes, oxidation numbers, balancing of chemical equations of redox reactions by oxidation number and ion – electron methods. Standard Electrode potentials (E0 ), Nernst equation and its applications, Electrochemical series, feasibility of a redox reacction, significace of Gibb’s equation Δ GO = nF Δ EO (without derivation), e.m.f. of galvanic cells (examples), stoichiometry of redox reactions, redox titration’s (examples), Numerical problems.


A. Atoms, molecules and Chemical Arithmetic : Definition of atomic weight on hydrogen scale, oxygen scale and carbon scale, physical and chemical atomic weight, Avogadro’s hypothesis and its application for deduction of M = 2D and molar volume of ideal gases at STP, Mole concept, weight – weight – volume calculations, Eudiometry, Percentage Composition, empirical formula and molecular formula, Equivalent weight of elements, radicals and compounds (No experimental determination required), E V A relations, Law of reciprocal proportion and Law of equivalent weight, Numerical Problems. B. Chmistry of Solutions : Non-electrolytic solutions – Types of solution, strength of solution in terms of normality, molarity, molality, Mole fraction and formality, vapour pressure of solutions, Raoults Law, colligative properties – Relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, Osmotic pressure and their relationship with molecular mass (without derivation), Numerical Problems. Colloidal Solution : Differences from true solutions, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic colloids (examples, Preparation, properties and uses), coagulation and peptization of colloids, dialysis and its applications, Brownian motion,Tyndall effect and its applications, electrical properties, Protection of colloids and protective colloids, gold number, Elementary idea of emulsion, surfactant and micelle. Electrolytic Solutions : Electrolysis and electrolytic cell, factors influencing electrolysis, examples of electrolysis of few aqueous solutions of different strength (NaCl, H2SO4, CuSO4 and AgNO3 ) by using different suitable electrodes, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, relationship between electrochemical equivalent and chemical equivalent, Definition of Faraday’s from Faraday’s first and second laws, Relationship between e, F and N. Determination of charge of electron from Faraday’s law, Electrolytic conduction, Conductance, Specific condutance, equivalent conductance and ionic conductance, Molar conductance, Kohlrausch’s law and its application, Numerical Problems.


A. Chemistry of Non-Metallic Elements and their compounds : i) Carabon : Allotropes of Carb on-Diamond, graphite, Fullerene. Preparation, properties and uses of CO and CO2, carbonate-bicarbonate fuffer systems. ii) Nitrogen and Phosphorus : Occurance, isotopes, iisolation from natural source and purification, reactivity of the free element, Preparation, properties andm reaction of PH3, N2O, NO, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, P4O6, P4O10, H3PO3, and H3PO4, NH3. iii) Sulphur and Oxygen : Occurance, isotopes, allotropic forms and isolation from natural sources and purification, properties and reactions of free element, H2O : unusal properties of water, heavy water (Production and uses) H2O2 and O3 – their preparation, purification, Properties, reactions and uses.SO2 and H2SO4: Preparation, Properties reactions and uses. H2S : reaactions with oxidising agents, use of H2S as reagent in qualitative inorganic analysis. iv) Halogen Family : Occurance, Principle of preparation, physica states and Chemical reactivity of the free elements, peculiarities of fluorine and iodine, hydracids of halogen (preparation, properties, reactions and uses), interhalogen compounds (examples). B. Chemistry in Industry : Large scale production (including physico-chemical principles where applicable omitting technical details and uses of individual items). i) Heavy Chemicals : Sulphuric acid (contact process), Ammonia (Haber’s process), Nitric acid (ostwald’s process), Sodium bicarbonate and sodium Carbon ate (Solvay process). ii) Electro chemicals : Sodium hydroxide and Chlorine. iii) Fuel Gases : Coal Gas, Water Gas, LPG, LNG and CNG. iv) Firtilizer : Urea, Nitrolim, Ammonium sulphate, Super phosphate of lime.


A. Chemistry of Metallic elements and their compounds : General principles of metallurgy : Occurance,concentration of ores, extraaction and purification of metals, minerals wealth of India. Typical Members : Na, Ca, Al, Fe, Cu, Zn – occurance, extraction, purification (where applicable), properties and reactions. Manufacture of steels and alloy steel (Bessemer, open – Hearth and L D process). Principles of chemistry involved in electroplating, anodizing and galvanizing. Metals of Life : Biological roles of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ Fe2+, Fe3+,
Cu2+, and Zn2+ (elementary idea), mioglobin haemocyanin, chlorophyll (metal ion present and biofunction to be mentioned, structure – non evaluative). Compounds of metals : Principles of preparation, properties and uses of Bleaching powder, Plaster of paris, Epsom salt, Copper sulphate, Aluminium Chloride, Comon alum. B. Cement : Composition and setting of portland cement.


A. Chemistry of Organaic Compound : Unique nature of carbon atom – catenation, tetravalency of carbon,
Hybridization of orbitals, Modern concept of sigma and Pi-bond, classification of organaic compounds, Nomenclatuare of organic compounds (IUPAC name and trivial name), Homologous series, isomerism (structural), steric hindrance, inductive effect, resonance hyperconjugation. Organaic reaactions : Addition, substitution, elemination, rearrangement, Fission of a covalent bond, free radicals, electrophiles, nucleophiles, carbocations, carbanions. B. Hydrocarbons : Classification of hydrocarbons : Alkane-general methods of preparation and general properties with reactions. Methane and ethane : Principle of preparation, properties and uses. Alkene and Alkynes : General method of preparation, general properties with reactions. Saytzeff rule. Ethylene : Principle of preparation, properties, Marcownikoffs rule, Peroxide effect, ozonolysis, test of unsaturation and uses. Actylene : Principle of preparation, properties, Acidic character, test and uses.
C. Aromatic hydrocarbon : o, m, p isomers, Nucleus and side chain, Aromaticity. Benzene and its homologoues : Coal tar distillation and isolation of benzene, substitution reaction (chlorination, nitration,sulfonation and Friedalcraft’s reaction), ozonolysis, Dirtive influence of substituents (examples). Toluene and its o, m, p, substituted derivaties, chlorination (hydrolysis of chlorinated products indluded), side chain oxidations. D. Organic Compounds Containing halogens (Haloalkanes and Haloarenes) : General method of preparation, properties and reactions, haloform reaction, chloroform and Iodoform, carbylamine reaction, Chlorobenzene, (preparation, properties and uses). Preparation of Grignard reagents and their synthetic applications.


Organic compounds containing Oxygen : General methods of preparation, Large scale production, Properties, reactions, uses of individual compounds included in the syllabus and problem based on stoichiometry, structure, physical and chemical properties, reactions of functional groups. Alcohols : Methanol and ethanol (from fermentation). Ether : Diethlyether. Aldehydes and ketones : Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives : Formic acids, acetic acid and oxalic acid, acetyl chloride, acetic anhydride, acetamide, Ethyl acetate. Phenol, Benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, anthranilic acid, Acidity of carbozylic acid and phenol, effect of substitutents on the acidity of carboxylic acid.


A. Organic compounds containing nitrogen : Cyanides and Isocyanides – General methods of preparation, chemical
properties, comparison. Nitrobenzene : Preparation from benzene, diazonium salts, aniline properties reaction,halogenation,nitration, sulphonation. Amines : Classification, isomerism, general methods ofpreparation, properties with reactions, distinction and basicity of amines. Methyl amine, Ethyl amine, Aniline – preparations, properties, reactions and uses. Diazonium chloride – preparatio n, reaction and synthetic application.
B. Polymer : Classification of polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress o n their general methods of preparation) and importantuses of the following. Polythene, Nylon-66, Teflon, PVC, Rubber from natural sources including  Vulcanization.
C. Introduction of Biomolecules : Carbohydrates : Pentoses and Hexoses ; Distinctive chemical reaction of glucose, Amino acids : glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine (structure), Zwitterion structures ofamino acids, Peptide bond, ADP and ATP – structure and role in bioenergeties. Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA.


A. Environmental Chemistry : Chemical nature of air, water and soil and their role in environment, common modes of pollution of air, water and soil, importance of ozone layer, reactions causing ozone layer depletion, Green house effect, smog, pollution of water by domestic and industrial effluents, pollutants – pesticides, fertilizers and plastic. B. Application Oriented Chemistry : Main ingredients, their chemical natures (structures not required) and their side effects, if any, of common antiseptics, analgesics, antacids, pain killers, Vitamin C. Technical/Domestic/Medicinal uses of Chemicals : Baking powder, Calcium lactate, Boric acid, Borax, Zinc sulphate, oil of wintergreen, Carbolic acid.
C. Principles of qualitative analysis : Detection of water soluble non-interferring acid and basic radicals by dry and wet tests from among : a) Acid Radicals : Cl-, S2-, So2- 4, NO-3, Co2- b) Basic Radicals : Cu2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH 4 +. Detection of special elements (N, Cl, Br, I and S) in organic compounds by chemical tests, Identification of functional groups in : phenol, aromatic amines, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids.




Unit of measurement, System of units, S.I. units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional Analysis. Composition and resolution of vectors, Rectangular components in two & three dimensions, Unit vector, Representation of vectors in term of co-ordinates, Addition & Subtraction of vectors, Multiplication of vectors – scalar product & vector product. Uniformaly accelerated motion, Velocity – time graph Position-time graph, Kinematical equations in one dimension. Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a system of forces, Moment of a force about a point and an axis, couple, torque. Newton’s laws of motion, Inertial fraame, Impulse & impulsive forces. Conservation of linear momentum, Static and kinetic friction, Projectile motion. Rotational motion of a particle, Angular momentum and conservation of angular momentum, Moment of inertia, Relation between Torque, Angular momentum, Moment of inertia & Angular acceleration, Rotational kinetic energy, Centripetal force & centrifugal force. Work, energy & power ; Conservative and non-conservative force ; Elastic collision in one dimension.


Laws of gravitation, Gravitational field & potential ; Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude, depth & rotation of earth ; Escape velocity, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (rigorous proof is not required), Geostationary satellite. Elasticity, Elastic behaviour, Hooke’s Law of elasticity, Elastic module, Poisson’s ratio, Elastic Energy. Pascal’s law, Principle of multiplication of thrust & its application, Hydraulic press. Archimedes’ principle and its application, Atmospheric pressure, Torricelli’s Expt., Fortin’s Barometer. Surface energy and surface tension, Capillarity, Streamline and turbulent motion, Newton’s law of viscous force, Coefficient of viscosity, Stoke’s law, Terminal velocity, Bernoulli’s Principle (statement only) and its simple application.


Simple Harmonic Motion, Differential equation of S.H.M. & its solution, Energy in S.H.M.,Time period of simple pendulum, Superposition of two S.H.M.,’s (analytical treatment), Free, forced & damped vibrations (qualitative idea only), Resonance. Elastic waves – longitudinal and transverse waves, Progressive waves. Superposition of waves : beats ; stationary waves – vibration of strings & air columns. Doppler effect in sound propagation (effect of medium excluded), Sound wave as longitudinal elastic wave, Velocity of sound wave, Newton’s formula and Laplace’s correction, Dependence of velocity of sound in a medium on temperature, pressure, density and humidity.


Thermal expansion of solids, Relation among coefficients of linear, superficial and cubical expansion of solids, Applications of expansion of solids, Thermal expansion of liquids, Relation between expansion coefficients.
Colorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat. Conduction, convection and radiation, Thermal conductivity, Thermometric conductivity, Black body ratiation, Stefan’s law, Newton’s law of cooling (statement and qualitative explanation only.) Mean free path, Mean, rms speed and most probable speed, Pressure of an ideal gas ; Charle’s law, Boyle’s law, Avogadro’s law & pressure law from Kinetic theory of gases, Kinetic energy of molecules, Kinetic interpretation of temperature. First law of Thermodynamics, Thermodynamic variables, Isothermal and Adiabatic expansions of gases, reversible and irreversible processes, Specific heats of gases at constant pressure and at constant volume and relation between them.


Reflection of light,Spherical mirrors, Mirror formula,linear magnification (formula). Refraction at plane surface, Total internal reflection,Critical angle, Relation between refractive index and critical angle, optical fibre, Total reflecting prism, Refraction and dispersion of light through prism. Thin lenses – concave and convex, lens formula, power of a lens, lens maker’s formula (deduction is not required), two thin lenses in contact. Simple and compound microscope, Astronomical telescope (simple construction as a combination of coaxial lenses and ray diagram showing final image formation) Magnifying power. Human eye – defects of vision and corrections. Wave front and Huygen’s principle, Reflection and Refraction of a plane wave front at a plane surface on the basis of Huygen’s Principle, Interference of light. Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources.


Coulomb’s law in electrostatics, Electric field intensity and potential and their relation, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Dipole moment, Electric flux, Gauss’ theorem in electrostatics (statement only) and its application to find electric field intensity due to uniformly charged infinitely long thin straight wire and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside & outside). Capacitance, Principle of capacitor, Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor, series & parallel combination of capacitors, energy stored in capacitor, sharing of charges & loss of energy. Coulomb’s law in magnetism, Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (short bar magnet) at a point on its axis and on the perpendicular bisector of the axis ; Torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field, Current loop as a magnetic dipole and magnetic dipole moment. Properties of magnetic material, permeability & susceptibility, dia, para & ferromagnetic materials & their uses. Magnetic field of earth, Elements of the earth’s magnetic field.


Drift velocity and mobility of charge carrier throughmetallic conductor and their relation with electric current, Ohm’s law, Resistance of conductor, Factors influencing resistance, Temperature coefficient of resistance, Resistivity, Combination of resistors, Internal resistance of a cell and circuit equation, Combinations of cells. Kirchhoff’s law and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge principle, Meter bridge (with application for the determination of unknown resistance), Principle and applications of potentiometer. Joule’s law on heating effect of current, Electrical method of determination of ‘J’, electric power, B.O.T. unit of electrical energy. Thermocouple, Thermo-emf, E-T graph, Neutral temp.,Temp. of inversion, Seebeck effect, Peltier effect.


Magnetic effect of current, Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop, Ampere’s circuital law and its application to infinitely long straight wire, Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform electric field and magnetic field, Lorentz force. Force between two straight parallel current carrying conductors – definition of ampere, Fleming’s left hand rule, Torque experienced by a current carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field, Moving coil galvanometer,Conversion of a galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter. Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law, Self and mutual induction, Fleming’s right hand rule, Alternating current (basic concept), Peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage. Qualitative idea of electromagnetic waves and its spectrum.


Bohr’s theory of hydrogen like atom, Hydrogen spectrum, Photo electric effect, Einstein’s photo electric equation, Explanation of laws of Photo electric emission, Photo electric cell, Wave – particle duality, deBroglie’s hypothesis. Radioactivity ; alpha, beta & gamma rays and their properties, Radioactive decay law, Decay constant, half life & mean life, Radioisotope and their uses.


Distinction between metals (conductors), semiconductors & insulators in terms of energy bands in slids, Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors, p-n Junction diode,semiconductor diode rectifiers, p-n-p and n-p-n Transistors, Common Emitter Transistor Characteristics. Logic Gates – OR gate, AND gate & NOT gate. Constituents of atomic nucleus, Mass defect, Binding energy, Mass energy equivalence, Nuclear fission, Chain reaction, Nuclear reactor – Principle of operation, Nuclear fusion, Thermo nuclear fusion as the source of energy in Sun and Stars.

© Copyright Entrance India - Engineering and Medical Entrance Exams in India | Website Maintained by Firewall Firm - IT Monteur