West Sikkim District of Sikkim at a Glance

Lok Sabha Constituencies in West Sikkim district, Sikkim (MP Constituencies) Sikkim
MLA Assembly Constituencies in West Sikkim district, Sikkim Sangha

About West Sikkim District :

The West Sikkim district is located in South-west corner of the state. It shares its boundary with North District of Sikkim in the North, Darjeeling district of West Bengal in the South, Nepal in the west and south district of Sikkim in the East. The total geographical area of the district is 1166 sq. km. Geyzing (Gyalshing) is the headquarter of the west district. The district has been further divided into two sub-divisions namely, Geyzing and Soreng. West Sikkim is replete with history and religion. This is where the first Chogyal of Sikkim was consecrated at Yuksum in 1642 and this is where some of the holiest and most important monasteries of Sikkim were established, including Dubdi and Sanga Choling, the first monasteries to be built in Sikkim. West Sikkim is beautiful terrain abounding in lakes and waterfalls and also has great trekking routes.

District at a Glance :

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Tourist Places :

West Sikkim is a destination with rich historical heritage and sacred landscape. The Khangchendzonga National Park lies in this area and it is regarded as one of the most important hotspot of biodiversity in India.

The West Sikkim spans varying ecological zones from temperate to alpine and the visitor will be stunned by diverse altitude variation in landscape, flora and fauna offering a range of tourism activities which include trekking,mountaineering,paragliding,villagetourism, birdswatching,pilgrimage tours and local sightseeing.

Pelling :

Around 10 kms from Gyalshing (District Headquarter), Pelling is today emerging as the second biggest tourist destination in the state after Gangtok. Although in itself it is little more than a strip of road lined with hotels, its main USP is the breathtaking view it offers of the Khangchendzonga and surrounding ranges, as well as the easy access it provides to tourist spots in the area.

Yuksam :

33 kms from Pelling, Yuksom, literally meaning the ‘meeting place of three lamas’ is of great historical importance to the Sikkimese. It was here that the first Chogyal was crowned in 1642. The throne made of stones is even today considered sacred as is the footprint of Lhatsun Chenpo, which can be seen close to the throne. 2 km uphill from Yuksum is Dubdi monastery, the oldest in Sikkim. The monastery has now been declared a National Monument and is under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India Yuksum today is an attractive tourist destination offering various stay options for the visitors including village home stays, where you can stay as part of a local family and imbibe the real Sikkimese way of life. Also available is a trekkers hut plus many lodges.Yuksom is also the gateway to the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, the base for some of the most fascinating treks through high mountain region with the route to Dzongri being the most frequented.

Soreng :

A four hour drive from Pelling in west Sikkim takes you to the picturesque village of Soreng. Surrounded by lush green hills, Soreng is located amidst scenic splendour. The area is famous for the wide variety of flowers and birds available here. A trip to Jhandi Danra is highly recommended for nature lovers.

Versey :

Near Hilley, in West Sikkim is the Varsey Rhododendron Sanctuary. Sandwiched between the Singalila National Park in the south and Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve in the north, this small 104-sq-km sanctuary is at an altitude of 10,000 ft and supports a wide variety of bio-diversity. But the main attractions of the sanctuary are the rhododendrons which bloom in April-May coloring the Sanctuary in wild abandon. Hilley is the last motorable point before Varsey. A four-km walk through beautiful pine forests takes you to the Sanctuary. You can stay at the Gurash Kunj Lodge here.

Legship :

Often called the Gateway to West Sikkim, Legship is slowly gaining in popularity. On the left banks of the river Rangit is a Shiva temple known as the Kirateshwar Mahadev Mandir, which has many mythological episodes of the Mahabharata attached to it. The main festival of the temple, Bala Chaturdesi is observed in December each year. Other temples dedicated to Lord Rama and Durga are also found here making it an important pilgrimage destination for Hindus. There is a Dharamshala next to the Shiva temple.

Hee Bermiok :

Journey to Hee Bermiok takes about four and a half hours from Gangtok. One can also reach here from Pelling, the journey taking one and a half hours. The main attractions are mountain biking, nature walk, visit to villages, Sirijonga Yuma Mangheem, Sirijonga Holy Cave at Martam etc. The adventure lovers can enjoy two and a half hour trek to Varsey. Apart from having an annual tourist festival, village home stay facilities are available. These are being further developed and upgraded with the help of INTACH, New Delhi.

Utteray :

Situated in the west district of Sikkim, you can reach Uttarey from Pelling, Gezing or Dentum. On your way you will pass Singsor bridge, said to be the second highest bridge in Asia. The height of Uttarey is about 6600ft. Uttarey is famous for its tranquility and natural beauty. The place provides beautiful view to the Himalayan mountains and is yet relatively less traveled by tourists. This allows a more serene atmosphere to be enjoyed. During winter the mountains around here are covered with snow allowing heavenly views. The Kagju Gumpha (Gumpha is the local for monastery) in Uttarey is a highly revered place of worship for the locals and a good place for sight seeing. The monastery is set amidst dense forests. The wall paintings in the monastery might be of interest to you. The Dentam peak and the river is also visible from the monastery. Other important tourist spots around Uttare include the Mainbus Waterfall and the Chewyabhang Pass. This pass is about 10 km of Uttarey and is the gateway to Nepal.

Tashiding :

Tashiding is a small village on a hilltop near Pelling. The Tashiding monastery belongs to the Nyingmapa order and is highly revered among the people of Sikkim. Build on the top of the hill and looming over the Rathong and Rangit river, the monastery can be seen from far and wide. It is believed that even a slight glimpse of the monastery can cleanse mortals of all sins. The monastery was built during the 17th Century. There are a large number of oranges orchards and cardamoms plantations around Tashiding which can be visited from here.

Sombaria :

Situated at an altitude of 3,700 feet, Sombaria, a small village is full of vegetation of temperate type and is located remotely in the extreme Western Sikkim. Sombaria is close to the Indo-Nepal border and border region of Darjeeling Hills. At a distance of 115 km away from Siliguri and 112 km from the capital city of Sikkim, Gangtok, it is an ideal place for Bird Watching.

Gyalshing :

The headquarters of the West district, Gyalshing, which means the King’s Garden, is believed to have once been the royal gardens attached to the Palace at Rabdentse, Sikkim’s capital till the late 18th century. Today it is a bustling town and the main transit point to various tourist destinations of the region. Close by is Rabdentse as well as Pemayangste, Sikkim’s premier monastery. Opposite Gyalshing bazaar is the longest and believed to be the holiest, Mendang or Holy Wall, constructed by the third king, Chogyal Chador Namgyal. About 10kms away from Pelling or a town before one arrives to Pelling is Gyalshing also known as Gyalshing Bazar, one of the oldest market established approximately about 100 years ago. This establishment was said to have been done under the initiative of the monk body of Pemayangtyse monastery for the shopping comfort of the monks and public residing in the villages around Pemayangtse. Ever since Gyalshing market was established and first few shops were opened monks could do their monastic shopping and villagers could sell their village products like crops, dairy products, vegetables in the market and buy clothing and other house hold needs. Such trends sustains till today and as usual villagers gather every Sunday to do shopping or sell their products in Gyalshing Bazar. Today the market is well equipped with shops of all kind, multipurpose community hall, library, post office, banks, police stations, eating places, lodges, internet centers, taxi terminus and foot ball ground. There is worshipping places for the people of all faith ‘Manilhagang’ where the meditation session for mostly the Buddhist women organized every year during the holy occasion called Saga Dawa that falls in the month of June and Devithan for the Hindus, church and Masjid.

Rinchenpong :

The upcoming tourist spot in the western part of Sikkim, has a magnificent command over the mountain views, sunrise and sunset, flora and fauna, village tourism ,historical sites and heritage of Resum Monastery, rich forests and ample area for short treks. At an altitude of about 5576ft, Rinchenpong is the latest addition to the tourist map of West Sikkim. The place is famous for the beautiful view of the Kanchenjunga range of mountains. Apart from the natural beauty of the surroundings, the place is also quite significant from historical point of view.

Pemayangste :

It is one of the oldest monasteries of the State. It was originally established by Lhatsun Chempo, one of the revered Lamas to have performed the consecration ceremony of the first Chogyal (Monarch) of Sikkim. This ancient monastery belonging to the Nyingma Sect has been considered as one of the premier monasteries in the State. It has been entrusted with the task to perform all religious functions of the erstwhile monarch.

Dentam :

Dentam is a scenic village located 10 km from Varsey in West Sikkim District. It lies at an elevation of around 1,500 m. Dentam commands a constant view of the Kanchenjunga. The entire area is surrounded by forest of rhododendrons. Pemayangtse Monastery (10 km), Ravangla (69 km) and Hilley are nearby interesting destinations to visit. The village is an ideal spot for bird watchers and nature lovers. Trekking and mountaineering are arranged here. Accommodation is available at Pelling and Pemayangtse.

Pemayangste :

It is one of the oldest monasteries of the State. It was originally established by Lhatsun Chempo, one of the revered Lamas to have performed the consecration ceremony of the first Chogyal (Monarch) of Sikkim. This ancient monastery belonging to the Nyingma Sect has been considered as one of the premier monasteries in the State. It has been entrusted with the task to perform all religious functions of the erstwhile monarch


AIPMT 2014 – Information for Parents / Guardians

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AIPMT 2014 Eligibility

All India Pre Medical Test 2014 is going to replace NEET UG as per directives of Supreme Court of India. However, all other conditions such as eligibility, exam pattern, exam syllabus are same as its previous version NEET UG.

Eligibility for AIPMT 2014 All India and State Quota Seats 

All India Quota Seats:
  • (i) He/She has completed age of 17 years at the time of admission or will complete the age on or before 31st December of the year of his/her admission to the 1st year MBBS/BDS Course and is an INDIAN NATIONAL.
  • (ii) The upper age limit for candidates seeking admission under 15% All India Quota Seats is 25 years as on 31st December of the year of the entrance examination. Further provided that this upper age limit shall be relaxed by a period of 5 (five) years for the candidates of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes. Candidate must born on or between

(a) 01.01.84 to 01.01.97 (SC/ST/OBC Category)
(b) 01.01.89 to 01.01.97 (Other Category)

State Quota Seats:
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 Candidates from Andhra Pradesh and J&K

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(b) They are not domiciled in Andhra Pradesh and J&K.

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AIPMT 2014 Biology Syllabus

Biology  Syllabus  (Botany +  Zoology)

 Class XI Syllabus

UNIT I: Diversity in Living World

• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function

• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes ,  vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function) ; Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation  of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;  Differentiation , dedifferentiation and  redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth
regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT V: Human Physiology

• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related  to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double
circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory systemHypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary
structure and function of eye and ear.

• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers  and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

Class XII Syllabus

UNIT I: Reproduction

• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of  reproduction  – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization eventsDevelopment of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution

• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance;   Chromosomes  and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulationLac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift;
Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare

• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment

• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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AIPMT 2014 Chemistry Syllabus

Chemistry Syllabus

Class  XI  Syllabus

UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.

• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

UNIT II: Structure of Atom

• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

UNITV: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

UNIT VI : Thermodynamics

• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.

• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

UNIT VII: Equilibrium

• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibriumLe Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions

• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

UNIT IX: Hydrogen

• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;

UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

• Group I and group 2 elements:

• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:

• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.

• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements

• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.

• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.

• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons

• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry

• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Class XII Syllabus

UNIT I: Solid State

• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

UNIT II: Solutions

• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.

UNIT III: Electrochemistry

• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics

• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry

 • Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

UNIT VII: p- Block Elements

• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds

• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).

UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.

• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT XIV: Biomolecules

• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).

• Vitamins- Classification and function.

• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

UNIT XV: Polymers

• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

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