TINTIDIKAH (Aerial Part)
Tintidikah consists of mature dried aerial part of Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Fam. Anacardiacem), an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub commonly found on the dry hot slopes of Himalayas from Punjab to Nepal and in the hills of Peninsular India at an altitude of 600-2100 m.
Sanskrit : Tintidika
Assamese : —
Bengali : —
English : Sumac
Gujrati : —
Hindi : Tungalaa, Samakadana, Raitung
Kannada : —
Kashmiri : —
Malayalam : —
Marathi : —
Oriya : —
Punjabi : Khatte Masoor, Raitung, Tungaa
Tamil : —
Telugu : Jeevakamu
Urdu : Sumaak
Stem – Young stem branched, reddish-brown, tomentose; stem pieces 10 to 15 cm long and upto 4 cm in diam., old ones woody with longitudinal striations and glandular protuberances, greenish-brown, bark separable from wood, inner surface of bark reddishbrown, wood light brown in colour; fracture, hard and fibrous.
Leaf – Trifoliate when intact, leaflets elliptic, oblong, obovate, petiolate, petiole 2.5 to 3.5 cm in length, tomentose, terminal leaflet large, obovate, 7 to 8.5 cm in length, 3 or 4 cm broad, rather thick, basal margin entire and cuneate, upper coarsely and irregularly crenate, pubescent, laterals relatively broader and more rounded at base, sessile, pubescent and smooth.
Fruit – Drupe, oval, yellowish-green to brownish-green, glabrous, shining, fruits present on panicles; calyx persistent; fruit wrinkled.
Stem – T.S. shows cork, cortex and stele; patches of cortical fibres, secretory canals and rhomboid crystals of calcium oxalate, measuring about 13 n well distributed in the cortex; xylem in the form of a continuous cylinder traversed by uni or biseriate medullary rays; border pitted and scalariform vessels present; lignified fibres septate, measuring 300 to 770 n in length and upto 50 n in width; pith parenchymatous, possessing tannins, starch grains and rhomboid crystals of calcium oxalate.
Petiole – T.S. shows a single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; abundant unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate trichomes measuring 30 to 360 n in length and 10 to 20 n in width; cortex consisting of 3 or 4 layers of collenchymatous cells and 5 or 6 layers of parenchymatous cells, some cells of collenchyma and parenchyma contain rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate, measuring upto 20 n; collateral vascular bundles 15 to 17 in number, surrounding a central parenchymatous pith and capped by an arch of pericyclic fibres; secretory canals present in phloem region.
Midrib – T.S. shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle; nonglandular, unicellular and uniseriate, multicellular trichomes abundantly present on the epidermis, followed by collenchymatous tissue; vascular bundles 5 to 7 in number, arranged in a circle, conjoint, collateral, each capped by an arch of fibres; secretory canals present in phloem region; pith consists of parenchymatous cells.
Lamina – T.S. shows dorsiventral structure, epidermal cells composed of cubical to slightly elongated and rectangular cells, externally covered with cuticle; below upper epidermis 2 or 3 layers of palisade parenchyma present; lower epidermis single layered with thick cuticle; unicellular and uniseriate, multicellular trichomes present on both surfaces, measuring upto 200 n in length and about 30 n in width; palisade parenchyma followed by loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells; mesophyll traversed by vascular bundles; each vascular bundle surrounded by bundle sheath, extending from upper epidermis to lower epidermis as bundle sheath extension. In surface view lower epidermis shows anomocytic type of stomata while upper epidermis is devoid of stomata; stomatal index 6 to 10 on lower epidermis; vein islet number 12 to 15; palisade ratio 2 to 4.
Powder – Brown, odour slightly strong, somewhat acrid in taste; fragments of palisade tissue, calcium oxalate crystals, trichomes, starch grains, bordered pitted vessels and vessels having scalariform thickenings.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 0.7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate (0.2 mm thick) using chloroform : methanol: acetic acid (80:20:2) shows under UV (254 nm) six spots at Rf. 0.11, 0.18, 0.29, 0.54 (all brown), 0.80 and 0.91 (both yellowish green). Under UV (366nm) seven fluorescent spots appear at Rf. 0.11, 0.18, 0.29, 0.54, 0.70 (all brown), 0.80 and 0.91 (both pink). On exposure to iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.11(pinkish brown), 0.15, 0.22 (brown), 0.38, 0.64, 0.74, 0.80 and 0.91 (all yellowish brown). On spraying with 5% ferric chloride solution seven spots appear at Rf. 0.15, 0.24 (both green), 0.41 (faint brown), 0.54 (blue), 0.73 (faint brown) 0.83 and 0.91 (both brown).
CONSTITUENTS – Tannins (Gallic acid); flavones (myricetin, quercetin, myricitrin, quercitrin, kampferol); glycosides (isorhmnetin-3-α-Larabinoside)
PROPERTIES AND ACTION
Rasa : Amla
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Amla
Karma : Dipana, Grahi, Jvaraghna, Kaphavatahara, Pittakara, Rocana, Vatahara
IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS – Yavani Sadava, Hinguvacadi Curna, Sri Ramabana Rasa
THERAPEUTIC USES – Agnimandya, Aruci, Atisara, Pravahika, Trsna, Vatavikara
DOSE – 3 – 6 g.