Baghpat District of Uttar Pradesh at a Glance

About Baghpat District :

 

The city was originally known as ‘Vyagprastha’ – Land of Tigers (because of the population of tigers found many centuries ago. There are many versions of the story as to how the city derived it’s name. One version states that the city’s original name was ‘Vyagprasth’, while according to another version, the city has derived its name from the Hindi word ‘Vakyaprasth’, which means place of delivering speeches. Inspired by such words and versions, the city was finally named ‘BAGHPAT’ or ‘BAGPAT’ during the Mughal Era.

After the mutiny of 1857 , the city gained importance and was established as the headquaters of Tehsil Baghpat. The city was previously as small town and had a small commercial center known as the Mandi . This mandi is now more than 200 years old and was set up by Jabita Khan , son of Ruhela Chief of Najibabad ( Bijnore ) Najib Khan .

The main commercial activity of the people living in this region is making and selling GUD and Sugar . Apart from this, there are certain units who are involved in the making of shoes and agricultural equipment’s

District at a Glance :

DISTRICT: BAGHPAT
Headquarter: Baghpat
UnitCensus 1991Census 2001
AreaSq.km.13211321
Population‘0001030.401164.38
Male‘000560.484630.484
Female‘000469.91533.91
Sex Ratio838860
Population DensitySq.Km.742742
SC Population‘000125127.81
ST Population‘0000
Height Above Sea LevelMt.223
Literacy 
Male%age51.4577.00
Female%age24.5849.2
Occupational Distribution
Cultivators‘000246123
Agricultural Labours‘000201137
Temperature(Max,Min)42.2,0
ClimateTropical / Moderate
LanguagesHindi, Urdu, English
FestivalsDusherra, Holi, Diwali, Kartik Purnima, Rakshbandhan, Navratre
Administrative Setup
TehsilsNos.03
BlocksNos.06
Gram SabhasNos.237
No. of Inhabited villagesNos.290
Uninhabited villagesNos.225
Police StationsNos.10
Nyaya PanchayatsNos.46
Post OfficesNos.143
TelegramNos.6
BankNos.54
Co-operative BankNos.15
Share of Major Crops
WheatHect.52,7871998-99
PaddyHect.5,300
SugarcaneHect.50,293
PulsesHect.3,826
OilseedsHect.1,602
PotatoesHect.547
MaizeHect.6,225

Tourist Places :

 

Auraiya District of Uttar Pradesh at a Glance

About Auraiya District :

On 17th September,1997 two tehsils named Auraiya and Bidhuna were seperated from district Etawah to form the new district named as Auraiya. It is situated on National Highway no. 2 (Mughal Sarai Road) and 64 km. in the east of district headquarter of Etawah and 105 km. in west of Kanpur city. Auraiya having 7 Blocks named Ajitmal, Bhagyanagar, Sahar, Bidhuna, Achalda, Erwakatra and Auraiya. The district of Auraiya lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26? 21″ and 27? 01″ north latitude and 78? 45″ and 79? 45″ east longitude and forms a part of the Kanpur Division. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Kannauj, western border adjoins tehsil Bharthana of the Etawah district and the district of Gwalior. The eastern frontier marches with the district of Kanpur Dehat, and along the south lie Jalaun. The total area according to the statistics of 1991-92 is calculated to be 2054 square kilometer. The Devkali Temple, Badi Devi Temple, and Guraiya Temple are some of the important Places of worship in the district.

District at a Glance

  • District – 
  • Headquarters – 
  • State
Area in Sq Km (Census 2011)
  • Total – 
  • Rural – 
  • Urban – 
Population (Census 2011)
  • Population – 
  • Rural – 
  • Urban – 
  • Male – 
  • Female – 
  • Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males) – 
  • Density (Total, Persons per sq km) – 
Constituencies (ECI)
  • Assembly
  • Loksabha – 

Tourist Places :

Devkali Temple :

The temple of Devkali is located in the southern direction of district head quarter of Auraiya and near to the bank of  Yamuna river. According to the ancient stories and customs, the temple is related to the 11th century A.D. but by the archeological view it was constructed in 18th century A.D. The temple is basically dedicated to Lord Shiva

Badi Devi Temple :

The temple is located in Padheen Darwaja area at Phaphund Road, Auraiya. It is assumed to be the oldest of all Devi temples in the district.

Guraiya Temple :

This temple is famous for ancient architectural values. This temple of Lord Shiva is constructed on a square platform.

 

KEAM Medical (UG) 2014 Reporting for the Examination

(i) Candidates should bring Admit card, ballpoint pen (either blue or black ink) and a card board/clip board for the Examination.

(ii) Candidates will not be permitted to take items such as pencil, eraser, correction fluid, calculator, logarithm table, electronic gadgets, mobile phones etc. into the examination hall.

(iii) Candidate should be present at the examination hall, 30 minutes before the prescribed time for the commencement of the examination.

(iv) No candidate will be permitted to enter the examination hall, 30 minutes after the commencement of the examination.

(v) Candidates will be permitted to leave the examination hall only after completion of the examination.

KEAM Medical (UG) 2014 Requirements for Applying Online

1. Prospectus

Read the prospectus of KEAM before filling up application.

2. Photograph

jpeg format of candidate’s photograph .

3. Email ID

Candidate should possess a valid email id. Keep this email id live and secure till the end of the admission process, KEAM 2014. If you do not have an email id, a new email id must be created before applying online. Candidate should not provide the email id of others, under any circumstances. A valid e-mail id or a mobile number is to be given in the online application.

4. Application Fee :

Candidate should have details of Application fee remittance. Modes of Payment are:

a) Security Card

Either by purchasing the Security Card from selected Post Offices; or

b) Demand Draft

By way of Demand Draft (DD) drawn on a Nationalised/Scheduled Bank, in favour of the Commissioner for Entrance Examinations, payable at Thiruvananthapuram.

5. Certificates/Documents

All other relevant documents which you need to fill up all fields in the online application like, name, date of birth, category, caste, income, name of village, taluk, district, etc.

a) Income Certificate

Income certificate from concerned Village Officer may be obtained, if needed, before filling up application which helps you to fill the income details in online application. The format of income certificate can be downloaded from the CEE website. The income provided with the application may be considered for fee relaxation in future.

b) Community Certificate

If you have any claim for communal reservation/fee concession, please download the format of the community certificate and get it certified by a Village Officer/Tahasildar.

6. Computer System

The computer system used for applying online should have the following facilities:

a) Internet

Should have an internet connection.

b) Browser

Should have a browser. Recommended browsers are Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer only.

c) PDF reader

Should have a PDF reader like, Adobe PDF reader or Foxit Reader.

d) Printer

The printout of all pages of application should be taken in Laser printer/Deskjet Printer in A4 white paper only.

Related links KEAM Medical (UG) :-

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Dates

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Eligibility

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Centre

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Information

1. Candidate should apply for KEAM-2014 online and send a printout to the CEE on or before the last date.

2. Online submission of Application may be made by accessing CEE website – www.cee.kerala.gov.in

3. Copy of the printout of the Application form must be retained for future reference.

4. Applicant should ensure the following before sending the printout of the application form:

i. The applicant and parent/guardian have signed the form at the specified space.
ii. All certificates furnished are properly filled in and signed by the competent authority and affixed office seal at specified place.
iii. The photograph uploaded online and the photograph pasted in the printout of application form are identical and properly attested by Head of the Institution or Gazetted Officer of Government.
iv. The applicant should select the course/courses which he/she desires to study while applying online.
v. The candidate should maintain confidentiality of the key number and keep it in safe custody till the end of allotment process.

5. Admission to MBBS/BDS Courses

i. The applicants desirous of being considered for admission to MBBS/BDS Courses should appear for the NEET (UG)-2014 and become eligible for inclusion in the Kerala State Rank list.
ii. Such candidates should also apply for KEAM-2014 for admission to MBBS/BDS Courses.
iii. Candidates included in the Kerala State Rank list of NEET (UG)- 2014 alone are eligible for admission to MBBS/BDS Courses.

6. No memo will be sent by post from this office in the case of defective applications. The defects, if any, which will be displayed on the website while downloading the admit card should be rectified within the specified period.

7. Candidates should send only one application for all the courses in KEAM 2014 and for MBBS/BDS [NEET (UG) 2014].

Related links KEAM Medical (UG) :-

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Dates

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Eligibility

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Centre

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Dates

 

SubjectDateTime
Paper I
Chemistry & Physics
23.04.2014
(Wednesday)
10 AM – 12.30 PM
Paper II
Biology
24.04.2014
(Thursday)
10 AM – 12.30 PM

Related links KEAM Medical (UG) :-

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Eligibility

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Centre



KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Eligibility

KEAM Medical UG Entrance eligibility is same as All India Pre-Medical Test (Previously NEET) conducted by CBSE and as notified by Medical Council of India from time to time. There is no separate eligibility for KEAM Medical Entrance 2014. The eligibility for AIPMT is as under:

All India Quota Seats:

    • (i) He/She has completed age of 17 years at the time of admission or will complete the age on or before 31st December of the year of his/her admission to the 1st year MBBS/BDS Course and is an INDIAN NATIONAL.
    • (ii) The upper age limit for candidates seeking admission under 15% All India Quota Seats is 25 years as on 31st December of the year of the entrance examination. Further provided that this upper age limit shall be relaxed by a period of 5 (five) years for the candidates of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes. Candidate must born on or between

    (a) 01.01.84 to 01.01.97 (SC/ST/OBC Category)
    (b) 01.01.89 to 01.01.97 (Other Category)

    State Quota Seats:
    • (i) He/She has completed age of 17 years at the time of admission or will complete the age on or before 31st December of the year of his/her admission to the 1st year MBBS/BDS Course and is an INDIAN NATIONAL.
    • (ii) Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) are eligible for admission in Medical/Dental Colleges subject to rules and regulations framed by the respective State Governments and the Government of India.

     Candidates from Andhra Pradesh and J&K

    • (i) Students from the States of Andhra Pradesh and J&K are NOT ELIGIBLE for 15% all India quota seats as both these States had opted out of All India Scheme since its inception. If they claim eligibility, they must submit an affidavit, in original,  on non-judicial Stamp Paper of  Rs 10/- duly sworn in before and attested by a Metropolitan Magistrate/First Class Judicial Magistrate to the effect that:-

    a) They are not eligible to seek admission for MBBS/BDS seats in Medical/ Dental Colleges in the States of Andhra Pradesh and J&K.
    (b) They are not domiciled in Andhra Pradesh and J&K.

    • (ii) Students from the States of Andhra Pradesh and J&K are however eligible for 100% seats for MBBS/BDS seats in Medical/ Dental Colleges in the States of Andhra Pradesh and J&K.
    • (iii) Applications not accompanied with the required affidavits   or accompanied with incomplete, unattested or photocopy of the affidavit shall be summarily rejected without any further reference in the matter. The affidavits submitted by such candidates will be verified and if found to be false, the admission of all such candidates shall be cancelled and criminal proceedings may be initiated against them.

 

Related links KEAM Medical (UG) :-

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Dates

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Centre

 

KEAM – Medical (UG)

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Guidelines for Admission to MBBS/BDS Courses

 KEAM Medical (UG) 2014 Requirements for Applying Online

KEAM – Medical(UG) 2014 Steps involved in applying online

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Information

KEAM Medical (UG) 2014 Special Instructions

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Important Dates

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Eligibility

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Medical (UG) 2014 Exam Centre

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Online submission of Application

(a) The detailed instructions for filling each item in the application are given in  Prospectus and in the User Manual provided on the website www.cee-kerala.org
(b) There are 7 steps for the online submission of application and all the steps are mandatory. Candidates should complete all steps and should send the signed printout of the online submitted application along with the necessary certificates and documents on or before 9th February 2013. Candidate has to visit the website  www.cee.kerala.gov.in where he/she can find the link “KEAM-2014 Online Application”.

Step 1 : Candidate Registration

This is a one-time procedure. During the process candidates will get a system generated Application Number. Candidates are requested to enter their own password when
demanded. There will be a Security question and they should provide an answer to it. For further login, candidates have to note down all the information provided during this stage.

Step 2 : Candidate Login is required to proceed through all other stages of online submission. In order to login, candidate should provide Application number and Password.

Step 3 : Filling up of Application All the basic information, required at the Office of the Commissioner for Entrance Examinations are to be filled in at this step. Before filling the details, read the Prospectus carefully. The data provided here will be used for processing the application. Any mistake in filling this sheet or providing false/incomplete/wrong information will affect the candidate’s eligibility for admission or claim for reservation under any category. It is obligatory that the candidate
should fill all the items in the application. After filling the online application, candidate should click ‘Submit’ button to save the application. Before going to next stage (step 4), the candidate can login, view and modify the details provided here. Candidates should take utmost care while filling in the Online Application. Applicant should ensure that the data provided here are correct before proceeding to step 4.

Step 4 : Final Submission of Application This is also a one-time procedure. If candidate is sure that the information provided in step 3 is correct, click the link ‘Final Submission of Application’. Note that no modification of the application will be possible after doing this step.

Step 5 : Payment of Application Fee At this step candidate has to provide payment details of application fee.

Step 6 : Printout of the Application Candidate should take a printout of the online submitted application which contains all the information provided during step 3 and step 5. Candidates should get the Course Certificate and Nativity Certificate provided in the application.

Step 7 : Send the Printout of application and Supporting documents to Commissioner for Entrance Examinations Affix a passport size (3.5 x 3.5 cm) photograph of the applicant same as the photograph uploaded on the online application duly attested by the Head of the Institution which he/she studied last or by a Gazetted Officer. The applicant and parent should sign in the specified areas on the printout of the application and attach supporting documents/certificates and send to the Office of the Commissioner for Entrance Examinations, 5th Floor, Housing Board Buildings, Santhi Nagar, Thiruvananthapuram – 695 001 before the last date specified for submission of application.

(c) Applications should be complete in all respects. A candidate will be considered for the Entrance Examination or for admission, only if he/she has furnished the relevant certificates prescribed in the Prospectus, in proof of eligibility, or in support of any claim for reservation, under any category. The procedure of online submission of application will be complete only after the printout of Application and supporting documents / certificates are received in the office of the Commissioner for Entrance Examinations. Candidates are directed to keep a copy of completed application form for further reference.

Related links KEAM- Engineering 2014 :-

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Eligibility

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Syllabus

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Exam Pattern

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Important Dates

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Examination Centre

KEAM – Engineering 2014 Physics Syllabus

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION AND MEASUREMENT

Physics – Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology – inventions, names of scientists and their fields, nobel prize winners and topics, current developments in physical sciences and related technology. Units for measurement – systems of units, S .I units, conversion from other
systems to S.I units. Fundamental and derived units. Measurement of length, mass and time, least count in measuring instruments (eg. vernier calipers, screw gauge etc), Dimensional analysis and applications, order of magnitude, accuracy and errors in measurement, random and instrumental errors, significant figures and rounding off principles.

UNIT 2 : DESCRIPTION OF MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION

Objects in motion in one dimension – Motion in a straight line, uniform motion – its graphical representation and formulae; speed and velocity –  instantaneous velocity; ideas of relative velocity with expressions and graphical representations; Uniformly accelerated motion, position – time graph, velocity – time graph and formulae. Elementary ideas of calculus – differentiation and integration – applications to motion.

UNIT 3 : DESCRIPTION OF MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

Vectors and scalars, vectors in two and three dimensions, unit vector, addition and multiplication, resolution of vector in a plane, rectangular  components , scalar and vector products. Motion in two dimensions – projectile motion, ideas of uniform circular motion, linear and angular velocity, relation
between centripetal acceleration and angular speed.

UNIT 4 : LAWS OF MOTION

Force and inertia, first law of motion, momentum, second law of motion, forces in nature, impulse, third law of motion, conservation of linear momentum, examples of variable mass situation, rocket propulsion, equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas); Dynamics of uniform circular motion – centripetal and centrifugal forces, examples :
banking of curves and centrifuge.

UNIT 5 : WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, units of work – Energy – kinetic and potential forms, power, work-energy theorem. Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Gravitational potential energy and its conversion to kinetic energy, spring constant, potential energy of a
spring, Different forms of energy, mass – energy equivalence (elementary ideas), conservation of energy, conservative and non-conservative forces.

UNIT 6: MOTION OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND RIGID BODY ROTATION

Centre of mass of a two particle system, generalisation to N particles, momentum conservation and center of mass motion, applications to some familiar systems, center of mass of rigid body. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, physical meaning of angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples, eg. planetary motion. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions, moment of inertia and its physical significance, radius of gyration, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems (statements only), moment of inertia of circular ring and disc, cylinder rolling without slipping.

UNIT 7 : GRAVITATION

Universal law of gravitation, gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity (g), weight and gravitation, variation of g with altitude, latitude, depth and rotation of earth. Mass of earth, gravitational potential energy near the surface of the earth, gravitational potential, escape velocity, orbital velocity of satellite, weightlessness, motion of geostationary and polar satellites, statement of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, proof of second and third laws, relation between inertial and gravitational masses.

UNIT 8 : MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

Solids : Hooke’s law, stress – strain relationships, Youngs modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, some practical examples. Fluids : Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes), effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Buoyancy, laws of floatation and Archimedes principles, atmospheric pressure. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, examples of drops and babbles, capillary rise, detergents and surface tension, viscosity, sphere falling through a liquid column, Stokes law, streamline flow, Reynold’s number, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorum and applications.

UNIT 9 : HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS

Kinetic theory of gases, assumptions, concept of pressure, kinetic energy and temperature, mean-rms and most probable speed, degrees of freedom, statement of law of equipartition of energy, concept of mean free path and Avogadros’ number Thermal equilibrium and temperatures, zeroth law of thermodynamics, Heat-work and internal energy, Thermal expansion – thermometry. First law of thermodynamics and examples, specific heat, specific
heat of gases at constant volume and constant pressure, specific heat of solids, Dulong and Petit’s law. Thermodynamical variables and equation of state, phase diagrams, ideal gas equation, isothermal and  adiabatic processes, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot engines, refrigerators and heat pumps, efficiency and coefficient performance of heat engines , ideas of second law of thermodynamics with practical applications. Thermal radiation – Stefan-Boltzmann law, Newton’s law of cooling.

UNIT 10 : OSCILLATIONS

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time and periodic functions; Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation, uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion, oscillations of a spring, restoring force and force constant, energy in simple harmonic motion, kinetic and
potential energies, simple pendulum – derivation of expression for the period; forced and damped oscillations and resonance (qualitative ideas only), coupled oscillations.

UNIT 11: WAVES

Longitudinal and transverse waves, wave motion, displacement relation for a progressive wave, speed of a traveling wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, beats, Doppler effect of sound with applications.

UNIT 12: ELECTROSTATICS

Frictional electricity; Properties of electric charges – conservation, additivity and quantisation. Coulomb’s law – Forces between two point electric charges, Forces between multiple electric charges; Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field and its physical significance, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; Electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole and behavior and dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric potential-physical meaning, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical
potential energy of a system of point charges, electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’ theorem-its application to find field due to an infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Conductors and insulatorspresence of free charges and bound charges; Dielectrics and electric polarization, general concept of a capacitor and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the
plates, Van de Graff generator.

UNIT 13: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics, limitations of Ohm’s law, electrical resistivity and conductivity, classification of materials in terms of conductivity;
Superconductivity (elementary idea); Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; combination of resistances – series and parallel. Temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s lawsillustration by simple applications, Wheatstone bridge and its applications, Meter bridge. Potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, comparison of emf of two cells and determination of internal resistance of a cell. Electric power, thermal effects of current and Joule’s law; Chemical effects of current, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, Electro-chemical cells.

UNIT 14: MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM

Concept of a magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment, Biot-Savart’s law, magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop, Ampere’s circuital law and its applications to straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field, cyclotron. Force on current carrying conductor and torque on current loop in magnetic fields, force between two parallel current carrying conductors, definition of the ampere. Moving coil galvanometer and its conversion into ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole, magnetic moment, torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field, Lines of force in magnetic field. Comparison of a bar magnet and solenoid. Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements, vibration magnetometer. Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples. Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

UNIT 15: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced e.m.f. and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, self and mutual inductance. Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance, L.C. oscillations, LCR series circuit. (Phasor diagram), Resonant circuits and Q-factor; power in A.C. circuits, wattless current. AC generator and Transformer.

UNIT 16: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Properties of electromagnetic waves and Maxwell’s contributions (qualitative ideas), Hertz’s experiments, Electromagnetic spectrum (different regions and applications), propagation of electromagnetic waves in earth’s atmosphere.

UNIT 17: OPTICS

Reflection in mirrors, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, spherical lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula;  Magnification, Power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact; Refraction and dispersion of light due to a prism, Scattering of light, Blue colour of the sky and appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments, Compound microscope, astronomical telescope (refraction and reflection type) and their magnifying powers. Wave front and Huygen’s principle. Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts (qualitative idea); Interference-Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light; Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, difference between interference and diffraction, resolving power of microscope and telescope; Polarisation, plane
polarised light, Brewster’s law, Use of polarised light and polaroids.

UNIT 18: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

Photoelectric effect, Einstein photoelectric equation – particle nature light, photo-cell, Matter waves – wave nature of particles. De Broglie relation, Davisson and Germer experiment.

UNIT 19: ATOMIC NUCLEUS

Alpha particle scattering experiment, size of the nucleus – composition of the nucleus – protons and neutrons. Nuclear instability – Radioactivity-Alpha, Beta and Gamma particle/rays and their properties, radio- active decay laws, Simple explanation of -decay, -decay and decay; mass-energy relation,
mass defect, Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Nature of nuclear forces, nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, nuclear reactors and their uses; nuclear fusion, elementary ideas of energy production in stars.

UNIT 20: SOLIDS AND SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), difference between metals, insulators and semi-conductors using band theory; Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors, p-n junction, Semi-conductor diodecharacteristics forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, solar cell, photo-diode, zener diode as a
voltage regulator; Junction transistor, characteristics of a transistor; Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator; Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR); Elementary ideas about integrated circuits.

UNIT 21: PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATIONS

Elementary idea of analog and digital communication; Need for modulation, amplitude, frequency and pulse modulation; Elementary ideas about demodulation, Data transmission and retrieval, Fax and Modem. (basic principles) Space communications – Ground wave, space wave and sky wave propagation, satellite communications.

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