Trapusam consists of dried seed of Cucumis sativus Linn. (Fam. Cucurbitacem), an annual trailing or climbing plant, numerous varieties widely cultivated throughout India upto an altitude of 1200 m. The seeds are devoid of mucilagenous outer layer.
Sanskrit : Svetakarahatakam, Sudhavasah, Mutralam, Kantakiphalam
Assamese : —
Bengali : Ksheeraa, Shashaa
English : Cucumber
Gujrati : Taanslee
Hindi : Kheeraa
Kannada : Mullusavte, Santekaayi
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : Vellari
Marathi : Tause, Khiraa
Oriya : Kantiaali Kaakudi
Punjabi : Khiraa
Tamil : Vellarikkaay, Pippinkaay
Telugu : Khirakaya
Urdu : Kheeraa
Seeds compressed, elongated, ellipsoid, dorsiventrally convex and laterally ridged; size variable, about a cm or occasionally more in length and upto 0.5 cm wide; micropyle pointed, distinctly visible; outer surface glossy, brittle, peelable; yellowishwhite; kernel, oily, creamish-white; taste, mildly sweet, oily; not slippery to touch when moistened: odour, nil.
Outermost layer of testa absent; hypodermis sclerenchymatous, two layered, outer layer of small, circular, stone cells, inner layer of large, oval, thick walled, striated, lignified sclereids placed at right angle to outer layer; a large zone of mrenchyma filled with loosely packed parenchymatous cells; cotyledon lined by compact layer of cuticularized thin walled epidermis, cotyledon of several layers of elongated, closely packed parenchymatous cells, largely hexagonal, packed with aleurone grains, starch and fat globules; innermost two layers much more elongated, palisade like, and distinct; each cotyledon shows five distinct patches of small, thin walled, polygonal cells present midway, in a roughly trapezial shape.
Powder – Creamish-white to light-green, oily, shows groups of yellowish, wavy-walled sclereids from testa in surface view, also isolated ones; fragments of parenchymatous cells; annular or spiral xylem vessels in groups; abundant oil globules, aleurone grains, and starch grains.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on precoated silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol (20:0.5) shows spots at Rf 0.31 (purple), 0.40 (brown), 0.48 (purple), 0.52 (light purple), 0.60 (purple), 0.70 (light grey) and 0.78 (pinkish brown) on spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105oC for about ten minutes.
CONSTITUENTS – Fixed oil and sugars.
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Madhura, Tikta
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sita
Vipaka : Madhura
Karma : Balya, Kaphakara, Mutrala, Vatapittahara, Abhisyandi, Mutrabastivisodhaka, Agnisadana
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Chardi, Mutrakrcchra, Raktavikara, Mutraghata, Raktapitta, Daurbalya, Daha, Anidra, Sirahsula, Sitajvara
THERAPEUTIC USES – Sitajvara, Anidra, Chardi, Daha, Daurbalya, Mutraghata, Mutrakrcchra, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Sirahsula
DOSE – 3-6 g powder.